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1.  Psychoneuroimmunology: Potential Relevance to Chronic Orofacial Pain 
Anesthesia Progress  1990;37(2-3):93-98.
Studies undertaken over the past ten years have demonstrated that stress and depression can induce immune alterations, including decreased numbers of immunocompetent cells and impaired lymphocyte and natural killer cell activity. Factors such as age and severity of symptomatology influence these effects. The substantial stress and depression associated with chronic pain syndromes and the evidence for opioid involvement in immunomodulation suggest that immune system changes may occur in some patients with chronic facial pain.
PMCID: PMC2190324  PMID: 2085205
2.  Dental Care and Oral Disease in Alcohol Dependent Persons 
Dental/oral health of alcoholics and substance abusers is often neglected. It is not clear that alcohol dependence has effects on oral health beyond those expected in non-alcoholic persons of similar socioeconomic status (SES). Study objectives were to examine the personal dental care habits, ability to access professional dental care and the types of services received, and examine their effect on the oral health of alcoholics and substance abusers. Forty DSM-III-R diagnosed alcoholics and a comparison group of 25 non-alcoholic subjects matched for race, age, sex and SES were recruited. Subjects were medically healthy. Each subject received a comprehensive oral/dental examination and an interview was conducted to record personal dental hygiene habits, ability to access professional dental care and types of dental services provided.
Results
No statistical differences were found between the oral care habits of the groups. Forty-four percent of all subjects had access to charity professional dental care. Tooth extraction was the main dental service they received. Seventy-five percent of subjects brushed their teeth once or more per day. In the non-alcoholic group, brushing frequency was inversely associated with plaque levels (p < 0.05); in the alcoholic group brushing frequency showed no statistical effect on plaque levels. Access to professional dental care was inversely associated with periodontitis in the alcoholic group (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
Alcohol dependence may increase plaque levels above that seen in race, sex, age and SES-matched controls, but professional dental care can limit the subsequent development of periodontal disease in these people.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2008.11.009
PMCID: PMC2760312  PMID: 19150205
Dental care; Alcohol dependence; Drug abuse; Periodontal diseases
3.  Immune Function in Healthy Inner-City Children 
The importance of investigating immunity in healthy children has been underscored in the last few years by studies of the immune pathology of childhood illnesses, including human immunodeficiency virus. This study reports both ennumerative and functional immune measures in healthy inner city children. A total of 152 of 207 children studied were completely heathy at the time of venipuncture and were included in this study. Laboratory immune batteries were completed (or begun) the same day as venipuncture. Relationships between age, gender, ethnicity, and immunity were then analyzed. We found that gender predicted both the absolute number and the percentage of T cells and helper cells and the percentage of natural killer cells. Total leukocyte counts and percentages of lymphocytes and granulocytes were related to ethnicity, as was the response to mitogen stimulation (concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen) and phagocytic ability. In conclusion, age, gender, and ethnicity factors were found to contribute to differences in various immune measures in children and require further investigation.
doi:10.1128/CDLI.8.4.740-746.2001
PMCID: PMC96136  PMID: 11427420
4.  Immune Function in Healthy Adolescents 
In the present study, we examine immunological functioning in normal healthy African-American and Latino/Latina adolescents recruited from an inner-city high school and an inner-city clinic. A battery of tests was performed with enumerative and functional measures which encompassed both innate and adaptive immunity. We found immune differences related to age, gender, and race on both the enumerative and the functional immune measures. This data expands the available body of information concerning normal immunity in healthy adolescents.
PMCID: PMC121401  PMID: 9455890

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