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1.  Mode of Communication, Perceived Level of Understanding, and Perceived Quality of Life in Youth Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing 
Given the important role of parent–youth communication in adolescent well-being and quality of life, we sought to examine the relationship between specific communication variables and youth perceived quality of life in general and as a deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) individual. A convenience sample of 230 youth (mean age = 14.1, standard deviation = 2.2; 24% used sign only, 40% speech only, and 36% sign + speech) was surveyed on communication-related issues, generic and DHH-specific quality of life, and depression symptoms. Higher youth perception of their ability to understand parents’ communication was significantly correlated with perceived quality of life as well as lower reported depressive symptoms and lower perceived stigma. Youth who use speech as their single mode of communication were more likely to report greater stigma associated with being DHH than youth who used both speech and sign. These findings demonstrate the importance of youths’ perceptions of communication with their parents on generic and DHH-specific youth quality of life.
PMCID: PMC3202327  PMID: 21536686
2.  How I Do It: Endoscopic-Microscopic Anterior Skull Base Reconstruction 
Skull Base  2007;17(1):53-58.
Reconstruction of the anterior skull base must be secure and watertight. Failure to achieve this places the patient at risk of the development of cerebral sepsis. We have developed the technique of endonasal duraplasty and have achieved a 90% long-term success rate. In this article we described the key elements of our technique starting with radiographic and fluorescein localization of a skull base defect. The main steps in reconstruction and materials used are detailed, together with modifications of our technique for certain difficult situations and tips for success. Attention is drawn to potential pitfalls that have been identified over 25 years of clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC1852581  PMID: 17603644
CSF fistula; cranial base repair; duraplasty; fess
3.  Late Manifestations of Traumatic Lesions of the Anterior Skull Base 
Skull base surgery  1997;7(2):77-83.
The authors review their experience in detecting occult traumatic dural lesions. In a retrospective study covering the period from January 1, 1984 to December 31, 1996, 23 patients were evaluated for occult traumatic dural lesions. Clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, and management of the dural lesions were analyzed.
The clinical presentations of the previously undetected dural lesions of the anterior skull base were meningitis in eight cases, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea in eight cases, both meningitis and CSF rhinorrhea in five cases, and a pulsating swelling in the region of the right upper eyelid in one case. In another case a fracture of the posterior frontal wall was detected incidentally on the preoperative CT scan performed prior to surgery for chronic sinusitis. One patient had a CSF fistula of the lateral skull base in addition to the frontobasal fistula. The interval between trauma and diagnosis varied from 1 to 48 years. Dural lesions were localized by high-resolution CT, fluorescein nasal endoscopy, CT cisternography, and MRI. Intraoperative exposure of the dural lesions and duraplasty were possible in all cases. During the first attempt successful repair of the dural lesions was accomplished in 22 (95.7%) of the 23 patiants. Two interventions were necessary to close a CSF leak of the cribriform plate.
Modern clinical and radiologic diagnostic methods should be employed to search for an occult dural lesion in patients with recurrent meningitis, meningitis caused by upper airway pathogens, or CSF rhinorrhea. The patient will remain at risk of potentially fatal meningitis until the lesion is appropriately repaired by duraplasty.
PMCID: PMC1656597  PMID: 17170993
4.  Empirically derived injury prevention rules. 
This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced.
PMCID: PMC1297870  PMID: 8307829

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