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Hanson, Jesse E (1)
Hanson, Jesse E. (1)
Madison, Daniel V (1)
Madison, Daniel V. (1)
Malenka, Robert C. (1)
Montgomery, Johanna M (1)
Selcher, Joel C (1)
Selcher, Joel C. (1)
Xu, Weifeng (1)
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Glutamate Receptor Subunit GluA1 is Necessary for Long-term Potentiation and Synapse Unsilencing, but not Long-term Depression in Mouse Hippocampus
Hanson, Jesse E.
Malenka, Robert C.
Madison, Daniel V.
Receptor subunit composition is believed to play a major role in the synaptic trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), and thus in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. To isolate a physiological role of GluA1-containing AMPARs in area CA3 of the hippocampus, pair recordings were performed in organotypic hippocampal slices taken from genetically modified mice lacking the GluA1 subunit. We report here that long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired not only at active but also at silent synapses when the GluA1 subunit is absent. The GluA1 knockout mice also exhibited reduced AMPAR-mediated evoked currents between pairs of CA3 pyramidal neurons under baseline conditions suggesting a significant role for GluA1-containing AMPARs in regulating basal synaptic transmission. In two independent measures, however, long-term depression (LTD) was unaffected in tissue from these mice. These data provide a further demonstration of the fundamental role that GluA1-containing AMPARs play in activity-dependent increases in synaptic strength but do not support a GluA1-dependent mechanism for reductions in synaptic strength.
Glutamate receptor; AMPA receptor; knockout; synaptic plasticity; silent synapse; long-term potentiation; long-term depression; hippocampus
Dynamin-dependent NMDAR endocytosis during LTD and its dependence on synaptic state
Montgomery, Johanna M
Hanson, Jesse E
Madison, Daniel V
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor expressed at excitatory glutamatergic synapses is required for learning and memory and is critical for normal brain function. At a cellular level, this receptor plays a pivotal role in triggering and controlling synaptic plasticity. While it has been long recognized that this receptor plays a regulatory role, it was considered by many to be itself immune to synaptic activity-induced plasticity. More recently, we and others have shown that NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses can be subject to activity-dependent depression.
Here we show that depression of synaptic transmission mediated by NMDA receptors displays a state-dependence in its plasticity; NMDA receptors are resistant to activity-induced changes at silent and recently-silent synapses. Once synapses transition to the active state however, NMDA receptors become fully 'plastic'. This state-dependence is identical to that shown by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor. Furthermore, the down-regulation of NMDAR-mediated responses during synaptic depression is prevented by disruption of dynamin-dependent endocytosis.
NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses are plastic in a state-dependent manner. Depending on the plasticity state in which a synapse currently resides, NMDA receptors will either be available or unavailable for down-regulation. The mechanism underlying the down-regulation of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses is endocytosis of the NMDA receptor. Other potential mechanisms, such as receptor diffusion along the plane of the membrane, or changes in the activity of the channel are not supported. The mechanisms of AMPA receptor and NMDA receptor endocytosis appear to be tightly coupled, as both are either available or unavailable for endocytosis in the same synaptic states. Endocytosis of NMDA receptors would serve as a potent mechanism for metaplasticity. Such state-dependent regulation of NMDAR endocytosis will provide fundamental control over downstream NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of neuronal circuitry.
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