The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy (TFNAB) using a C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) system and to assess risk factors for immediate post-procedural complications in patients with lung lesions.
From October 2007 to April 2009, 94 TFNAB procedures using a C-arm system were studied in 91 patients with pulmonary lesions a chest CT scans. We retrospectively reviewed the patients' radiological and histopathological findings. We evaluated the lesion size, lesion abutted to pleura and presence or absence of emphysema along the needle path, lesion depth, visibility of target lesion and patient's position. Pneumothorax and pulmonary haemorrhage were assessed after TFNAB. Overall diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were analysed.
In 94 TFNAB procedures, 58 lesions were malignant and 36 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and overall diagnostic accuracy rate of TFNAB were 93.1%, 100%, 100%, 90% and 97.9%, respectively. Pneumothorax was developed in 24 procedures. None of the parameters showed significant impact on the frequency of the pneumothorax. Overall haemorrhage occurred in 43 procedures. The incidence of overall haemorrhage was higher in patients with smaller lesions, longer pleural distance and pleural abutted lesions (p<0.05). Differences in visibility at projection radiographs were statistically significant between patients with or without perilesional haemorrhage (p<0.05).
Transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy using a C-arm CBCT system is feasible for imaging guidance of lung lesion and early detection of the procedural-related complications.
This paper presents EIT-based fabric sensors that aim to provide a pressure mapping using the current carrying and voltage sensing electrodes attached to the boundary of the fabric patch. Pressure-induced shape change over the sensor area makes a change in the conductivity distribution which can be conveyed to the change of boundary current-voltage data. This boundary data is obtained through electrode measurements in EIT system. The corresponding inverse problem is to reconstruct the pressure and deformation map from the relationship between the applied current and the measured voltage on the fabric boundary. Taking advantage of EIT in providing dynamical images of conductivity changes due to pressure induced shape change, the pressure map can be estimated. In this paper, the EIT-based fabric sensor was presented for circular and rectangular sensor geometry. A stretch sensitive fabric was used in circular sensor with 16 electrodes and a pressure sensitive fabric was used in a rectangular sensor with 32 electrodes. A preliminary human test was carried out with the rectangular sensor for foot pressure mapping showing promising results.
To evaluate the diagnostic value of individual noninvasive presurgical modalities and to study their role in surgical management of nonlesional pediatric epilepsy patients.
We retrospectively studied 14 children (3–18 years) with nonlesional intractable focal epilepsy. Clinical characteristics, surgical outcome, localizing features on 3 presurgical diagnostic tests (subtraction peri-ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI [SISCOM], statistical parametric mapping [SPM] analysis of [18F] FDG-PET, magnetoencephalography [MEG]), and intracranial EEG (iEEG) were reviewed. The localization of each individual test was determined for lobar location by visual inspection. Concordance of localization between each test and iEEG was scored as follows: 2 = lobar concordance; 1 = hemispheric concordance; 0 = discordance or nonlocalization. Total concordance score in each patient was measured by the summation of concordance scores for all 3 tests.
Seven (50%) of 14 patients were seizure-free for at least 12 months after surgery. One (7%) had only rare seizures and 6 (43%) had persistent seizures. MEG (79%, 11/14) and SISCOM (79%, 11/14) showed greater lobar concordance with iEEG than SPM-PET (13%, 3/14) (p < 0.05). SPM-PET provided hemispheric lateralization (71%, 10/14) more often than lobar localization. Total concordance score tended to be greater for seizure-free patients (4.7) than for non–seizure-free patients (3.9).
Our data suggest that MEG and SISCOM are better tools for lobar localization than SPM analysis of FDG-PET in children with nonlesional epilepsy. A multimodality approach may improve surgical outcome as well as selection of surgical candidates in patients without MRI abnormalities.
Communicating genetic research results to participants presents ethical challenges. Our objectives were to examine participants’ preferences in receiving future genetic research results and to compare preferences reported by veteran and nonveterans participants.
Secondary analysis was performed on data collected in 2000–2004 from 1,575 consent forms signed by Mexican-American participants enrolled in 2 genetic family studies (GFS) in San Antonio: The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) and the Extended FIND (EFIND). The consent forms for these studies contained multiple-choice questions to examine participants’ preferences about receiving their (1) clinical lab results and (2) future genetic research results. The FIND and EFIND databases had information on subjects’ demographic characteristics and some selected clinical variables. We identified veterans using the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's) centralized data repository. We compared veterans’ and nonveterans’ preferences using Student's t test for continuous variables and χ2 test for discrete variables. A logistic regression analyzed subjects’ preference for receiving their research results, controlling for other socio-demographic and clinical variables.
The sample included 275 (18%) veterans and 1,247 (82%) nonveterans. Our results indicated a strong desire among the majority of participants 1,445 (95%) in getting their clinical lab research results. Likewise, 93% expressed interest in being informed about their future genetic results. There was no significant difference in veterans’ and nonveterans’ preference to disclosure of the research results (χ2 test; p > 0.05). Regression analysis showed no significant relationship (p = 0.449) between the outcome (receiving research results) and veterans’ responses after controlling for demographics and educational levels.
Participants believed they would prefer receiving their genetic research results. Veterans are similar to nonveterans in their preferences. Offering genetic research results to participants should be based on well defined and structured plans to enhance interpretation of genetic data.
Common complex diseases; Ethics; Genetic family studies; Research results
Plasma cell granulomas, inflammatory pseudotumours and myofibroblastomas are synonymous with characteristic plasma cell infiltration in various body organs including the pancreas, liver, retroperitoneum and mediastinal structures causing idiopathic fibrosclerosis. Recently, a new concept has arisen regarding the relationship between immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-positive cell infiltration and idiopathic systemic fibrosclerosis. We report two cases showing IgG4-positive cell infiltration in the lung presenting as lung nodules with or without extrapulmonary manifestations.
We assessed the efficacy and safety of solifenacin compared with tolterodine for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in Korean patients.
Materials and methods:
The study was randomised, double-blind, tolterodine-controlled trial in Korea. Patients had average frequency of ≥ 8 voids per 24 h and episodes of urgency or urgency incontinence ≥ 3 during 3-day voiding diary period. Patients were randomised to 12-week double-blind treatment with either tolterodine immediate release (IR) 2 mg twice daily (TOL4) or solifenacin 5 mg (SOL5) or 10 mg (SOL10) once daily. The outcome measure was mean change in daily micturition frequency, volume, daily frequency of urgency incontinence, urgency and nocturia from baseline to week 12. Quality of life was assessed using the King’s Health Questionnaire.
A total of 357 were randomised and 329 were evaluated for efficacy. All voiding parameters recorded in micturition diary improved after treatment in all three groups. Mean changes in volume voided were 19.30 ml (26.69%) in TOL4, 30.37 ml (25.89%) in SOL5 and 37.12 ml (33.36%) in SOL10 group (p = 0.03). Speed of onset of SOL10 efficacy on urgency incontinence was faster than that of SOL5 and TOL4. Quality of life improved in all three groups. Dry mouth was the most common adverse event; its incidence was the lowest in SOL5 group (7.63%, compared with 19.49% and 18.64% in SOL10 and TOL4 groups respectively).
Solifenacin succinate 5 and 10 mg once daily improve OAB symptoms with acceptable tolerability levels compared with tolterodine IR 4 mg. Solifenacin 5 mg is a recommended starting dose in Korean patients with OAB.
Capecitabine, a prodrug of 5-FU, has been reported to generate maximal tumour activity at tumour sites and/or to improve drug tolerability as compared with 5-FU infusion, and it has also been demonstrated to act synergistically with irinotecan against some solid cancers. A previous study concluded that dose-intensified biweekly capecitabine seems to be more effective at increasing both response rate and progression-free survival time than conventional dose and schedule of capecitabine in colon cancer. We conducted this study to ascertain the efficacy and toxicity of dose-intensified biweekly capecitabine and irinotecan combination chemotherapy in chemotherapy-naïve advanced or metastatic gastric cancer patients. Patients were treated with irinotecan 130 mg m−2 intravenously for 90 min on days 1 and 15. Capecitabine at 3500 mg m−2 day−1, divided into two sessions per day, was administered for seven consecutive days from days 1 and 15, and followed by a 7-day drug-free period, respectively. Fifty-five eligible patients were enrolled in this study from November 2003 to April 2006. There were 22 women and 33 men: median patient age was 54 years (range: 27–81). A total of 200 treatment cycles were administered at a median number of four per patient (range: 1–9). Intent-to-treatment analysis showed that one patient achieved complete response (1.8%), 23 partial response (41.8%), 15 stable disease (27.3%), 10 progressive disease (18.2%) and 6 were non-evaluable (10.9%). The overall response rate was 43.6% (95% confidence interval: 30.2–56.9). The common grade 3–4 toxicities were neutropenia in 12 (21.8%), nausea/vomiting in 3 (5.4%) and diarrhea in 4 (7.2%) patients. Median time to progression was 5 months (range: 0.5–11 months), median survival duration was 11 months (range: 0.5–45 months) and median response duration was 6 months (range: 0.5–9 months). Biweekly dose-intensified capecitabine and irinotecan combination chemotherapy was active for the treatment of advanced or metastatic gastric cancers with a tolerable safety profile.
irinotecan; capecitabine; stomach neoplasms
Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine that is elevated in the serum in several insulin-resistant states. We investigated the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and serum RBP4 in nondiabetic adults.
One hundred and fifty-nine nondiabetic, non-alcoholic subjects (95 males and 64 females) participated in this study. Division of subjects into a NAFLD group (n = 73; 45 males and 28 females) or a normal group (n = 86; 50 males and 36 females) was based on the presence of fatty liver disease determined by sonography.
Serum RBP4 levels in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (62·8 ± 16·0 mg/l vs. 51·7 ± 14·6 mg/l, P < 0·0001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the RBP4 level was an independent factor associated with NAFLD (P = 0·0042). In addition, serum RBP4 levels were positively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) levels. The significant association between serum RBP4 and GGT levels remained even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, the homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA) value and the presence of NAFLD (r = 0·3097, P = 0·0002).
Serum RBP4 levels are significantly associated with NAFLD and liver enzymes.
This article reports on a retinal stimulation system for long-term use in animal electrical stimulation experiments. The presented system consisted of an implantable stimulator which provided continuous electrical stimulation, and an external component which provided preset stimulation patterns and power to the implanted stimulator via a paired radio frequency (RF) coil. A rechargeable internal battery and a parameter memory component were introduced to the implanted retinal stimulator. As a result, the external component was not necessary during the stimulation mode. The inductive coil pair was used to pass the parameter data and to recharge the battery. A switch circuit was used to separate the stimulation mode from the battery recharging mode. The implantable stimulator was implemented with IC chips and the electronics, except for the stimulation electrodes, were hermetically packaged in a biocompatible metal case. A polyimide-based gold electrode array was used. Surgical implantation into rabbits was performed to verify the functionality and safety of this newly designed system. The electrodes were implanted in the suprachoroidal space. Evoked cortical potentials were recorded during electrical stimulation of the retina. Long-term follow-up using OCT showed no chorioretinal abnormality after implantation of the electrodes.
We conducted this study to ascertain the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel and cisplatin combined with oral UFT and leucovorin as a first-line treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer. In all, 52 patients received courses of docetaxel 60 mg m−2 intravenously (i.v.) for 1 h and then cisplatin 75 mg m−2 i.v. for 2 h on day 1. Oral UFT at 400–600 mg day−1, as determined by body surface area, and leucovorin at 75 mg day−1 were administered for 21 consecutive days from day 1, and this was followed by a 7-day drug-free interval. A total of 225 courses were administered, and the median number of courses per patient was four. Four complete responses (7.7%) and 22 partial responses (42.3%) were achieved, giving an overall response rate of 50% (95% Confidence Interval: 36.4–63.6%). The major toxicity was neutropenia, which reached grade 3/4 in 36 patients (69.3%). Grade 3/4 nausea and vomiting was observed in 12 patients (23.1%). Median time to progression was 22 weeks (4 to 156+ weeks), median survival duration was 48 weeks (4 to 156+ weeks), and median response duration was 24 weeks (6–152 weeks). We conclude that docetaxel, cisplatin, oral UFT, and leucovorin combination chemotherapy is effective and tolerable for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer.
docetaxel; cisplatin; UFT; stomach neoplasms
CYP19; CYP1B1; alcohol; breast cancer
play a pivotal role in asthmatic airway inflammation. Apoptosis is
thought to be critically relevant in promoting the clearance of
inflammatory cells and the resolution of inflammation. Bcl-2 inhibits
apoptosis in cellular systems. A study was undertaken to determine
whether bcl-2 expression in sputum reflects the clinical severity of
patients with asthma. The relationship between bcl-2 expression in
sputum eosinophils and eosinophil activation markers such as
interleukin (IL)-5 and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in
sputum supernatant was evaluated.
was obtained from 18 patients with asthma. Fresh expectorated sputum
separated from saliva was treated with an equal volume of
dithiothreitol 0.1%, cytospun for cell differentials and bcl-2 stain,
and the supernatant was collected for biochemical assay. Bcl-2+
eosinophils were stained using immunocytochemistry, ECP was
measured by fluoroimmunoassay, and IL-5 was detected by sandwich enzyme
linked immunosorbant assay.
patients with severe or life threatening asthma had more bcl-2+
eosinophils (mean difference 46.8% (95% CI 27.0 to 66.6), p<0.01)
and a higher ECP level (p<0.01) in the sputum than those with mild to
moderate asthma (n = 6). IL-5 was frequently detected in patients with
severe or life threatening asthma (11/12 versus 1/6, p<0.01). There
was a significant positive correlation between bcl-2+ eosinophils and
ECP levels (r = 0.61, p<0.01)
and between bcl-2+ eosinophils and IL-5 levels
(r = 0.83, p<0.01). There was
a significant negative correlation between bcl-2+ eosinophils and
FEV1/FVC (r = -0.54, p<0.05).
increased expression of bcl-2 in eosinophils from sputum of subjects
with severe asthma suggests that bcl-2 may prolong survival and
decrease apoptosis of airway eosinophils in asthma.
lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease occurring in women of
reproductive age and leading to progressive respiratory failure in
spite of treatment. In Korea the first case was reported in 1984 and by
1997 a total of 23 cases had been reported. The clinical findings of
these Korean cases are reviewed.
METHODS—The details of
10 cases of LAM on file at Seoul National University Hospital were
reviewed together with those of 13 cases previously reported from other
Korean institutes. Two, including the only one to be reported in a man,
were excluded after reviewing the clinical, radiological, and
pathological findings, leaving a total of 21 cases in the present study.
RESULTS—All 21 patients were women and in all cases the disease was proven
pathologically. The mean (SD) age at onset of symptoms was 32 (8.6)
years. The most common symptoms were dyspnoea and pneumothorax which
were seen in 19 (90%) and 13 (76%) patients, respectively. Pulmonary
function tests showed decreased transfer factor (TLCO)
(100%) and airflow limitation (67%). All the cases had characteristic
cysts on high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scanning. The
overall severity score based on HRCT scans correlated with the
percentage predicted TLCO/VA (p = 0.03) and FEV1/FVC (p = 0.02). The patients were all treated with
medroxyprogesterone and/or tamoxifen. Follow up was possible in 10 cases. Two of these patients appeared to stabilise with no appreciable
change clinically or in lung function on medroxyprogesterone and/or
tamoxifen, but the remaining patients all deteriorated with two dying
of respiratory insufficiency and one of infection following lung transplantation.
other countries, in Korea LAM occurs exclusively in women and
progresses despite hormonal treatment.
Angiosarcomas of the pleura are very rare tumors and it is difficult to differentiate them from other common pleural tumors such as mesothelioma and metastasic carcinoma clinically and pathologically. We report a case of a young Korean woman with angiosarcoma arising in the pleura. A 34-yr-old woman presented with dyspnea and chest tightness and pain for several months. A computed tomographic scan of the chest showed diffuse thickening of the left pleura and effusion with passive atelectasis. At thoracotomy the left pleura was thick and indurated. Histologically, the decorticated pleura revealed infiltration of sheets or cords of polygonal and epithelioid tumor cells showing rudimentary vascular differentiation. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for CD31, CD34, and vimentin, whereas weakly positive for factor VIII, and negative for cytokeratin, which are characteristic and specific findings of angiosarcoma.
The heart transplantation-associated accelerated graft arteriosclerosis (AGAS) is one of the major causes of cardiac allograft failure. We investigated the early time-course of expresssion patterns of cytokines, transcription factor, and its inhibitor in the intraabdominally transplanted mice hearts that differed only in the D locus of class I histocompatibility antigen. The allograft hearts were harvested at 1-3, 5, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after the transplantation, and the expressions of NF-kappaB/I-kappaB and cytokines (TNF-alpha, INF-gamma) were examined in these specimens. The expressions of TNF-alpha and INF-gamma were observed on day 1, peaking on day 5 and 7, respectively. Activated NF-kappaB (p65) expression was present on the cytoplasm and perinuclear area in the endothelial cells of coronary arteries on day 1. The peak of translocation of NF-B from cytoplasm to nucleus appeared on day 5 in the endothelial cells, myocytes, and leukocytes within the vessels, and remained elevated until day 42. The I-kappaB expression gradually increased from day 1 until day 5, but a remarkable decrease was detected on day 7. Our data suggest that the increased expressions of NF-kappaB/I-kappaB and cytokines (TNF-alpha, INF-gamma) play an important role in inducing immune responses in the donor allograft heart and hence the blockage of the expressions might be mandatory to avoid a potential graft failure.
Infantile hemangioendothelioma is a severe disease with a high mortality. It is characterized by multiple hemangioma affecting the skin and visceral organs. We report that high doses of methylprednisolone pulse therapy improved symptoms and signs of infantile hemangioendothelioma in a male neonate, and completely resolved the hepatic and cutaneous hemangioendothelioma on follow up.
We provided a curve-fit equation to predict the normal heart weight (g) in Koreans by examining 422 autopsies (215 males and 207 females, from newborn to age 77 yr) who were relatively in good general condition. Heart weight was well correlated with body surface area (m2), body weight (kg), and body height (cm) but poorly with age in both sex. Heart weight progressively increased from birth to the earlier 3rd and 4th decades in male and female, respectively, and then gradually decreased; mean heart weight of all age group was greater in male than in female and significantly different from birth to 4th decade. In both sex, heart weight exponentially increased in accordance with the increase of body height, body weight, and body surface (in male, heart weight=0.00312 x body height(2.239), r2=0.750, p<0.0001; in female, heart weight=0.00443 x body height(2170), r2=0.781, p<0.0001; in male, heart weight=9.22 x body weight(0.853), r2=0.770, p<0.0001; in female, heart weight=9.00 x body weight0.855, r2=0.820, p<0.0001; in male, heart weight=155.18 x body surface area1.290, r=0.808, p<0.0001; in female, heart weight=124.13 x body surface area1.242, r=0.834, p<0.0001). These results indicate that heart weight is better correlated with body surface area than with body weight; however, body weight should be a better determinant of a predicted heart weight, since body surface area is entirely dependent on body height and body weight.
Castleman's disease represents an atypical lymphoproliferative disorder, infrequently associated with various immunologic abnormalities or subsequent development of malignancy such as Kaposi sarcoma, malignant lymphoma and plasmacytoma. Its clinicopathologic features depend on various etiologic factors such as Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), oversecretion of IL-6, adhesion molecule and follicular dendritic cell dysplasia, etc. To investigate the relationship of Castleman's disease (CD) and the above factors, we reviewed 22 cases of CD. Four cases of KSHV positive CD were detected, all multicentric, plasma cell type, and these cases displayed prominent vascular proliferation, characteristic 'Kaposi-like lesion'. IL-6 and CD54 positive mononuclear cells were scattered in interfollicular areas of KSHV positive cases. Follicular dendritic cell hyperplasia, vascular proliferation, expression of IL-6 and CD54 did not show any significant difference between solitary vs multicentric type, and plasma cell type vs hyaline vascular type. Our study suggests that KSHV positive CD reveals unique pathologic features, and the probable relationship of KSHV and IL-6 and CD54 is discussed.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by infiltrating neutrophils, are considered as an important regulator in the pathogenesis and deveolpment of pancreatitis. A hallmark of the inflammatory response is the induction of cytokine gene expression, which may be regulated by oxidant-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-KB). Present study aims to investigate whether neutrophils primed by 4beta-phorbol 12beta-myristate 13alpha-acetate (PMA) affect the productions of H2O2 and lipid peroxide (LPO), NF-kappaB activation and cytokine production in pancreatic acinar cells, and whether these alterations were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). ROS generation in neutrophils increased by PMA, which was inhibited by NAC and SOD. The productions of H2O2, LPO and TNF-alpha were increased with the amounts of PMA-primed neutrophils added to acinar cells while the productions of H2O2, LPO and cytokines increased with time. PMA-primed neutrophils resulted in the activation of two species of NF-kappaB dimers (a p50/p65 heterodimer and a p50 homodimer). Both NAC and SOD inhibited neutrophil-induced alterations in acinar cells. In conclusion, ROS, generated by neutrophils, activates NF-kappaB, resulting in upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in acinar cells. Antioxidants such as NAC might be clinically useful antiinflammatory agents by inhibiting oxidant-mediated activation of NF-KB and decreasing cytokine production.
The aim of this study was to evaluate microchimerism after human liver transplantation (LT). This study included 13 female recipients who received hepatic allograft from male donors at Asan Medical Center. A nested PCR specific for Y-chromosome gene (DYZ3) was used to analyze the small number of male cells in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the female recipients. Microchimerism was observed in 6 of 13 recipients and 16 out of 35 samples. Only 3 patients showed microchimerism 3 months after LT. There was no statistical difference between the presence of microchimerism and clinical findings such as type of donor, type of immunosuppression, episode of rejection and age of recipient. This study did not show any clinical relevance of microchimerism and further larger study are needed to confirm the results.
TGF-β; cell cycle arrest; cdk inhibitors; p21WAF1; Cdc25A; gastric cancer cells
Morphologic features and pathogenesis of arterial changes occurring in Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans) are still controversial. This study describes histopathologic features of medium sized arteries from patients with Buerger's disease, particularly of the internal elastic lamina in relation to the immunologic mechanism of the injury. Seventeen segments of occluded arteries (femoral or popliteal arteries) from 17 patients with Buerger's disease were analyzed by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. The most characteristic features were total luminal obliteration, together with a varying degree of recanalization and deposition of hemosiderin pigments. Detailed analysis, however, showed marked undulation and multiplication of the internal elastic lamina (100%) associated with basophilic degeneration and delicate linear calcification (47%). Lymphocytic infiltration along the internal elastic lamina was seen in 71% and was associated with localized edema. Lymphocytes along the lamina were consistently positive for T cell marker. Mild to moderate fibrosis was present at the media in 24%. Adventitial changes included mild, nonspecific and irregular fibrosis seen in 53%. Immunologic injury to the internal elastic lamina associated with T-lymphocytic infiltration might be the initial morphogenetic mechanism of the thrombotic occlusion and organization of medium-sized arteries in Buerger's disease.
In this study of the inhibitory effects of angiopeptin and aspirin on the development of accelerated graft atherosclerosis (AGAS), 22 B10.BR mice received intra-abdominal heterotopic heart transplants from B10.A mice, without immunosuppression. Group 1 (n = 5) received no pharmacological intervention, Group 2 (n = 6) was treated with angiopeptin, Group 3 (n = 5) with aspirin, and Group 4 (n = 6) with both. There was no significant difference in the incidence of AGAS among these groups. The magnitude of intimal lesion development showed less narrowing of large vessels (> 100 microns in diameter) in groups 2 and 4--i.e. the groups received angiopeptin (Group 1 = 46.9 +/- 9.3%, Group 2 = 28.5 +/- 9.2%, Group 3 = 44.1 +/- 10.9%, Group 4 = 24.2 +/- 5.9%; p < 0.01). Comparison of the fraction of tropomyosin-positive staining cells in the intima revealed a lesser degree of staining in Group 2 (p < 0.01). No intervention was effective in preventing smooth muscle cell proliferation in the media or inflammatory cell infiltration in the adventitia. In conclusion, our data suggest that angiopeptin is effective in the direct inhibition of intimal smooth muscle cell proliferation in relatively large vessels, whereas aspirin exhibits no inhibitory role in the progression of AGAS. Angiopeptin appears to be a potential therapeutic agent for inhibiting the progression of postoperative AGAS in clinical heart transplantation.