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author:("Seo, fuji")
1.  Differential cellular responses to prolonged low dose rate ionizing radiation in MLH1-proficient and -deficient colorectal cancer HCT116 cells 
MLH1 is a key DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein involved in maintaining genomic stability by participating in the repair of endogenous and exogenous mispairs in the daughter strands during S-phase. Exogenous mispairs can result following treatment with several classes of chemotherapeutic drugs as well as with ionizing radiation (IR). In this study, we investigated the role of the MLH1 protein in determining the cellular and molecular responses to prolonged low dose rate (LDR) IR, which is similar to the clinical use of cancer brachytherapy.
Experimental design
An isogenic pair of MMR+ (MLH1+) and MMR− (MLH1−) human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells were exposed to prolonged LDR-IR (1.3–17cGy/h × 24–96 h). The clonogenic survival and gene mutation rates were examined. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed with flow cytometry. Changes in selected DNA damage repair proteins, DNA damage response proteins and cell death marker proteins were examined with Western blotting.
MLH1+ HCT116 cells showed greater radiosensitivity with enhanced expression of apoptotic and autophagic markers; a reduced HPRT gene mutation rate; and more pronounced cell cycle alterations (increased late S population and a G2/M arrest) following LDR-IR compared to MLH1− HCT116 cells. Importantly, a progressive increase in MLH1 protein levels was found in MLH1+ cells during prolonged LDR-IR, which was temporally correlated with a progressive decrease in Rad51 protein (involved in homologous recombination, HR) levels.
MLH1 status significantly affects cellular responses to prolonged LDR-IR. MLH1 may enhance cell radiosensitivity to prolonged LDR-IR through inhibition of HR (via inhibition of Rad51).
PMCID: PMC2783277  PMID: 19861440
mismatch repair; low dose rate IR; MLH1; Rad51; late S phase
2.  Essential role of DNA base excision repair on survival in an acidic tumor microenvironment 
Cancer research  2009;69(18):7285-7293.
The base excision repair (BER) pathway is required to repair endogenous and exogenous oxidative DNA damage. Multiple DNA repair pathways have been shown to be down-regulated in the tumor microenvironment, whereas APE1/Ref1, a central protein in BER, is overexpressed in many types of solid tumors. APE1/Ref1 has dual functions, participating both in BER and in redox regulation of oxidized transcription factors. Here, we show that inhibition of the BER pathway in an acidic tumor microenvironment increases oxidative DNA damage temporally related to increased intracellular reactive oxygen species. Unrepaired oxidative DNA damage results in cell cycle arrests and increased DNA double strand breaks, leading to cell death. Therefore, up-regulation of BER in solid cancers may represent an adaptive survival response. Consequently, BER inhibition may confer tumor microenvironment targeted cytotoxicity in human cancers. Our data suggest that BER inhibition is a rational basis for cancer therapy with or without other cytotoxic therapy. Additionally, our results offer insight as to why APE1/Ref1 retains it’s unique dual functionality, both of which counteract environmental oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC2745500  PMID: 19723658
base excision repair; APE1/Ref1; XRCC1; tumor microenvironment; DNA damage
3.  Radiation Therapy in Addition to Gross Total Resection of Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Results in Prolonged Survival: Results from a Single Institutional Study 
Journal of Oncology  2009;2008:824036.
Purpose. Typical treatment of retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPSs) is surgery with or without radiation therapy for localized disease. With surgery alone, local failure rates are as high as 90%; this led to radiation therapy playing an important role in the treatment of RPSs. Methods. Thirty-one patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma treated with gross total resection and radiation therapy make up this retrospective analysis. Nineteen were treated preoperatively and 12 postoperatively (median dose, 59.4 Gy)—sixteen also received intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) (median dose, 11 Gy). Patients were followed with stringent regimens, including frequent CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Results. With a median follow-up of 19 months (range 1–66 months), the 2-year overall survival (OS) rate is 70% (median, 52 months). The 2-year locoregional control (LRC) rate is 77% (median, 61.6 months). The 2-year distant disease free survival (DDFS) rate is 70% (median not reached). There were no differences in radiation-related acute and late toxicities among patients treated pre- versus postoperatively, whether with or without IORT. Conclusions. Compared to surgery alone, neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiation therapy offers patients with RPS an excellent chance for long-term LRC, DDS, and OS. The integration of modern treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy and IORT allows for higher doses to be delivered with acceptable toxicities.
PMCID: PMC2648636  PMID: 19277103
4.  Adjuvant Therapy for Rectal Cancer 
Patients with stage II and III rectal cancer benefit from a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Studies of postoperative adjuvant therapy consistently demonstrate decreases in locoregional recurrence with the use of radiation therapy. The use of postoperative chemotherapy results in improved disease-free survival and overall survival in certain studies. Preoperative radiation therapy decreases locoregional recurrence and in one study demonstrated an improvement in survival. The addition of chemotherapy to preoperative radiation results in improved locoregional control, but not survival. Preoperative chemoradiation is the standard of care for patients with clinical stage II and III rectal cancer in the United States due to improved local recurrence, acute and late toxicity, and sphincter preservation compared with postoperative chemoradiation. Promising approaches include the incorporation of new chemotherapeutic and biologic agents into chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens; new radiation techniques, such as the use of intraoperative radiation therapy and an accelerated concomitant radiation boost; and gene and protein expression profiling, to better predict response to treatment and prognosis.
PMCID: PMC2789506  PMID: 20011198
Rectal cancer; radiation; chemotherapy; adjuvant; review
5.  5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2′-deoxyribose (IPdR)-mediated cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in U87 human glioblastoma xenografts 
5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2′-deoxyribose (IPdR) is a novel orally administered (po) prodrug of 5-iododeoxyuridine (IUdR). As po IPdR is being considered for clinical testing as a radiosensitizer in patients with high grade gliomas, we performed this in vivo study of IPdR-mediated cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in a human glioblastoma xenograft model, U87.
Methods and Materials
Groups of 8–9 athymic male nude mice (6–8 weeks old) were implanted with sc U87 xenograft tumors (4 × 106 cells) and then randomized to 10 treatment groups receiving increasing doses of po IPdR (0, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/d) administered once daily (qd) × 14 d with or without radiation therapy (RT) (0 or 2 Gy/d × 4 d) on days 11–14 of IPdR treatment. Systemic toxicity was determined by body weight measurements during and following IPdR treatment. Tumor response was assessed by changes in tumor volumes.
IPdR alone at doses of ≥500 mg/kg/d results in moderate inhibition of tumor growth. The combination of IPdR + RT results in a significant IPdR dose-dependent tumor growth delay with the maximum radiosensitization using ≥500 mg/kg/d. IPdR doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/d did result in transient 5–15% body weight loss during treatment.
In U87 human glioblastoma sc xenografts, po IPdR given qd × 14 d and RT given 2 Gy/d × 4 d (days 11–14 of IPdR treatment) results in a significant tumor growth delay in an IPdR dose-dependent pattern. The use of po IPdR + RT holds promise for phase I/II testing in patients with high grade gliomas.
PMCID: PMC2128756  PMID: 17967315
IpdR; U87 xenografts; radiosensitization

Results 1-5 (5)