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1.  Hepatoprotective activity of a new polyherbal formulation against paracetamol and D-galactosamine induced hepatic toxicity 
The present study was envisaged to evaluate the protective effect of polyherbal formulation, DRDC/AY/8060, developed by Dabur India Ltd., against paracetamol and D-galactosamine induced hepatic toxicities in Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out in two different experiments of 10 and 14 days against paracetamol and D-galactosamine, respectively. Animals were divided into different treatment groups (n = 6). The control group received normal saline, a toxicant group in two experiments received paracetamol 750 mg/kg p.o. every 72 h for 10 days and D-galactosamine 400 mg/kg i.p. single dose. The test formulation was used at the two dose levels of 120 and 240 mg/kg/day. Treatment groups treated with test formulations were also administered D-galactosamine as given in toxicant group. At the end of the dosing schedule, blood was withdrawn from the retrobulbar plexus of the animals for serum estimation of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transferase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate trasnferase (SGPT), albumin, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Following the withdrawal of blood animals was sacrificed, and liver tissue was excised for estimation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde), tissue glutathione (GSH) and histopathological studies.
It was evident from the biochemical estimation that both paracetamol and galactosamine caused hepatotoxicity in the toxicant groups. However, treatment with DRDC/AY/8060 significantly (P < 0.001, vs. toxicant) reduced the levels of SGOT, SGPT, serum bilirubin, and ALP, as well as decreased lipid peroxidation. In addition, treatment with test formulation also significantly (P < 0.001, vs. toxicant) elevated serum albumin and GSH levels compared to toxicant groups.
On the basis of these studies and comparative evaluation it can be concluded that the formulation DRDC/AY/8060 showed hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol and D-galactosamine at 120 mg/kg and 240 mg/kg.
PMCID: PMC4678983  PMID: 26681875
Hepatoprotective; liver disease; polyherbal formulation
2.  Hepatoprotective potential of kumaryasava and its concentrate against CCl4-induced hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats 
Kumaryasava (KS) is a marketed Ayurvedic formulation containing Aloe vera as the main ingredient. It has been used widely for the treatment of liver disorders; however, there is a lack of modern scientific data on hepatoprotection. The recommended dose of KS is high and up to 60 mL/day. The present study describes the preparation of new KS concentrate and evaluation of comparative hepatoprotective activity of KS and prepared KS concentrate at one-third of KS dose against CCl4-induced hepatic toxicity.
Materials and Methods:
Animals were divided into different groups (n = 6). The first group received normal saline (control) 1.0 mL/Kg/day p.o. for 10 days. The second group (toxicant) was given normal saline 1.0 mL/Kg/day p.o. for 10 days with CCl4 in olive oil (1:1 v/v) at 1.0 mL/Kg/day p.o. Third, fourth, and fifth groups received KS, KS concentrate and a marketed formulation as standard) at doses of 5.0 mL/Kg/day p.o., 1.6 mL/Kg/day p.o., and 100 mL/Kg/day p.o. (tablet suspended in water using 0.1% carboxymethyl cellulose) respectively for 10 days along with CCl4 as given to the toxicant group. On the 11th day, blood was withdrawn from retro-orbital plexus and serum was separated for biochemical estimation of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and albumin levels. Later, animals were sacrificed under high dose of anesthesia to remove liver tissue, which were removed and washed with ice cold saline for the estimation of lipid peroxidation. Liver tissue from each group was also fixed in 10% formalin for histopathological analysis.
Results demonstrated that both KS and KS concentrate showed the protection against CCl4-induced hepatic toxicity. This was evident from the reduction in serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP levels, and elevation in serum albumin levels observed post treatment of CCl4 treated rats with KS and KS concentrate, which were supported by histopathological data.
KS concentrate can be a useful hepatoprotective formulation which may help in reducing the high dose of KS to approximately one-third of the recommended dose.
PMCID: PMC4678989  PMID: 26681887
Carbon tetrachloride; hepatoprotective; kumaryasava
3.  Evaluation of Ratnaprash for its effect on strength, stamina and fatigue using swim endurance test and biochemical estimation in swiss albino mice 
Ancient Science of Life  2015;35(1):26-31.
Traditional medicines have been considered as important resources for postponing fatigue, accelerating elimination of fatigue related metabolites and improving physical ability. Rasāyanās or rejuvenative therapies are mentioned as one of the eight clinical specialties in Ayurveda for attaining longevity, healthy life and regulation of bodily balance. Eventhough more detailed studies are needed to confirm the claims of benefits in the light of evidence based research, Ratnaprash, a herbo-mineral rasāyana formulation, is proposed here to be an antifatigue supplement that is good in promoting strength and stamina.
Materials and Methods:
In the present study, anti fatigue, strength and stamina enhancing properties of Ratnaprash were examined based on swim endurance capacity and the change in biochemical parameters in Swiss Albino mice. Treatment groups were orally administered Ratnaprash at various test doses (500, 1000, 2000 mg/Kg per day), while the control group received distilled water at similar dose volumes. Effect of therapy was evaluated after 28 days of treatment.
At the end of study period, the swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the treated groups than in the control group. Plasma lactate levels of treated groups were lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05) while tissue ATP levels were higher. These effects were dose dependent and the strongest effect was seen in groups treated at 1000 mg/Kg.
Ratnaprash enhanced the forced swimming capacity of mice and exhibited elevated anti-fatigue activity, reduced blood lactate levels and increased tissue ATP levels in preclinical models in comparison to vehicle control, exhibiting possible role in increasing strength and stamina and contributing anti-fatigue activity.
PMCID: PMC4623629  PMID: 26600664
Ratnaprash; traditional medicine; antifatigue activity; strength; stamina
4.  Active surveillance for tuberculosis in Wales: 1996–2003 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2006;91(11):900-904.
To estimate the incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) and study the use of chemoprophylaxis for latent TB in children in Wales, and to identify potential areas for improving prevention and management.
Active surveillance for TB in children aged 0–15 years from July 1996 to December 2003, using the Welsh Paediatric Surveillance Scheme.
A total of 232 children, 102 with active TB (2.3 per 100 000) and 130 with latent TB (2.9 per 100 000), were identified. Nearly half (45%) belonged to ethnic minorities (19% were of black African origin), a much higher proportion than the base population. Pulmonary disease was the most common presentation (47%), including six (9%) children who were sputum smear positive. There were 10 cases of disseminated TB, nearly all in white children under 10 years of age. Less than two thirds of eligible children (27/46, 59%) were known to have received BCG immunisation. The source of infection was an adult household contact in most cases, but was not known in 44 cases, particularly among teenagers. Four community outbreaks occurred during the surveillance period, including three in high schools.
TB incidence in children in Wales remains low, but the epidemiology is changing with an increasing proportion of cases in black African children. The high proportion of patients with disseminated TB is of particular concern. TB in teenagers was often associated with school outbreaks. Many eligible children do not receive BCG immunisation, indicating further scope for prevention.
PMCID: PMC2082961  PMID: 16737997
chemoprophylaxis; disease management; health surveillance; tuberculosis; Wales
5.  Optimizing the HIV/AIDS informed consent process in India 
BMC Medicine  2004;2:28.
While the basic ethical issues regarding consent may be universal to all countries, the consent procedures required by international review boards which include detailed scientific and legal information, may not be optimal when administered within certain populations. The time and the technicalities of the process itself intimidate individuals in societies where literacy and awareness about medical and legal rights is low.
In this study, we examined pregnant women's understanding of group education and counseling (GEC) about HIV/AIDS provided within an antenatal clinic in Maharashtra, India. We then enhanced the GEC process with the use of culturally appropriate visual aids and assessed the subsequent changes in women's understanding of informed consent issues.
We found the use of visual aids during group counseling sessions increased women's overall understanding of key issues regarding informed consent from 38% to 72%. Moreover, if these same visuals were reinforced during individual counseling, improvements in women's overall comprehension rose to 96%.
This study demonstrates that complex constructs such as informed consent can be conveyed in populations with little education and within busy government hospital settings, and that the standard model may not be sufficient to ensure true informed consent.
PMCID: PMC509426  PMID: 15287983

Results 1-5 (5)