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1.  Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer 
Cancer  2009;115(6):1185-1193.
BACKGROUND
Given accumulating evidence supporting postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in selected patients, it is important to evaluate patterns and correlates of PMRT utilization, including communication and attitudinal factors.
METHODS
The authors surveyed 2382 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in 2002 and reported to the Los Angeles and Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries (n = 1844, 77.4% response rate). Analyses were restricted to patients with nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer treated by mastectomy who had decided whether or not to undergo PMRT (n = 396). The authors assessed rates of explanation, recommendation, and receipt of radiation by indication grouping, defined primarily by the 2001 American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines. They evaluated correlates of PMRT receipt, including tumor and sociodemographic characteristics. They also explored patients’ self-reported reasons for nonreceipt of PMRT.
RESULTS
The adjusted proportion in each indication group reporting that a provider had explained radiation was high (77% of those in whom PMRT was indicated, 76% of those in whom medical opinion was divided, and 73% of those in whom PMRT was not indicated; P = .10). The adjusted proportions reporting recommendations for radiation (86%, 35%, and 17%, respectively) and receipt (81%, 34%, and 10%, respectively) varied significantly by indication grouping (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, tumor size (P < .001), lymph node status (P < .001), comorbidity (P = .02), and chemotherapy receipt (P = .003) were found to be independent significant correlates of PMRT receipt. The most common reasons cited for not pursuing PMRT were lack of physician recommendation and perceived lack of need.
CONCLUSIONS
PMRT receipt is strongly correlated with clinical indication. The authors found no sociodemographic disparities in utilization. However, approximately one-fifth of patients with strong indications did not receive treatment.
doi:10.1002/cncr.24164
PMCID: PMC3905748  PMID: 19180636
mastectomy; radiotherapy; breast neoplasms; guideline adherence; quality of healthcare
2.  The association between chronic renal failure and renal cell carcinoma may differ between black and white Americans 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2012;24(1):167-174.
Purpose
In the United States, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is higher among blacks than among whites. Risk of RCC is elevated among end-stage renal disease patients, although no studies have looked at differences by race in the relationship between chronic renal failure and RCC.
Methods
We investigated RCC risk in relation to chronic renal failure in a population-based case-control study of blacks and whites in Chicago and Detroit. Data, including information on kidney disease, were collected from interviews with 1,217 RCC cases (361 blacks, 856 whites) and 1,235 controls (523 blacks, 712 whites). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression.
Results
Risk of RCC was increased in relation to chronic renal failure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.2–10.1) and dialysis (OR 18.0, 95% CI 3.6–91). The association remained after defining exposure as those who had chronic renal failure ≥10 years prior to RCC diagnosis. Chronic renal failure was more strongly associated with RCC among blacks than among whites (OR 8.7, 95% CI 3.3–22.9 and 2.0, 0.7–5.6 respectively; Pinteraction=0.03) and among those without a history of diabetes relative to diabetic subjects (OR 8.3, 95% CI 3.1–22.7 and 1.9, 0.6–5.9 respectively; Pinteraction=0.03).
Conclusions
These results suggest that chronic renal failure is a strong risk factor for RCC, particularly among black and non-diabetic subjects. Our findings of differences in risk estimates by race, to our knowledge the first such report, require replication.
doi:10.1007/s10552-012-0102-z
PMCID: PMC3531044  PMID: 23179659
renal cell carcinoma; kidney cancer; chronic renal failure; end-stage renal disease; racial disparities
3.  Serum leptin and adiponectin levels and risk of renal cell carcinoma 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2013;21(7):1478-1485.
The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased rapidly in the U.S., particularly among African Americans. Despite a well-established link between obesity and RCC, the mechanism through which obesity increases cancer risk has yet to be established. Adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin, may link obesity and cancer, with different quantitative effects by race. We evaluated the association between leptin and adiponectin concentrations and RCC risk among Caucasians (581 cases, 558 controls) and African Americans (187 cases, 359 controls) in a case-control study conducted in Detroit and Chicago. Odds ratios(ORs) and 95% confidence intervals(95%CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Among controls, Caucasians had higher median adiponectin than African Americans (males: 8.2 vs. 7.0µg/ml, p=0.001; females: 13.4 vs. 8.4µg/ml, p<0.0001), and lower median leptin than African Americans (males: 11.8 vs. 14.1ng/ml, p=0.04; females: 28.3 vs. 45.9ng/ml, p<0.0001). Among Caucasians, the ORs for RCC comparing the highest (Q4) to the lowest (Q1) sex-specific quartile of leptin were 3.2 (95%CI:1.9–5.2) for males and 4.7 (95%CI:2.6–8.6) for females. Serum leptin was not significantly associated with RCC among African American males (OR 1.5, 95%CI:0.7–3.1) or females (OR 2.1, 95%CI:0.8–5.5). Higher adiponectin was associated with RCC risk among African American males (Q4 vs. Q1: OR 2.3, 95%CI:1.1–4.6) and females (OR 2.1, 95%CI:1.2–6.7), but not significantly among Caucasian males (OR 1.6, 95%CI:0.99–2.7) and females (OR 1.6, 95%CI:0.9–3.1). In conclusion, we observed an association between both leptin and adiponectin concentrations and risk of RCC, which may differ by race. Confirmation in further investigations is needed.
doi:10.1002/oby.20138
PMCID: PMC3742622  PMID: 23666639
4.  Surgical approach and the use of lymphadenectomy and adrenalectomy among patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma 
Urologic oncology  2011;30(6):856-863.
Objectives
We assessed the influence of tumor size and surgical approach on the use of lymphadenectomy and adrenalectomy with radical nephrectomy.
Methods
We evaluated patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) enrolled in the US Kidney Cancer Study, a case–control study in the metropolitan areas of Detroit and Chicago from 2002–2007. We identified patients who underwent open (ORN) or laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN). We used medical records and SEER data to determine the proportion of patients who underwent lymphadenectomy or adrenalectomy. Bivariate analyses were performed to evaluate associations between tumor size, surgical approach, and receipt of lymphadenectomy or adrenalectomy.
Results
We identified 730 patients who underwent ORN (427, 58%) or LRN (303, 42%) for RCC from 2002–2007. Among this group, 11% and 24% underwent lymphadenectomy or adrenalectomy, respectively. Lymphadenectomy was more common among patients treated from an open surgical approach (14.1% ORN vs 5.9% LRN, p<0.01); this difference was most pronounced for cases with tumors between 4–7 cm (15.9% vs 2.9%, p=0.01). Patients treated with ORN were also more likely to undergo adrenalectomy, with the greatest discrepancy among cases with tumors ≤ 4 cm (21.7% vs. 11.4%, p<0.01).
Conclusions
Among patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for RCC, the use of lymphadenectomy and adrenalectomy is relatively uncommon and varies by tumor size and surgical approach. With an increasing number of patients with small tumors, the diffusion of laparoscopy, and the emergence of clinical trials evaluating systemic adjuvant therapies, our findings highlight important considerations for optimizing surgical management of patients with RCC.
doi:10.1016/j.urolonc.2010.08.024
PMCID: PMC3123686  PMID: 21419672
lymph node excision; adrenalectomy; carcinoma; renal cell; laparoscopy; neoplasm staging
5.  Body Mass Index and Renal Cell Cancer: The Influence of Race and Sex 
Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)  2012;23(6):821-828.
Background
Obesity is a risk factor for renal cell (or renal) cancer. The increasing prevalence of obesity may be contributing to the rising incidence of this cancer over the past several decades. The effects of early-age obesity and change in body mass index (BMI) on renal cancer have been studied less thoroughly, and the influence of race has never been formally investigated.
Methods
Using data gathered as part of a large case-control study of renal cancer (1,214 cases and 1,234 controls), we investigated associations with BMI at several time points, as well as with height. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using logistic regression modeling. Race- and sex-stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate subgroup differences.
Results
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) early in adulthood (OR=1.6 [95% CI=1.1 to 2.4]) and 5 years before diagnosis (1.6 [1.1 to 2.2]) was associated with renal cancer. The association with early-adult obesity was stronger among whites than blacks (Test for interaction, P=0.006), while the association with obesity near diagnosis was marginally stronger in women than men (Test for interaction, P=0.08). The strongest association with renal cancer was observed for obese whites both in early adulthood and prior to interview (2.6 [1.5 to 4.4]); this association was not present among blacks. Estimates of the annual excess rate of renal cancer (per 100,000 persons) attributed to both overweight and obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) ranged from 9.9 among black men to 5.6 among white women.
Conclusion
Obesity, both early and later in life, is associated with an increased risk of renal cancer. The association with early obesity appears to be stronger among whites than blacks.
doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31826b7fe9
PMCID: PMC3466395  PMID: 23007040
6.  Racial Differences in Colorectal Cancer Survival in the Detroit Metropolitan Area 
Cancer  2009;115(16):3791-3800.
BACKGROUND
Colorectal carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer death with African Americans having lower survival compared with White Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of demographics, clinical factors, and socioeconomic status (SES) on racial disparities in colorectal cancer survival in the Detroit Metropolitan Area.
METHODS
The study population included 9078 individuals with primary invasive colorectal cancer identified between 1988 and 1992 through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Demographics, clinical information, and survival were obtained through SEER. SES was categorized using occupation, educational level, and poverty status at the census tract level. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare overall survival by race.
RESULTS
African Americans were more likely to be diagnosed with stage IV disease (P < .001), and to reside within poor census tracts (P < .001) compared with White Americans. Unadjusted analysis showed that African Americans had a significantly higher risk of death compared with their White American counterparts (hazards ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.20). After adjusting for age, marital status, sex, SES group, TNM stage, and treatment, race was no longer significantly associated with overall survival (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92–1.09). Similar results were seen with colorectal cancer-specific survival.
CONCLUSIONS
Racial disparities in colorectal cancer survival dissipate after adjusting for other demographic and clinical factors. These results can potentially affect medical guidelines regarding screening and treatment, and possibly influence public health policies that can have a positive impact on equalizing racial differences in access to care.
doi:10.1002/cncr.24408
PMCID: PMC3799766  PMID: 19598220
survival; colorectal cancer; SEER; racial disparities; socioeconomic status
7.  Racial Differences in Cervical Cancer Survival in the Detroit Metropolitan Area 
Cancer  2008;112(6):1264-1271.
BACKGROUND
African-American (AA) women have lower survival rates from cervical cancer compared with white women. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and other variables on racial disparities in overall survival among women with invasive cervical cancer.
METHODS
One thousand thirty-six women (705 white women and 331 AA women) who were diagnosed with primary invasive cancer of the cervix between 1988 and 1992 were identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS), a registry in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Pathology, treatment, and survival data were obtained through SEER. SES was categorized by using occupation, poverty, and educational status at the census tract level. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall survival between AA women and white women adjusting for sociodemographics, clinical presentation, and treatment.
RESULTS
AA women were more likely to present at an older age (P < .001), with later stage disease (P < .001), and with squamous histology (P = .01), and they were more likely to reside in a census tract categorized as Working Poor (WP) (P < .001). After multivariate adjustment, race no longer had a significant impact on survival. Women who resided in a WP census tract had a higher risk of death than women from a Professional census tract (P = .05). There was a significant interaction between disease stage and time with the effect of stage on survival attenuated after 6 years.
CONCLUSIONS
In this study, factors that affected access to medical care appeared to have a more important influence than race on the long-term survival of women with invasive cervical cancer.
doi:10.1002/cncr.23310
PMCID: PMC3799770  PMID: 18257090
cervical cancer; survival; race; socioeconomic status; Surveillance; Epidemiology; End Results
8.  Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Cataract Incidence Among Elderly Prostate Cancer Patients in the United States 
Annals of epidemiology  2010;21(3):156-163.
Purpose
The side-effects associated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) include weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. As cataracts have been linked to these metabolic abnormalities, an increased risk of cataract may be another adverse consequence of ADT use.
Methods
Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we estimated risk of cataract associated with ADT among 65,852 prostate-cancer patients. ADT treatment was defined as at least one dose of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or orchiectomy within 6 months after prostate cancer diagnosis. The outcome measure was a first claim of cataract diagnosis identified in Medicare claim files. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the effects of ADT treatment, controlling for confounders.
Results
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist use was associated with a modest increase in cataract incidence (HR 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.12). rchiectomy was also associated with an increased risk of cataract among men with no history of cataract prior to prostate cancer diagnosis (HR 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.07–1.47).
Conclusions
In the first systematic investigation of the association between ADT and cataract, our results suggest an elevation in the incidence of cataract among ADT users. Further study, preferably prospective in design, is needed to provide additional evidence to support or refute these findings.
doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.10.003
PMCID: PMC3792579  PMID: 21109456
Epidemiology; GnRH Agonist; Lens Opacities; Orchiectomy; Prostate Cancer; SEER-Medicare
9.  Cigarette smoking and renal cell carcinoma risk among black and white Americans: effect modification by hypertension and obesity 
Introduction
Incidence of kidney cancer has been increasing over the past three decades, with more rapid increases and higher incidence rates among blacks than whites in the United States. An association between cigarette smoking and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, has been reported for whites, but the association in blacks is less clear.
Methods
The association between smoking and RCC was examined in 1,217 incident cases and 1,235 population controls frequency-matched on age, race, gender and study site in the Kidney Cancer Study in Detroit, MI and Chicago, IL.
Results
In white individuals, increasing duration and number of pack years of were both associated with increased risk of RCC after adjusting for age, gender, education, study site, body mass index (BMI) and history of hypertension (p-trend=0.0002 and p-trend=0.002, respectively). Among black individuals, RCC risk increased with duration of smoking (p- trend=0.02), but not other measures. Compared to current smokers, RCC risk decreased with increasing years of smoking cessation among both whites and blacks (p- trend=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). When examining risk according to hypertension history, associations between smoking and RCC risk were observed only among individuals who reported never having been diagnosed with hypertension. Similarly, cigarette smoking was associated with increased risk of RCC among non-obese individuals, but not among those with BMI≥30 kg/m2.
Conclusion
Our observation that smoking is associated with RCC only in non-obese individuals and those with no history of hypertension are novel findings
Impact
The complex relationships between RCC, smoking, hypertension and obesity require additional confirmation.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-1109
PMCID: PMC3348421  PMID: 22426145
Renal Cell Carcinoma; Cigarette Smoking; Hypertension; Body Mass Index; Race/Ethnicity
10.  The chromosome 2p21 region harbors a complex genetic architecture for association with risk for renal cell carcinoma 
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;21(5):1190-1200.
In follow-up of a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) that identified a locus in chromosome 2p21 associated with risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we conducted a fine mapping analysis of a 120 kb region that includes EPAS1. We genotyped 59 tagged common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2278 RCC and 3719 controls of European background and observed a novel signal for rs9679290 [P = 5.75 × 10−8, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–1.39]. Imputation of common SNPs surrounding rs9679290 using HapMap 3 and 1000 Genomes data yielded two additional signals, rs4953346 (P = 4.09 × 10−14) and rs12617313 (P = 7.48 × 10−12), both highly correlated with rs9679290 (r2 > 0.95), but interestingly not correlated with the two SNPs reported in the GWAS: rs11894252 and rs7579899 (r2 < 0.1 with rs9679290). Genotype analysis of rs12617313 confirmed an association with RCC risk (P = 1.72 × 10−9, per-allele OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.39) In conclusion, we report that chromosome 2p21 harbors a complex genetic architecture for common RCC risk variants.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr551
PMCID: PMC3277315  PMID: 22113997
11.  “It’s up to you and God”: understanding health behavior change in older African American survivors of colorectal cancer 
ABSTRACT
This study investigated the beliefs and attitudes of older African American colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors that may influence health behavior changes after treatment. Drawing from existing theories of health behavior change and cultural beliefs about health, a semi-structured interview guide was developed to elicit survivors’ perspectives. Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with 17 survivors identified through the Detroit Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry. Using verbatim transcripts from the sessions and NVivo software, thematic analysis was conducted to analyze patterns of responses. Transcripts were coded for seven categories (health behaviors, who/what motivates change, self-efficacy, fatalism, religion/spirituality, beliefs about cancer, race/ethnicity). Five themes emerged from the data (personal responsibility, resilience, desire for information, intentions to change, beliefs in divine control). Findings support the relevance of existing theories of health behavior change to older African American CRC survivors. Cultural considerations are suggested to improve interventions seeking to maximize changes in diet and exercise among this group of survivors.
doi:10.1007/s13142-012-0188-6
PMCID: PMC3717987  PMID: 23646096
African Americans; Health behaviors; Colorectal cancer; Cancer survivorship; Qualitative methods
12.  Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Healthcare Resources in Relation to Black-White Breast Cancer Survival Disparities 
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology  2013;2013:490472.
Background. Breast cancer survival has improved significantly in the US in the past 10–15 years. However, disparities exist in breast cancer survival between black and white women. Purpose. To investigate the effect of county healthcare resources and SES as well as individual SES status on breast cancer survival disparities between black and white women. Methods. Data from 1,796 breast cancer cases were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study dataset. Cox Proportional Hazards models were constructed accounting for clustering within counties. Three sequential Cox models were fit for each outcome including demographic variables; demographic and clinical variables; and finally demographic, clinical, and county-level variables. Results. In unadjusted analysis, black women had a 53% higher likelihood of dying of breast cancer and 32% higher likelihood of dying of any cause (P < 0.05) compared with white women. Adjusting for demographic variables explained away the effect of race on breast cancer survival (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.99–1.97), but not on all-cause mortality. The racial difference in all-cause survival disappeared only after adjusting for county-level variables (HR, 1.27; CI, 0.95–1.71). Conclusions. Improving equitable access to healthcare for all women in the US may help eliminate survival disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups.
doi:10.1155/2013/490472
PMCID: PMC3590635  PMID: 23509460
13.  A genome-wide association study identifies a novel susceptibility locus for renal cell carcinoma on 12p11.23 
Wu, Xifeng | Scelo, Ghislaine | Purdue, Mark P. | Rothman, Nathaniel | Johansson, Mattias | Ye, Yuanqing | Wang, Zhaoming | Zelenika, Diana | Moore, Lee E. | Wood, Christopher G. | Prokhortchouk, Egor | Gaborieau, Valerie | Jacobs, Kevin B. | Chow, Wong-Ho | Toro, Jorge R. | Zaridze, David | Lin, Jie | Lubinski, Jan | Trubicka, Joanna | Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia | Lissowska, Jolanta | Rudnai, Peter | Fabianova, Eleonora | Mates, Dana | Jinga, Viorel | Bencko, Vladimir | Slamova, Alena | Holcatova, Ivana | Navratilova, Marie | Janout, Vladimir | Boffetta, Paolo | Colt, Joanne S. | Davis, Faith G. | Schwartz, Kendra L. | Banks, Rosamonde E. | Selby, Peter J. | Harnden, Patricia | Berg, Christine D. | Hsing, Ann W. | Grubb, Robert L. | Boeing, Heiner | Vineis, Paolo | Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise | Palli, Domenico | Tumino, Rosario | Krogh, Vittorio | Panico, Salvatore | Duell, Eric J. | Quirós, José Ramón | Sanchez, Maria-José | Navarro, Carmen | Ardanaz, Eva | Dorronsoro, Miren | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Allen, Naomi E. | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas | Peeters, Petra H.M. | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Linseisen, Jakob | Ljungberg, Börje | Overvad, Kim | Tjønneland, Anne | Romieu, Isabelle | Riboli, Elio | Stevens, Victoria L | Thun, Michael J | Diver, W. Ryan | Gapstur, Susan M. | Pharoah, Paul D. | Easton, Douglas F. | Albanes, Demetrius | Virtamo, Jarmo | Vatten, Lars | Hveem, Kristian | Fletcher, Tony | Koppova, Kvetoslava | Cussenot, Olivier | Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine | Benhamou, Simone | Hildebrandt, Michelle A. | Pu, Xia | Foglio, Mario | Lechner, Doris | Hutchinson, Amy | Yeager, Meredith | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | Lathrop, Mark | Skryabin, Konstantin G. | McKay, James D. | Gu, Jian | Brennan, Paul | Chanock, Stephen J.
Human Molecular Genetics  2011;21(2):456-462.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal urologic cancer. Only two common susceptibility loci for RCC have been confirmed to date. To identify additional RCC common susceptibility loci, we conducted an independent genome-wide association study (GWAS). We analyzed 533 191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with RCC in 894 cases and 1516 controls of European descent recruited from MD Anderson Cancer Center in the primary scan, and validated the top 500 SNPs in silico in 3772 cases and 8505 controls of European descent involved in the only published GWAS of RCC. We identified two common variants in linkage disequilibrium, rs718314 and rs1049380 (r2 = 0.64, D ′ = 0.84), in the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, type 2 (ITPR2) gene on 12p11.23 as novel susceptibility loci for RCC (P = 8.89 × 10−10 and P = 6.07 × 10−9, respectively, in meta-analysis) with an allelic odds ratio of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13–1.26] for rs718314 and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12–1.25) for rs1049380. It has been recently identified that rs718314 in ITPR2 is associated with waist–hip ratio (WHR) phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic locus associated with both cancer risk and WHR.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddr479
PMCID: PMC3276284  PMID: 22010048
14.  Characterizing inflammatory breast cancer among Arab Americans in the California, Detroit and New Jersey Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries (1988–2008) 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:3.
Introduction
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is characterized by an apparent geographical distribution in incidence, being more common in North Africa than other parts of the world. Despite the rapid growth of immigrants to the United States from Arab nations, little is known about disease patterns among Arab Americans because a racial category is rarely considered for this group. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the burden of IBC in Arab ethnic populations by describing the proportion of IBC among different racial groups, including Arab Americans from the Detroit, New Jersey and California Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries.
Methods
We utilized a validated Arab surname algorithm to identify women of Arab descent from the SEER registries. Differences in the proportion of IBC out of all breast cancer and IBC characteristics by race and menopausal status were evaluated using chi-square tests for categorical variables, t-tests and ANOVA tests for continuous variables, and log-rank tests for survival data. We modeled the association between race and IBC among all women with breast cancer using hierarchical logistic regression models, adjusting for individual and census tract-level variables.
Results
Statistically significant differences in the proportion of IBC out of all breast cancers by race were evident. In a hierarchical model, adjusting for age, estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth receptor 2, registry and census-tract level education, Arab-Americans (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.2,1.9), Hispanics (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1,1.3), Non-Hispanic Blacks (OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.2, 1.4), and American Indians/Alaskans (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.1, 3.4) had increased odds of IBC, while Asians (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.6, 0.7) had decreased odds of IBC as compared to Non-Hispanic Whites.
Conclusions
IBC may be more common among certain minority groups, including Arab American women. Understanding the descriptive epidemiology of IBC by race may generate hypotheses about risk factors for this aggressive disease. Future research should focus on etiologic factors that may explain these differences.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-3
PMCID: PMC3568481  PMID: 23420611
Inflammatory breast cancer; Arab; Race; Hierarchical logistic regression
15.  A case-control study of reproductive factors and renal cell carcinoma among black and white women in the United States 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2011;22(11):1537-1544.
Objective
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is higher among blacks than whites in the United States, and has been associated with the frequency and timing of childbirth among women in some epidemiologic studies. We investigated whether reproductive factors are associated with RCC, overall and by race, within a population-based case-control study.
Methods
Between 2002 and 2007, 497 female cases of incident RCC (136 black, 361 white) and 546 female controls (273 black, 273 white) within the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas were enrolled. Information on reproductive history and other factors was collected through in-person interviews. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression.
Results
Reduced RCC risk was observed among women aged ≥30 years at first live birth, relative to an age of <20 years (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9). This association was present among both white (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.9) and, though not statistically significant, black women (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.2–1.8). In analyses restricted to clear cell adenocarcinoma, the most common RCC histologic subtype, the association was particularly strong (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.8). We did not observe clear evidence of association with RCC for other reproductive factors.
Conclusions
Our findings further support an association between late maternal age at first birth and reduced RCC risk, and suggest that the association may be particularly strong for clear cell adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.1007/s10552-011-9830-8
PMCID: PMC3460515  PMID: 21866373
Renal cell carcinoma; reproductive factors; case-control studies; hysterectomy; parity
16.  A Case-Control Study of Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43149.
Background
Low mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is a common feature of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and may influence tumor development. Results from a recent case-control study suggest that low mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood may be a marker for increased RCC risk. In an attempt to replicate that finding, we measured mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood DNA from a U.S. population-based case-control study of RCC.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Relative mtDNA copy number was measured in triplicate by a quantitative real-time PCR assay using DNA extracted from peripheral whole blood. Cases (n = 603) had significantly lower mtDNA copy number than controls (n = 603; medians 0.85, 0.91 respectively; P = 0.0001). In multiple logistic regression analyses, the lowest quartile of mtDNA copy number was associated with a 60% increase in RCC risk relative to the highest quartile (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2; Ptrend = 0.009). This association remained in analyses restricted to cases treated by surgery alone (OR Q1 = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1) and to localized tumors (2.0, 1.3–2.8).
Conclusions/Significance
Our findings from this investigation, to our knowledge the largest of its kind, offer important confirmatory evidence that low mtDNA copy number is associated with increased RCC risk. Additional research is needed to assess whether the association is replicable in prospective studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043149
PMCID: PMC3427307  PMID: 22937019
17.  A case–control study of occupation/industry and renal cell carcinoma risk 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:344.
Background
The role of occupation in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is unclear. Here, we investigated associations between employment in specific occupations and industries and RCC, and its most common histologic subtype, clear cell RCC (ccRCC).
Methods
Between 2002 and 2007, a population-based case–control study of Caucasians and African Americans (1,217 cases; 1,235 controls) was conducted within the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas to investigate risk factors for RCC. As part of this study, occupational histories were ascertained through in-person interviews. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating occupation and industry to RCC risk using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models.
Results
Employment in the agricultural crop production industry for five years or more was associated with RCC (OR = 3.3 [95% CI = 1.0-11.5]) and ccRCC in particular (OR = 6.3 [95% CI = 1.7-23.3], P for trend with duration of employment = 0.0050). Similarly, RCC risk was elevated for employment of five years or longer in non-managerial agricultural and related occupations (ORRCC = 2.1 [95% CI = 1.0-4.5]; ORccRCC = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4-6.8]). Employment in the dry-cleaning industry was also associated with elevated risk (ORRCC = 2.0 [95% CI = 0.9-4.4], P for trend = 0.093; ORccRCC = 3.0 [95% CI = 1.2-7.4], P for trend = 0.031). Suggestive elevated associations were observed for police/public safety workers, health care workers and technicians, and employment in the electronics, auto repair, and cleaning/janitorial services industries; protective associations were suggested for many white-collar jobs including computer science and administrative occupations as well employment in the business, legislative, and education industries.
Conclusions
Our findings provide support for an elevated risk of RCC in the agricultural and dry-cleaning industries and suggest that these associations may be stronger for the ccRCC subtype. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-344
PMCID: PMC3502582  PMID: 22873580
Kidney cancer; Renal cancer; Clear cell RCC; Occupation; Industry; Race
18.  Racial Differences in the Use of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer in a Large Urban Integrated Health System 
Background. Racial differences in breast cancer survival may be in part due to variation in patterns of care. To better understand factors influencing survival disparities, we evaluated patterns of receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy among 2,234 women with invasive, nonmetastatic breast cancer treated at the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) from 1996 through 2005. Methods. Sociodemographic and clinical information were obtained from linked datasets from the HFHS, Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance Systems, and U.S. Census. Comorbidity was measured using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and economic deprivation was categorized using a neighborhood deprivation index. Results. African American (AA) women were more likely than whites to have advanced tumors with more aggressive clinical features, to have more comorbidity and to be socioeconomically deprived. While in the unadjusted model, AAs were more likely to receive chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.46) and to have a delay in receipt of chemotherapy beyond 60 days (OR 1.68, 95% CI, 1.26–1.48), after multivariable adjustment there were no racial differences in receipt (odds ratio (OR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.43), or timing of chemotherapy (OR 1.18, 95 CI, 0.8–1.74). Conclusions. Societal factors and not race appear to have an impact on treatment delay among African American women with early breast cancer.
doi:10.1155/2012/453985
PMCID: PMC3363414  PMID: 22690339
19.  Timing of androgen deprivation therapy use and fracture risk among elderly men with prostate cancer in the United States 
Purpose
Fractures are a recognized consequence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, less is known about the incidence of fracture in relation to the timing of ADT use or the impact of fracture on mortality in men with prostate cancer.
Methods
Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) using time-dependent Cox regression for fracture incidence related to the recency of exposure and dose among prostate cancer patients on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, as well as mortality associated with fractures.
Results
In our cohort of 80 844 patients, ADT was associated with an increased rate of fracture in both non-metastatic patients (aHR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–1.39) and metastatic patients (aHR = 1.51; 95%CI = 1.36–1.67). Fracture rates increased with increasing cumulative GnRH dose but decreased with increasing number of months since last use in each dose category. The mortality rate doubled for men experiencing a fracture after their diagnosis compared with that for men who did not experience a fracture (aHR = 2.05; 95%CI = 1.98–2.12).
Conclusions
ADT in elderly men with prostate cancer increased the incidence of fractures, and the effect appears to diminish with increasing time since the last dose of a GnRH agonist. Experiencing a fracture after the diagnosis of prostate cancer was associated with decreased survival.
doi:10.1002/pds.2258
PMCID: PMC3313550  PMID: 22114014
epidemiology; prostate cancer; GnRH agonist; orchiectomy; SEER–Medicare; mortality; skeletal-related events
20.  Healthcare access and mammography screening in Michigan: a multilevel cross-sectional study 
Background
Breast cancer screening rates have increased over time in the United States. However actual screening rates appear to be lower among black women compared with white women.
Purpose
To assess determinants of breast cancer screening among women in Michigan USA, focusing on individual and neighborhood socio-economic status and healthcare access.
Methods
Data from 1163 women ages 50-74 years who participated in the 2008 Michigan Special Cancer Behavioral Risk Factor Survey were analyzed. County-level SES and healthcare access were obtained from the Area Resource File. Multilevel logistic regression models were fit using SAS Proc Glimmix to account for clustering of individual observations by county. Separate models were fit for each of the two outcomes of interest; mammography screening and clinical breast examination. For each outcome, two sequential models were fit; a model including individual level covariates and a model including county level covariates.
Results
After adjusting for misclassification bias, overall cancer screening rates were lower than reported by survey respondents; black women had lower mammography screening rates but higher clinical breast examination rates than white women. However, after adjusting for other individual level variables, race was not a significant predictor of screening. Having health insurance or a usual healthcare provider were the most important predictors of cancer screening.
Discussion
Access to healthcare is important to ensuring appropriate cancer screening among women in Michigan.
doi:10.1186/1475-9276-11-16
PMCID: PMC3414751  PMID: 22436125
Mammography screening; Access to healthcare, Neighborhood effects; Socio-economic status
21.  Genome-wide association study of renal cell carcinoma identifies two susceptibility loci on 2p21 and 11q13.3 
Purdue, Mark P. | Johansson, Mattias | Zelenika, Diana | Toro, Jorge R. | Scelo, Ghislaine | Moore, Lee E. | Prokhortchouk, Egor | Wu, Xifeng | Kiemeney, Lambertus A | Gaborieau, Valerie | Jacobs, Kevin B | Chow, Wong-Ho | Zaridze, David | Matveev, Vsevolod | Lubinski, Jan | Trubicka, Joanna | Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia | Lissowska, Jolanta | Rudnai, Péter | Fabianova, Eleonora | Bucur, Alexandru | Bencko, Vladimir | Foretova, Lenka | Janout, Vladimir | Boffetta, Paolo | Colt, Joanne S. | Davis, Faith G. | Schwartz, Kendra L. | Banks, Rosamonde E | Selby, Peter J | Harnden, Patricia | Berg, Christine D. | Hsing, Ann W. | Grubb, Robert L. | Boeing, Heiner | Vineis, Paolo | Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise | Palli, Domenico | Tumino, Rosario | Krogh, Vittorio | Panico, Salvatore | Duell, Eric J. | Ramón Quirós, José | Sanchez, Maria-José | Navarro, Carmen | Ardanaz, Eva | Dorronsoro, Miren | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Allen, Naomi E | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas | Peeters, Petra HM | Trichopoulos, Dimitrios | Linseisen, Jakob | Ljungberg, Börje | Overvad, Kim | Tjønneland, Anne | Romieu, Isabelle | Riboli, Elio | Mukeria, Anush | Shangina, Oxana | Stevens, Victoria L | Thun, Michael J | Diver, W. Ryan | Gapstur, Susan M | Pharoah, Paul D | Easton, Douglas F | Albanes, Demetrius | Weinstein, Stephanie J. | Virtamo, Jarmo | Vatten, Lars | Hveem, Kristian | Njølstad, Inger | Tell, Grethe | Stoltenberg, Camilla | Kumar, Rajiv | Koppova, Kvetoslava | Cussenot, Olivier | Benhamou, Simone | Oosterwijk, Egbert | Vermeulen, Sita H. | Aben, Katja K.H. | van der Marel, Saskia L. | Ye, Yuanqing | Wood, Christopher G. | Pu, Xia | Mazur, Alexander M | Bulygina, Eugenia S | Chekanov, Nikolai N | Foglio, Mario | Lechner, Doris | Gut, Ivo | Heath, Simon | Blanche, Hélène | Hutchinson, Amy | Thomas, Gilles | Wang, Zhaoming | Yeager, Meredith | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | Skryabin, Konstantin G | McKay, James D | Rothman, Nathaniel | Chanock, Stephen J. | Lathrop, Mark | Brennan, Paul
Nature genetics  2010;43(1):60-65.
We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 3,772 cases and 8,505 controls of European background from 11 studies, and followed up 6 SNPs in three replication studies of 2,198 cases and 4,918 controls. Two loci on the regions of 2p21 and 11q13.3 were associated with RCC susceptibility below genome-wide significance. Two correlated variants (r2 = 0.99 in controls), rs11894252 (P = 1.8×10−8) and rs7579899 (P = 2.3×10−9), map to EPAS1 on 2p21, which encodes hypoxia-inducible- factor-2 alpha, a transcription factor previously implicated in RCC. The second locus, rs7105934, at 11q13, contains no characterized genes (P = 7.8×10−14). In addition, we observed a promising association on 12q24.31 for rs4765623 which maps to the scavenger receptor class B, member 1 (SCARB1) gene (P = 2.6×10−8). Our study reports novel genomic regions associated with RCC risk that may lead to new etiological insights.
doi:10.1038/ng.723
PMCID: PMC3049257  PMID: 21131975
22.  Contemporary clinical epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma: insight from a population-based case-control study 
The Journal of urology  2010;184(6):2254-2258.
Purpose
In order to clarify the contemporary clinical epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we present trends in the clinical presentation and management of patients enrolled in a population-based case-control study.
Materials and Methods
The National Cancer Institute conducted a population-based case–control study in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago from 2002 through 2007. For 1,136 patients with RCC who consented to both an epidemiological interview and medical record review, we ascertained detailed information regarding social and medical history, methods of RCC detection and diagnosis, cancer severity, and treatment(s) received. From these data, we assessed the demographic and cancer-specific characteristics of study cases, as well as trends in their clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.
Results
Most patients with RCC had localized or regional tumors, including 52% with tumor size ≤ 4 cm. The proportion of asymptomatic cases increased from 35% in 2002 to 50% in 2007 (p< 0.001). Hypertension (58%) and diabetes (17%) were common among cases, and 24% percent of patients had at least 2 significant comorbid conditions at the time of RCC diagnosis. While the use of laparoscopic surgery increased over time (p < 0.001), fewer than 1 in 5 patients received nephron-sparing surgery.
Conclusions
The proportion of patients presenting with small, asymptomatic renal cell carcinomas continues to increase. A majority of these cases are still treated with radical nephrectomy, although increasingly via a laparoscopic approach. Because most patients with small RCCs have one or more renal function-relevant comorbidities, there is an imperative to increase utilization of nephron-sparing surgery.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2010.08.018
PMCID: PMC3059076  PMID: 20952033
Kidney cancer; epidemiology; comorbidity; nephron-sparing surgery
23.  HYPERTENSION AND RISK OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA AMONG WHITE AND BLACK AMERICANS 
Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)  2011;22(6):797-804.
BACKGROUND
Renal cell carcinoma and hypertension (a well-established renal cancer risk factor) are both more frequent among blacks than whites in the U.S. The association between hypertension and renal cell carcinoma has not been examined in black Americans. We investigated the hypertension–renal cancer association by race, and we assessed the role of hypertension in the racial disparity of renal cancer incidence.
METHODS
Participants were enrolled in a population-based case-control study in Detroit and Chicago during 2002–2007 (number of cases: 843 whites, 358 blacks; number of controls: 707 whites, 519 blacks). Participants reported their history of hypertension and antihypertensive drug use. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for demographic characteristics, smoking, body mass index, and family history of cancer.
RESULTS
Hypertension doubled renal cancer risk (OR=2.0 [CI=1.7–2.5]) overall. For whites the OR was 1.9 (CI=1.5–2.4), while for blacks it was 2.8 (2.1–3.8) (p for interaction=0.11). ORs increased with time after hypertension diagnosis (p for trend <0.001), reaching 4.1 (CI=2.3–7.4) for blacks and 2.6 (CI=1.7–4.1) for whites after 25 years. ORs for poorly controlled hypertension were 4.5 (CI=2.3–8.8) for blacks and 2.1 (CI=1.2–3.8) for whites. If these estimates correctly represent causal effects and if, hypothetically, hypertension could be prevented entirely among persons aged 50–79 years, the black/white disparity in renal cancer could be reversed among women and reduced by two-thirds among men.
CONCLUSIONS
Hypertension is a risk factor for renal cancer among both blacks and whites, and might explain a substantial portion of the racial disparity in renal cancer incidence. Preventing and controlling hypertension might reduce renal cancer incidence, adding to the known benefits of blood pressure control for heart disease and stroke reduction, particularly among blacks.
doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182300720
PMCID: PMC3188386  PMID: 21881515
24.  Interplay of Race, Socioeconomic Status and Treatment on Survival of Prostate Cancer Patients 
Urology  2009;74(6):1296-1302.
Objectives
We compared overall and prostate cancer-specific survival, using Detroit SEER registry data, among 8,679 Detroit-area black and white men with localized or regional stage prostate cancer diagnosed 1988-1992 to determine if racial disparities in survival remained after adjusting for treatment type and socioeconomic status (SES).
Methods
Cases were geocoded to census block-group and SES data obtained from the 1990 U.S. Census. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio of death from any cause. Median follow-up was 16.5 years.
Results
Among 7770 localized stage cases (22% black, 78% white), and 909 regional cases (24% black, 76% white), black men were more likely to receive non-surgical treatment (p <0.001), and to be of low SES (p<0.0001). Survival analyses were stratified by stage; for both stages, black men had poorer survival than white men in the unadjusted model. Adjustment for age and tumor grade had little effect on survival differences, while adjustment for SES and treatment erased the survival differences.
Conclusions
Low SES and non-surgical treatment were associated with higher risk of death among men with prostate cancer, which explains much of the survival disadvantage for black men with prostate cancer.
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2009.02.058
PMCID: PMC2791874  PMID: 19962532
Prostate carcinoma; treatment; race; survival; socioeconomic status
25.  Apolipoprotein E/C1 Locus Variants Modify Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk 
Cancer research  2009;69(20):8001-8008.
Summary
Lipid peroxidation is considered a unifying mechanistic pathway through which known risk factors induce renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We hypothesized that genes selected apriori for their role in lipid peroxidation would modify cancer risk. We genotyped 635 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thirty-eight candidate genes in 777 Caucasian RCC cases and 1035 controls enrolled in a large European case-control study. Top candidate SNPs were confirmed among 718 Caucasian cases and 615 controls in a second study in the United States. Two of the three SNPs (rs8106822 and rs405509) that replicated in the US study were within a regulatory region of the APOE promoter. The odds ratio (OR) for rs8106822 A>G variant was 1.22AG and 1.41GG (p-trend=0.01) in the European study, 1.05AG and 1.51GG (p-trend=0.03) in the US study, and 1.15AG and 1.44GG (p-trend=0.001) among 1485 cases and 1639 controls combined. The rs405509 G>T variant was associated with risk in the European (OR=0.87TG; OR=0.71TT; p-trend=0.02), the US (OR=0.68TG; OR=0.71TT; p-trend=0.02), and both studies combined (ORTG=0.79; ORTT= 0.71; p-trend=0.001), as was the G-G haplotype (r2=0.64; p=4.7 × 10-4). This association is biologically plausible as SNP rs405509 was shown to modify protein binding and transcriptional activity of the APOE gene in vitro and is in LD with key known variants defining the e2, e3, e4 alleles that modify risk of atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease risk, and progression to AIDS. In two large case-control studies, our findings further define a functional region of interest at the APOE locus that increases RCC susceptibility.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1734
PMCID: PMC2793179  PMID: 19808960

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