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1.  Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique 
Asian Spine Journal  2016;10(4):767-770.
The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis.
doi:10.4184/asj.2016.10.4.767
PMCID: PMC4995263  PMID: 27559460
Cervical; Foraminotomy; Minimal invasive surgery; Instrumentation
2.  A Case of Anomalous Origin and Course of Vertebral Artery in a Patient with Klippel Feil Syndrome 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2016;17(4):554-557.
Patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) have an increased incidence of vascular anomalies as well as vertebral artery (VA) anomalies. In this article, we presented imaging findings of a 15-year-old female patient with KFS with a rare association of extraforaminal cranially ascending right VA that originated from the ipsilateral carotid bulb. Trifurcation of the carotid bulb with VA is a very unusual variation and to the best of our knowledge, right-sided one has not been reported in the literature.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2016.17.4.554
PMCID: PMC4936178  PMID: 27390547
Carotid bulb; Vertebral artery; Trifurcation; Klippel-Feil syndrome
3.  Effect of a hypercholesterolemia as a starting factor on spinal degeneration in rabbits and role of Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) 
Background:
To identify the role of the hypercholesterolemia as a starting factor in discovertebral degeneration that ultimately causes lower back pain, and investigate the role of Vitamin E in this process.
Methods:
The rabbits (n = 32) were divided into two broad experimental groups: A control group, and a hypercholesterolemia group, namely cholesterol, and cholesterol plus Vitamin E groups and they were fed sequentially for 4 or 8 weeks. Serum cholesterol and Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) levels were determined; vascular tissue was prepared for histopathological analyses and vertebra was decalcified for the study.
Results:
Cholesterol diet group resulted approximately 44-fold of increase plasma cholesterol levels over the 4-week control values. Additional supplementation with Vitamin E group induced a plasma cholesterol level increase of only 37-fold as compared to the control group. In the cholesterol groups, light microscope examination revealed atherosclerotic plaque in major arteries. However, in the cholesterol plus Vitamin E treatment groups, no lipid accumulation or foam cell formation was visible in the abdominal aorta and vertebral segmental artery. In histopathological examination, we found degenerative changes in the discovertebral unit in cholesterol treated groups.
Conclusion:
Hypercholesterolemia causes fat accumulation in the disc endplate and vertebral body that causes blood supply disturbances which might be a starting factor of discovertebral degeneration. This event was not reversed by the elimination of cholesterol from the diet. Vitamin E supplementation was not effective in reducing fat accumulation in vertebral bone marrow. As a result, we conclude that degeneration of the discovertebral unit is not related to atherosclerotic changes in the major blood vessels.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.180092
PMCID: PMC4838922  PMID: 27127701
Atherosclerosis; disc degeneration; hypercholesterolemia; rabbit spine; spine degenerative disease; Vitamin E
4.  Enlargement of Neural Foramina and Dynamic Stabilization in Spondylolisthesis without Restoring the Alignment: Technical Note 
Korean Journal of Spine  2016;13(1):37-39.
It is well known that the cause of radiculopathy is the compression of the nerve root within the foramina which is narrowed secondary to sliding of the corpus and reduced disc height. In some patients, unroofing the foramen does not resolve this problem. We described a new decompression technique using pedicle removal and transpedicular dynamic instrumentation to stabilization the spine. We performed this operation in 2 patients and achieved very good results.
doi:10.14245/kjs.2016.13.1.37
PMCID: PMC4844660  PMID: 27123030
Spondylolisthesis; Dynamic stabilization; Lumbar pedicle; Neural foraminal stenosis
5.  A rare cause of root-compression: Subaxial cervical synovial cyst in association with congenital fusion 
Highlights
•Cervical synovial cysts are rare and the symptoms can mislead quickly, for differential diagnostics MR-imaging is important.•Biomechanical alterations of the spine play a significant role in the development of synovial cyst.•Surgical treatment should be considered in cervical synovial cysts with neurologic deficit or with cord compression or when the conservative treatment is ineffective.
Introduction
Synovial cyst in the cervical spine is a very rare pathology that develops from the facet joint. When a synovial cyst emerges into the surrounding space, it can compress the nervous tissue and cause neurological symptoms. In the cervical area there is additionally the risk of spinal cord compression comparing to the more common presentation of synovial cysts in the lumbar spine.
Presentation of case
Here, a cervical synovial cysts from the left facet joint grew into the spinal canal and compressed the C8 nerve root which led to root compressing symptoms. Interestingly we found this synovial cyst with congenital fusion. We identified only nine similar cases in the literature. The cyst was removed surgically and the patient discharged without complications.
Discussion
Numerous theories have been established to explain the pathogenesis of synovial cyst. Biomechanical alterations of the spine play a significant role in the development of synovial cyst. However, the etiology is still unclear.
Conclusion
Surgical treatment should be considered in cervical synovial cysts with neurologic deficit or with cord compression or when the conservative treatment is ineffective.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.09.015
PMCID: PMC4643443  PMID: 26433927
Cervical synovial cyst
6.  Simple facet joint repair with dynamic pedicular system: Technical note and case series 
Purpose:
Facet joints are important anatomical structures for the stability of spine. Surgical or degenerative damage to a facet joint may lead to spinal instability and causes clinical problems. This article explains the importance of facet joints, reviews facet replacement systems, and describes a simple and effective method for facet replacement after surgical removal of facet joints.
Materials and Methods:
Ten patients were operated with the diagnosis of unilateral nerve root compression secondary to facet degeneration. The hypertrophic facet joints were removed with microsurgical techniques and the roots were decompressed. Then, a unilateral artificial facet joint was created using two hinged screws and a dynamic rod.
Results:
The clinical outcome of all the patients was determined good or excellent at second and last follow-up (mean 13.3 months) controls using visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. Radiological evaluations also demonstrated no implant-related complications.
Conclusions:
The authors suggest that, if removal of a facet joint is necessary to decompress the nerve roots, the joint can be replaced by a construct composed of two hinged screws connected by a dynamic rod. This simple system mimics the function of a normal facet joint and is an effective technique for unilateral facet joint replacement.
doi:10.4103/0974-8237.156049
PMCID: PMC4426524  PMID: 25972711
Dynamic rod; hinged screw; lumbar facet joint replacement; unilateral dynamic stabilization
8.  Dynamic Stabilisation in the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease with Modic Changes 
Advances in Orthopedics  2013;2013:806267.
Objective. Posterior dynamic stabilization is an effective alternative to fusion in the treatment of chronic instability and degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the lumbar spine. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of dynamic stabilization in chronic degenerative disc disease with Modic types 1 and 2. Modic types 1 and 2 degeneration can be painful. Classic approach in such cases is spine fusion. We operated 88 DDD patients with Modic types 1 and 2 via posterior dynamic stabilization. Good results were obtained after 2 years of followup. Methods. A total of 88 DDD patients with Modic types 1 and 2 were selected for this study. The patients were included in the study between 2004 and 2010. All of them were examined with lumbar anteroposterior (AP) and lateral X-rays. Lordosis of the lumbar spine, segmental lordosis, and ratio of the height of the intervertebral disc spaces (IVSs) were measured preoperatively and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was carried out, and according to the data obtained, the grade of disc degeneration was classified. The quality of life and pain scores were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) preoperatively and at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Appropriate statistical method was chosen. Results. The mean 3- and 12-month postoperative IVS ratio was significantly greater than that of the preoperative group (P < 0.001). However, the mean 1 and 2 postoperative IVS ratio was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the mean preoperative and 1 and 2 postoperative angles of lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The mean VAS score and ODI, 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery, decreased significantly, when compared with the preoperative scores in the groups (P = 0.000). Conclusion. Dynamic stabilization in chronic degenerative disc disease with Modic types 1 and 2 was effective.
doi:10.1155/2013/806267
PMCID: PMC3671504  PMID: 23781343
9.  Posterior Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization versus Total Disc Replacement in the Treatment of Lumbar Painful Degenerative Disc Disease: A Comparison of Clinical Results 
Advances in Orthopedics  2013;2013:874090.
Study Design. Prospective clinical study. Objective. This study compares the clinical results of anterior lumbar total disc replacement and posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization in the treatment of degenerative disc disease. Summary and Background Data. Over the last two decades, both techniques have emerged as alternative treatment options to fusion surgery. Methods. This study was conducted between 2004 and 2010 with a total of 50 patients (25 in each group). The mean age of the patients in total disc prosthesis group was 37,32 years. The mean age of the patients in posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization was 43,08. Clinical (VAS and Oswestry) and radiological evaluations (lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis angles) of the patients were carried out prior to the operation and 3, 12, and 24 months after the operation. We compared the average duration of surgery, blood loss during the surgery and the length of hospital stay of both groups. Results. Both techniques offered significant improvements in clinical parameters. There was no significant change in radiologic evaluations after the surgery for both techniques. Conclusion. Both dynamic systems provided spine stability. However, the posterior dynamic system had a slight advantage over anterior disc prosthesis because of its convenient application and fewer possible complications.
doi:10.1155/2013/874090
PMCID: PMC3562613  PMID: 23401784
10.  A Short History of Posterior Dynamic Stabilization 
Advances in Orthopedics  2012;2012:629698.
Interspinous spacers were developed to treat local deformities such as degenerative spondylolisthesis. To treat patients with chronic instability, posterior pedicle fixation and rod-based dynamic stabilization systems were developed as alternatives to fusion surgeries. Dynamic stabilization is the future of spinal surgery, and in the near future, we will be able to see the development of new devices and surgical techniques to stabilize the spine. It is important to follow the development of these technologies and to gain experience using them. In this paper, we review the literature and discuss the dynamic systems, both past and present, used in the market to treat lumbar degeneration.
doi:10.1155/2012/629698
PMCID: PMC3541638  PMID: 23326674
11.  Skipping Posterior Dynamic Transpedicular Stabilization for Distant Segment Degenerative Disease 
Advances in Orthopedics  2012;2012:496817.
Objective. To date, there is still no consensus on the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. Current surgical techniques to manage painful spinal disorders are imperfect. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the prospective results of posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization, a novel surgical approach that skips the segments that do not produce pain. This technique has been proven biomechanically and radiologically in spinal degenerative diseases. Methods. A prospective study of 18 patients averaging 54.94 years of age with distant spinal segment degenerative disease. Indications consisted of degenerative disc disease (57%), herniated nucleus pulposus (50%), spinal stenosis (14.28%), degenerative spondylolisthesis (14.28%), and foraminal stenosis (7.1%). The Oswestry Low-Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were recorded preoperatively and at the third and twelfth postoperative months. Results. Both the Oswestry and VAS scores showed significant improvement postoperatively (P < 0.05). We observed complications in one patient who had spinal epidural hematoma. Conclusion. We recommend skipping posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization for surgical treatment of distant segment spinal degenerative disease.
doi:10.1155/2012/496817
PMCID: PMC3471421  PMID: 23091736
12.  Unusual cause of acute low-back pain: sudden annulus fibrosus rupture 
Orthopedic Reviews  2012;4(2):e22.
Low-back pain is a common problem in neu-rosurgery practice, and an algorithm has been developed for assessing these cases. However, one subgroup of these patients shares several clinical features and these individuals are not easy to categorize and diagnose. We present our observations for 8 of these patients, individuals with low-back pain caused by atypical annulus fibrosus rupture (AAR). The aim of this study is to show the consequences of overlooked annular tears on acute onset of low back pain. Eight patients with acute-onset severe low-back pain were admitted. Physical examinations were normal and each individual was examined neurologically and assessed with neuroradiologic studies [plain x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), discography and computed tomography (CT) discography]. AAR was ultimately diagnosed with provocative discography. In all cases, MRI showed a healthy disc or mild degeneration, whereas discography and CT discography demonstrated disc disease. Anterior interbody cage implantation was performed in 3 of the 8 cases and posterior dynamic stabilization was carried out in 3 cases. The other 2 individuals refused surgery, and we were informed that one of them developed disc herniation at the affected level 1 year after our diagnosis. Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated. In cases where AAR is suspected, MRI, discography, and CT discography should be performed in addition to routine neuroradiologic studies.
doi:10.4081/or.2012.e22
PMCID: PMC3395991  PMID: 22802990
atypical annulus fibrosus rupture; CT discography; low-back pain.
13.  L5 vertebrectomy for the surgical treatment of tumoral and traumatic lesions of L5 vertebra 
Orthopedic Reviews  2012;4(1):e10.
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and the surgical results of seven patients treated with L5 vertebrectomy. The pathologies, clinical characteristics, preoperative and postoperative radiological findings, surgical techniques, and instrumentation for seven patients operated on between 1998 and 2009 are presented in this article. Biopsies were performed on all patients except those involving trauma. Patients were followed up at three-month intervals in the first year, at 6-month intervals in the second year, and on a regular basis afterward. One patient had a traumatic L5 burst fracture; the other six had tumoral pathologies in the L5 vertebrae. One tumoral lesion was a chordoma, another was a hemangioma, and the remaining four were metastatic lesions. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed for the metastatic tumor patients during the postoperative period. Patients with renal cancer and chordoma survived for 3 years; patients with lung cancer and bladder cancer survived for 1 year; and patients with breast cancer survived for 16 months. The lumbosacral region presents significant stabilization problems because of the presence of sacral slope. In our opinion, if the lesion involves only the L5 vertebra, anterior cage-filled bone cement or bone graft should be performed, as dictated by the pathology and posterior transpedicular instrumentation. If the lesion involves the L4 vertebra or the sacrum and the L5 vertebra, the instrumentation can be extended to cover other segments with sacral attachments. The present cases involved only L5 vertebra and treatment with short-segment stabilization covering the anterior and posterior columns.
doi:10.4081/or.2012.e10
PMCID: PMC3348685  PMID: 22577498
L5 vertebrectomy; short-segment stabilization; lumbosacral region pathologies; spinal neoplasm; fifth lumbar burst fracture; instability of the lumbosacral region.
14.  Primary central nervous system lymphoma presenting as a pure third ventricular lesion: a case report 
Introduction
Primary central nervous system lymphomas are infrequently occurring lymphomas that account for only 0.3-1.5% of all intra-cranial neoplasms in patients without acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, a pure third ventricle lymphoma is extremely rare. Here, we discuss the similar radiological appearances of lesions localized in the third ventricle and the importance of accurately diagnosing primary central nervous system lymphomas for favorable treatment outcomes.
Case presentation
A 38-year-old Caucasian man from Turkey presented with a severe headache lasting for three months that failed to respond to any medication. Both severity and duration of the symptoms increased gradually, resulting in vomiting, nausea and gait disturbance that accompanied the headache for three weeks. Neuro-imaging studies showed a lesion located solely in the third ventricle, resulting in partial obstruction of the foramen of Monro. The pre-operative diagnosis was a colloid cyst. Following the surgical procedure, the results of pathological and immunochemical assays revealed that the pre-operative diagnosis was incorrect and that the lesion was a primary central system lymphoma.
Conclusion
Pure third ventricle lymphomas are extremely rare and are exceptionally localized. It is important to be aware of, and to differentiate between, other possible third ventricular lesions that may mimic the same radiological appearance. Accurate diagnosis is necessary for selecting appropriate treatment modalities.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-213
PMCID: PMC3121681  PMID: 21619666
15.  Hypercholesterolemia increases vasospasm resulting from basilar artery subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits which is attenuated by Vitamin E 
Background:
Aneurysm rupture results in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with subsequent vasospasm in the cerebral and cerebellar major arteries. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that hypercholesterolemia plays a role in the pathology of SAH. It is known that hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. Among the factors that have been found to retard the development of atherosclerosis is the intake of a sufficient amount of Vitamin E. An inverse association between serum Vitamin E and coronary heart disease mortality has been demonstrated in epidemiologic studies. Therefore, we tested, in an established model of enhanced cholesterol feed in rabbits, the effects of hypercholesterolemia on vasospasm after SAH by using computed tomography (CT) angiograms of the rabbit basilar artery; in addition, we tested the effects of Vitamin E on these conditions, which have not been studied up to now.
Methods:
In this study rabbits were divided into 3 major groups: control, cholesterol fed, and cholesterol + Vitamin E fed. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by a 2% cholesterol-containing diet. Three rabbit groups were fed rabbit diet; one group was fed a diet that also contained 2% cholesterol and another group was fed a diet containing 2% cholesterol and they received i.m. injections of 50 mg/kg of Vitamin E. After 8 weeks, SAH was induced by the double-hemorrhage method and distilled water was injected into cisterna magna. Blood was taken to measure serum cholesterol and Vitamin E levels. Basilar artery samples were taken for microscopic examination. CT angiography and measurement of basilar artery diameter were performed at days 0 and 3 after SAH.
Results:
Two percent cholesterol diet supplementation for 8 weeks resulted in a significant increase in serum cholesterol levels. Light microscopic analysis of basilar artery of hypercholesterolemic rabbits showed disturbances in the subendothelial and medial layers, degeneration of elastic fibers in the medial layer from endothelial cell desquamation, and a reduction of waves in the endothelial layer. However, the cholesterol + Vitamin E group did not exhibit these changes. The mean diameter of the basilar artery after SAH induction in the cholesterol-treated group was decreased 47% compared with the mean diameter of the control group. This value was less affected in cholesterol + Vitamin E-treated rabbits, which decreased 18% compared with the mean diameter of the control group.
Conclusions:
Hypercholesterolemia-related changes in the basilar artery aggravate vasospasm after SAH. Adding Vitamin E to cholesterol-treated rabbits decreased the degree of vasospasm following SAH in the rabbit basilar artery SAH model. We suggest that Vitamin E supplements and a low cholesterol diet may potentially diminish SAH complicated by vasospasm in high-risk patients.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.77600
PMCID: PMC3062808  PMID: 21451728
Aneurysm; atherosclerosis; hypercholesterolemia; subarachnoid hemorrhage; vasospasm; Vitamin E
16.  Clinical outcomes of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis treated with lumbar decompression and the Cosmic “semi-rigid” posterior system 
SAS Journal  2010;4(4):99-106.
Background
Although some investigators believe that the rate of postoperative instability is low after lumbar spinal stenosis surgery, the majority believe that postoperative instability usually develops. Decompression alone and decompression with fusion have been widely used for years in the surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Nevertheless, in recent years several biomechanical studies have shown that posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization provides stabilization that is like the rigid stabilization systems of the spine. Recently, posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization has been more commonly used as an alternative treatment option (rather than rigid stabilization with fusion) for the treatment of degenerative spines with chronic instability and for the prevention of possible instability after decompression in lumbar spinal stenosis surgery.
Methods
A total of 30 patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (19 women and 11 men) were included in the study group. The mean age was 67.3 years (range, 40–85 years). Along with lumbar decompression, a posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization (dynamic transpedicular screw–rigid rod system) without fusion was performed in all patients. Clinical and radiologic results for patients were evaluated during follow-up visits at 3, 12, and 24 months postoperatively.
Results
The mean follow-up period was 42.93 months (range, 24–66 months). A clinical evaluation of patients showed that, compared with preoperative assessments, statistically significant improvements were observed in the Oswestry and visual analog scale scores in the last follow-up control. Compared with preoperative values, there were no statistically significant differences in radiologic evaluations, such as segmental lordosis angle (α) scores (P = .125) and intervertebral distance scores (P = .249). There were statistically significant differences between follow-up lumbar lordosis scores (P = .048). There were minor complications, including a subcutaneous wound infection in 2 cases, a dural tear in 2 cases, cerebrospinal fluid fistulas in 1 case, a urinary tract infection in 1 case, and urinary retention in 1 case. We observed L5 screw loosening in 1 of the 3-level decompression cases. No screw breakage was observed and no revision surgery was performed in any of these cases.
Conclusions
Posterior dynamic stabilization without fusion applied to lumbar decompression leads to better clinical and radiologic results in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. To avoid postoperative instability, especially in elderly patients who undergo degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis surgery with chronic instability, the application of decompression with posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization is likely an important alternative surgical option to fusion, because it does not have fusion-related side effects, is easier to perform than fusion, requires a shorter operation time, and has low morbidity and complication rates.
doi:10.1016/j.esas.2010.09.003
PMCID: PMC4365643  PMID: 25802657
Lumbar spinal stenosis; Posterior dynamic stabilization; Microlumbar decompression; Spinal fusion; Spinal instability
17.  Clinical outcomes after posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization with limited lumbar discectomy: Carragee classification system for lumbar disc herniations 
SAS Journal  2010;4(3):92-97.
Background
The observed rate of recurrent disc herniation after limited posterior lumbar discectomy is highest in patients with posterior wide annular defects, according to the Carragee classification of type II (fragment-defect) disc hernia. Although the recurrent herniation rate is lower in both type III (fragment-contained) and type IV (no fragment-contained) patients, recurrent persistent sciatica is observed in both groups. A higher rate of recurrent disc herniation and sciatica was observed in all 3 groups in comparison to patients with type I (fragment-fissure) disc hernia.
Methods
In total, 40 single-level lumbar disc herniation cases were treated with limited posterior lumbar microdiscectomy and posterior dynamic stabilization. The mean follow-up period was 32.75 months. Cases were selected after preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative observation. We used the Carragee classification system in this study and excluded Carragee type I (fragment-fissure) disc herniations. Clinical results were evaluated with visual analog scale scores and Oswestry scores. Patients’ reherniation rates and clinical results were evaluated and recorded at 3, 12, and 24 months postoperatively.
Results
The most common herniation type in our study was type III (fragment-contained), with 45% frequency. The frequency of fragment-defects was 25%, and the frequency of no fragment-contained defects was 30%. The perioperative complications observed were as follows: 1 patient had bladder retention that required catheterization, 1 patient had a superficial wound infection, and 1 patient had a malpositioned transpedicular screw. The malpositioned screw was corrected with a second operation, performed 1 month after the first. Recurrent disc herniation was not observed during the follow-up period.
Conclusions
We observed that performing discectomy with posterior dynamic stabilization decreased the risk of recurrent disc herniations in Carragee type II, III, and IV groups, which had increased reherniation and persistent/continuous sciatica after limited lumbar microdiscectomy. Moreover, after 2 years’ follow-up, we obtained improved clinical results.
doi:10.1016/j.esas.2010.06.001
PMCID: PMC4365639  PMID: 25802656
Limited discectomy; Carragee classification system; Dynamic stabilization; Lumbar disc herniation
18.  Bilateral Late Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage as a Complication of a Lumbo-Peritoneal Shunt Applied After Spinal Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery 
Background/Objective:
Cerebellar hemorrhage is a very infrequent and unpredictable complication of spinal surgery. To the best of our knowledge, cerebellar hemorrhage resulting from the insertion of a lumbo-peritoneal shunt through which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is slowly drained has not been documented to date.
Methods:
Case report.
Results:
A 47-year-old woman presented with lower extremity weakness. Spinal arteriovenous malformation was diagnosed, and she underwent surgery. Her neurologic status improved; however, CSF collected subcutaneously as a cyst and leaked 21 days after surgery. The patient underwent urgent surgery during which the dural defect was repaired and a lumbo-peritoneal catheter was put in place to treat the CSF leakage. The lumbo-peritoneal drainage system was removed when bilateral cerebellar hemorrhage was seen 12 days later. Physical therapy was stopped, and conservative treatment was initiated consisting of bed rest, analgesics, sedatives, and careful monitoring of blood pressure. The patient's headache gradually resolved; physical therapy was restarted to rehabilitate this patient with paraparesis.
Conclusions:
Remote cerebellar hemorrhage seems to be life threatening and entails significant morbidity. Cerebellar symptoms, and even a late sudden headache after spinal surgery, may be signs of remote cerebellar hemorrhage, which is a rare complication.
PMCID: PMC2853334  PMID: 20397448
Cerebellar hemorrhage; Spinal arteriovenous malformation; Paraparesis; Cerebrospinal fluid; Lumbo-peritoneal shunt; Spinal surgery
19.  Clinical Analysis of 21 Cases of Spinal Cord Ependymoma : Positive Clinical Results of Gross Total Resection 
Objective
To evaluate the clinical results of gross total resection in the surgical approach to spinal ependymoma.
Methods
Between June 1995 and May 2009, 13 males and 8 females (mean age 34) diagnosed with intramedullary or extramedullary spinal ependymoma were surgically treated at our centre. The neurological and functional state of each patient were evaluated according to the modified McCormick scale.
Results
The average follow-up duration was 54 months (ranging from 12 to 168 months). The locations of the lesions were: thoracic region (4, 19%), lumbar region (7, 34%), cervical region (4, 19%), cervicothoracic region (3, 14%) and conus medullaris (3, 14%). Four patients (19%) had deterioration of neurological function in the early postoperative period. The neurological function of three patients was completely recovered at the 6th postoperative month, while that of another patient was recovered at the 14th month. In the last assessment of neurological function, 20 patients (95%) were assessed as McCormick grade 1. No perioperative complications developed in any of our patients. In one patient's 24-month assessment, tumour recurrence was observed. Re-operation was not performed and the patient was taken under observation.
Conclusion
Two determinants of good clinical results after spinal ependymoma surgery are a gross total resection of the tumour and a good neurological condition before the operation. Although neurological deficits in the early postoperative period can develop as a result of gross total tumour resection, significant improvement is observed six months after the operation.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.2.102
PMCID: PMC2836443  PMID: 20224707
Ependymoma; Intramedullary ependymoma; Intramedullary tumour; Functional outcome
20.  Dynamic Lumbar Pedicle Screw-Rod Stabilization: Two-Year Follow-Up and Comparison with Fusion 
Background:
A lumbar pedicular dynamic stabilization system (LPDSS) is an alternative to fusion for treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD). In this study, clinical and radiological results of one LPDSS (Saphinaz, Medikon AS, Turkey) were compared with results of rigid fixation after two-year follow-up.
Methods:
All patients had anteroposterior and lateral standing x-rays of the lumbar spine preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months and 24 months after surgery. Lordosis of the lumbar spine, segmental lordosis and ratio of the height of the intervertebral disc spaces (IVS) measured preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months and 24 months after surgery.
All patients underwent MRI and/or CT preoperatively, 3months, 12 months and 24 months postoperatively. The ratio of intervertebral disc space to vertebral body height (IVS) and segmental and lumbar lordosis were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Pain scores were evaluated via Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) preoperatively and postoperatively.
Results:
In both groups, the VAS and ODI scores decreased significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively. There was no difference in the scores between groups except that a lower VAS and ODI scores were observed after 3 months in the LPDSS group. In both groups, the IVS ratio remained unchanged between preoperative and postoperative conditions. The lumbar and segmental lordotic angles decreased insignificantly to preoperative levels in the months following surgery.
Conclusions:
Patients with LPDSS had equivalent relief of pain and maintenance of sagittal balance to patients with standard rigid screw-rod fixation. LPDSS appears to be a good alternative to rigid fixation.
doi:10.2174/1874325001004010137
PMCID: PMC2864427  PMID: 20448815
Degenerative disc disease; dynamic stabilization; lumbar spine; rigid stabilization.
21.  Minimum Two-Year Follow-Up of Cases with Recurrent Disc Herniation Treated with Microdiscectomy and Posterior Dynamic Transpedicular Stabilisation 
The objective of this article is to evaluate two-year clinical and radiological follow-up results for patients who were treated with microdiscectomy and posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilisation (PDTS) due to recurrent disc herniation. This article is a prospective clinical study. We conducted microdiscectomy and PDTS (using a cosmic dynamic screw-rod system) in 40 cases (23 males, 17 females) with a diagnosis of recurrent disc herniation. Mean age of included patients was 48.92 ± 12.18 years (range: 21-73 years). Patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated for follow-up for at least two years. Patients’ postoperative clinical results and radiological outcomes were evaluated during the 3rd, 12th, and 24th months after surgery. Forty patients who underwent microdiscectomy and PDTS were followed for a mean of 41 months (range: 24-63 months). Both the Oswestry and VAS scores showed significant improvements two years postoperatively in comparison to preoperative scores (p<0.01). There were no significant differences between any of the three measured radiological parameters (α, LL, IVS) after two years of follow-up (p > 0.05). New recurrent disc herniations were not observed during follow-up in any of the patients. We observed complications in two patients. Performing microdiscectomy and PDTS after recurrent disc herniation can decrease the risk of postoperative segmental instability. This approach reduces the frequency of failed back syndrome with low back pain and sciatica.
doi:10.2174/1874325001004010120
PMCID: PMC2864435  PMID: 20448822
Lumbar spine; recurrent disc herniation; decompression; posterior dynamic stabilisation; segmental instability; adjacent level disease.
22.  Postoperative spinal epidural hematoma resulting in cauda equina syndrome: a case report and review of the literature 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8584.
Spinal epidural hematoma is a well known complication of spinal surgery. Clinically insignificant small epidural hematomas develop in most spinal surgeries following laminectomy. However, the incidence of clinically significant postoperative spinal epidural hematomas that result in neurological deficits is extremely rare. In this report, we present a 33-year-old female patient whose spinal surgery resulted in postoperative spinal epidural hematoma. She was diagnosed with lumbar disc disease and underwent hemipartial lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. After twelve hours postoperation, her neurologic status deteriorated and cauda equina syndrome with acute spinal epidural hematoma was identified. She was immediately treated with surgical decompression and evacuation of the hematoma. The incidence of epidural hematoma after spinal surgery is rare, but very serious complication. Spinal epidural hematomas can cause significant spinal cord and cauda equina compression, requiring surgical intervention. Once diagnosed, the patient should immediately undergo emergency surgical exploration and evacuation of the hematoma.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8584
PMCID: PMC2740261  PMID: 19830087
23.  A large choroid plexus cyst diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging in utero: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:7098.
The incidence of choroid plexus cysts represents approximately 1% of fetal anomalies. We describe a case in which fetal ultrasonography and fetal magnetic resonance scans were used to identify a large choroid cyst in a fetus without the use of a diagnostic amniocentesis to detect aneuploidy. After birth, the child underwent surgery. In conclusion, the nature of prenatal intracranial cysts should be fully evaluated and differentiated between choroid plexus cysts and other types of cysts. We believe that a detailed evaluation of detected cysts and other structural brain abnormalities are essential. Prenatal magnetic resonance scans clearly can decrease the need for risky procedures, such as an amniocentesis, in the evaluation of antenatal choroid plexus cysts.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-7098
PMCID: PMC2740256  PMID: 19829909
24.  Idiopathic Spinal Cord Herniation: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Background:
Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is a rare cause of progressive myelopathy frequently present in Brown-Séquard syndrome. Preoperative diagnosis can be made with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many surgical techniques have been applied by various authors and are usually reversible by surgical treatment.
Methods:
Case report and review of the literature.
Findings:
A 45-year-old woman with Brown-Séquard syndrome underwent thoracic MRI, which revealed transdural spinal cord herniation at T8 vertebral body level. During surgery the spinal cord was reduced and the ventral dural defect was restorated primarily and reinforced with a thin layer of subdermal fat. The dural defect was then closed with interrupted stitches.
Results:
Although neurologic status improved postoperatively, postsurgical MRI demonstrated swelling and abnormal T2-signal intensity in the reduced spinal cord. Review of the English language literature revealed 100 ISCH cases.
Conclusions:
ISCH is a rare clinical entity that should be considered in differential diagnosis of Brown-Séquard syndrome, especially among women in their fifth decade of life. Outcome for patients who initially had Brown-Séquard syndrome was significantly better than for patients who presented with spastic paralysis. Although progression of neurologic deficits can be very slow, reduction of the spinal cord and repair of the defect are crucial in stopping or reversing the deterioration.
PMCID: PMC2647506  PMID: 19264054
Brown-Séquard syndrome; Myelopathy; Spinal cord herniation, Dural defect; Spasticity; Duraplasty; Pseudomeningocele
25.  Remote cerebellar hemorrhage following resection of a supratentorial tumor: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:7299.
Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after supratentorial surgery is rare, ranging between 0.08% and 0.29% in adults and children. However, it is extremely rare in children. This phenomenon underlying mechanisms remain obscure. A 14-year-old male child patient had a history of right focal seizures and underwent craniotomy for a left frontal mass (Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor). First hours post recovery period, the patient was somnolent and had right hemiparesis. Postoperative Computer Tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings revealed that the patient had developed remote cerebellar hemorrhage. He was treated conservatively, and was free of neurological deficits.
Although dehydration and the displacement of the cerebellum are associated with this phenomenon after supratentorial surgery, the identification of the exact etiological factors remains elusive. It is advisable for case givers to be aware of the high potential risk of morbidity and mortality of this entity. Preoperative attention to prevent cerebrospinal fluid overflow leakage and exaggerated dehydration of the patient may prevent remote cerebellar hemorrhages.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-7299
PMCID: PMC2740260  PMID: 19829942

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