Recent progress in regenerative medicine has enabled the utilization of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a donor resource for transplantation. However, immune suppression is still needed when the donor-recipient combination is allogeneic. Protection of ESCs-derived grafts from host immune response might be achieved thought the utilization of immunosuppressive cells generated from ESCs. In the present study, we show that a certain fraction of immunosuppressive cells can be generated from ESCs and help to suppress immune response against allogeneic grafts. ESCs-derived suppressor cells (ES-SCs) resembled macrophages in terms of cell surface molecule and gene expressions. Furthermore, gene expression analysis including microarray showed that ES-SCs have M1/M2 hybrid phenotype with high expression of genes correlated to immunosuppression of T cell response. Indeed, ES-SCs were effective to block allogeneic T cell proliferation in a nitric oxide-dependent manner, and prolonged the survival of ESCs-derived embryoid bodies or cardiomyocytes grafts transplanted into mouse kidney capsule. Thus, we consider the potential use of these ESCs-derived macrophage-like immunosuppressive cells as cellular therapies to promote long-term graft survival in future therapies.
IL-17 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by Th17 T cells that induces a myriad of proinflammatory mediators. However, different models of inflammation report opposite functional roles of IL-17 signal in terms of its effects on bone destruction. In the present study we determined the role of IL-17 receptor A (RA) signal in bone resorption stimulated by dentoalveolar infections. Infrabony resorptive lesions were induced by surgical pulp exposure and microbial infection of mouse molar teeth. IL-17 was strongly induced in periapical tissues in wild-type (WT) mice by 7 days after the infection but was not expressed in uninfected mice. Dentoalveolar infections of IL-17RA knockout (KO) mice demonstrated significantly increased bone destruction and more abscess formation in the apical area compared to WT mice. Infected IL-17RA KO mice exhibited significantly increased neutrophils and macrophages compared to the WT littermates at day 21, suggesting a failure of transition from acute to chronic inflammation in the IL-17RA KO mice. The expression of IL-1 (both α and β isoforms) and MIP2 were significantly up-regulated in the IL-17RA KO compared to WT mice at day 21 post infection. The development of periapical lesion in IL-17RA KO mice was significantly attenuated by neutralization of IL-1β and MIP2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that IL-17RA signal seems to be protective against infection-induced periapical inflammation and bone destruction via suppression of neutrophil and mononuclear inflammation.
A dietary combination of sucrose and linoleic acid strongly contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in Zucker fatty rats. However, the underlying mechanisms of the metabolic disorders are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the metabolic disorders were triggered at a stage earlier than the 8 weeks we had previously reported. In this study, we investigated early molecular events induced by the sucrose and linoleic acid diet in Zucker fatty rats by comparison with other combinations of carbohydrate (sucrose or palatinose) and fat (linoleic acid or oleic acid). Skeletal muscle arachidonic acid levels were significantly increased in the sucrose and linoleic acid group compared to the other dietary groups at 4 weeks, while there were no obvious differences in the metabolic phenotype between the groups. Expression of genes related to arachidonic acid synthesis was induced in skeletal muscle but not in liver and adipose tissue in sucrose and linoleic acid group rats. In addition, the sucrose and linoleic acid group exhibited a rapid induction in endoplasmic reticulum stress and abnormal lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. We concluded that the dietary combination of sucrose and linoleic acid primarily induces metabolic disorders in skeletal muscle through increases in arachidonic acid and endoplasmic reticulum stress, in advance of systemic metabolic disorders.
arachidonic acid; combination diet; lipotoxicity; insulin sensitivity; ER stress
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the United States, affecting approximately 80% of children and the majority of adults. Dental caries may lead to endodontic disease, where the bacterial infection progresses to the root canal system of the tooth, leading to periapical inflammation, bone erosion, severe pain, and tooth loss. Periapical inflammation may also exacerbate inflammation in other parts of the body. Although conventional clinical therapies for this disease are successful in approximately 80% of cases, there is still an urgent need for increased efficacy of treatment. In this study, we applied a novel gene-therapeutic approach using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6i RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of Atp6i/TIRC7 gene expression to simultaneously target periapical bone resorption and periapical inflammation. We found that Atp6i inhibition impaired osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo and decreased the number of T cells in the periapical lesion. Notably, AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown gene therapy reduced bacterial infection-stimulated bone resorption by 80% in the mouse model of endodontic disease. Importantly, Atp6i+/− mice with haploinsufficiency of Atp6i exhibited protection similar to that in mice with bacterial infection-stimulated bone erosion and periapical inflammation, which confirms the potential therapeutic effect of AAV-small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Atp6i/TIRC7. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown in periapical tissues can inhibit endodontic disease development, bone resorption, and inflammation, indicating for the first time that this potential gene therapy may significantly improve the health of those who suffer from endodontic disease.
In previous studies we showed that biasing the immune response to Porphyromonas gingivalis antigens to the Th1 phenotype increases inflammatory bone resorption caused by this organism. Using a T cell screening strategy we identified eight P. gingivalis genes coding for proteins that appear to be involved in T-helper cell responses. In the present study we characterized the protein, encoded by PG_1841 gene and evaluated its relevance in the in bone resorption caused by P. gingivalis because subcutaneous infection of mice with this organism resulted in the induction of Th1 biased response to the recombinant PG1841 antigen molecule. Using an immunization regime that strongly biases toward the Th1 phenotype followed by challenge with P. gingivalis in dental pulp tissue, we demonstrate that mice pre-immunized with rPG1841 developed severe bone loss compared with control immunized mice. Pre-immunization of mice with the antigen using a Th2 biasing regime resulted in no exacerbation of the disease.
These results support the notion that selected antigens of P. gingivalis are involved in a biased Th1 host response that leads to the severe bone loss caused by this oral pathogen.
The present study investigated if T-cells infiltrating the periapical lesion produce RANKL and whether bacteria infecting the root canal can activate T-cells to produce RANKL.
Using a mouse model of periapical lesion induced by artificial dental pulp exposure, the presence of RANKL-positive T-cells and osteoclasts in the periapical lesion was examined by an immuno-histochemical approach. The bacteria colonizing the exposed root canal were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. The isolated endodontic bacteria were further immunized to normal mice, and sRANKL production by the T-cells isolated from the immunized mice was evaluated by ex vivo culture system.
RANKL-positive T-cells, along with TARP+ osteoclasts, were identified in periapical bone resorption lesions. The Gram-negative bacterium Pasterurella pnumotropica (P. pnumotropica), which was most frequently detected from root canal of exposed pulp, showed remarkably elevated serum IgG antibody response in pulp-exposed mice compared to control non-treated mice. Immunization of mice with P. pneumotropica induced not only serum IgG antibody but also primed bacteria reactive T-cells that produced sRANKL in response to ex vivo exposure to P. pneumotropica.
T-cells infiltrating the periapical region express RANKL, and the endodontic bacteria colonizing the root canal appear to induce RANKL expression from bacteria-reactive T-cells, suggesting the possible pathogenic engagement of immune response to endodontic bacteria in the context of developing boneresorptive periapical lesions.
The available passive mode of periodontal infections in mice requires high efficiency of bacterial attachment and invasiveness and is not always suitable to test the pathogenicity of genetically engineered mutant strains. We developed an active mode of oral infection, using microinjection in the marginal gingiva of mice, to test the pathogenicity of a genetically engineered Treponema denticola mutant strain deficient in intermediate-like filaments, compared to the wild-type strain. This targeted mode of infection inoculates the bacterial strain to be tested directly at a lesion site (needle entry point) located at the future periodontal lesion site. The efficiency of T. denticola wild-type strain to elicit bone loss contrasted with the lack of pathogenicity of the intermediate-like filament deficient mutant strain in comparison to the sham infection. The periodontal microinjection oral model in mice can be used for a variety of applications complementary to the passive mode of periodontal infection in context of pathogenicity testing.
Diet composition alters the metabolic states of adipocytes and hepatocytes in diabetes. The effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition on adipose tissue inflammation and fatty liver have been obscure. We investigated the extrapancreatic effects of DPP-4 inhibition on visceral fat and the liver.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We investigated diet-induced metabolic changes in β-cell–specific glucokinase haploinsufficient (Gck+/−) diabetic mice. We challenged animals with a diet containing a combination of sucrose and oleic acid (SO) or sucrose and linoleic acid (SL). Next, we assessed the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor, des-fluoro-sitagliptin, on adipose tissue inflammation and hepatic steatosis.
The epididymal fat weight and serum leptin level were significantly higher in Gck+/− mice fed SL than in mice fed SO, although no significant differences in body weight or adipocyte size were noted. Compared with SO, SL increased the numbers of CD11c+ M1 macrophages and CD8+ T-cells in visceral adipose tissue and the expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). DPP-4 inhibition significantly prevented adipose tissue infiltration by CD8+ T-cells and M1 macrophages and decreased the expression of PAI-1. The production of cytokines by activated T-cells was not affected by DPP-4 inhibition. Furthermore, DPP-4 inhibition prevented fatty liver in both wild-type and Gck+/− mice. DPP-4 inhibition also decreased the expressions of sterol regulatory element–binding protein-1c, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase, and increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-α in the liver.
Our findings indicated that DPP-4 inhibition has extrapancreatic protective effects against diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and hepatic steatosis.
The central role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in osteoclast differentiation and in bone homeostasis prompted us to characterize the redox regulatory system of osteoclasts. In this report, we describe the expression and functional characterization of PAMM, a CXXC motif–containing peroxiredoxin 2–like protein expressed in bone marrow monocytes on stimulation with M-CSF and RANKL. Expression of wild-type (but not C to G mutants of the CXXC domain) PAMM in HEK293 cells results in an increased GSH/GSSG ratio, indicating a shift toward a more reduced environment. Expression of PAMM in RAW264.7 monocytes protected cells from hydrogen peroxide–induced oxidative stress, indicating that PAMM regulates cellular redox status. RANKL stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells caused a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio (reflecting a complementary increase in ROS). In addition, RANKL-induced osteoclast formation requires phosphorylation and translocation of NF-κB and c-Jun. In stably transfected RAW 264.7 cells, PAMM overexpression prevented the reduction of GSH/GSSG induced by RANKL. Concurrently, PAMM expression completely abolished RANKL-induced p100 NF-κB and c-Jun activation, as well as osteoclast formation. We conclude that PAMM is a redox regulatory protein that modulates osteoclast differentiation in vitro. PAMM expression may affect bone resorption in vivo and help to maintain bone mass. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 27–37.
Xylitol is widely used as a sweetener in foods and medications. Xylitol ingestion causes a small blood glucose rise, and it is commonly used as an alternative to high-energy supplements in diabetics. In previous studies, a xylitol metabolite, xylulose-5-phosphate, was shown to activate carbohydrate response element binding protein, and to promote lipogenic enzyme gene transcription in vitro; however, the effects of xylitol in vivo are not understood. Here we investigated the effects of dietary xylitol on lipid metabolism and visceral fat accumulation in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 0 g (control), 1.0 g/100 kcal (X1) or 2.0 g/100 kcal (X2) of xylitol. After the 8-week feeding period, visceral fat mass and plasma insulin and lipid concentrations were significantly lower in xylitol-fed rats than those in high-fat diet rats. Gene expression levels of ChREBP and lipogenic enzymes were higher, whereas the expression of sterol regulatory-element binding protein 1c was lower and fatty acid oxidation-related genes were significantly higher in the liver of xylitol-fed rats as compared with high-fat diet rats. In conclusion, intake of xylitol may be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity and metabolic abnormalities in rats with diet-induced obesity.
xylitol; visceral fat; lipid metabolism;
lower insulin level; high fat diet
Background and objective
18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is a natural anti-inflammatory compound derived from licorice root extract (Glycyrrhiza glabra). The effect of GA on experimental periodontitis and its mechanism of action were determined in the present study.
Periodontitis was induced by oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 in IL-10 deficient mice. The effect of GA, which was delivered by subcutaneous injections in either prophylactic or therapeutic regimens, on alveolar bone loss and gingival gene expressions was determined on day 42 after initial infection. The effect of GA on LPS-stimulated macrophages, T cell proliferation, and osteoclastogenesis was also examined in vitro.
GA administered either prophylactically or therapeutically dramatically reduced infection-induced bone loss in IL-10 deficient mice, which are highly disease-susceptible. Although GA has been reported to exert its anti-inflammatory activity via down-regulation of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (HSD2), which converts active glucocorticoids (GC) to their inactive forms, GA did not reduce HSD2 gene expression in gingival tissue. Rather, under GC-free conditions, GA potently inhibited LPS-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production and RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis, both of which are NF–κB-dependent. GA furthermore suppressed LPS- and RANKL-stimulated phosphorylation of NF–κB p105 in vitro.
These findings indicate that GA inhibits periodontitis by inactivation of NF–κB in an IL-10 and GC-independent fashion.
18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid; periodontal disease; NF–κB; IL-10 deficient mouse
T regulatory (Treg; CD4+FOXP3+) cells constitute a unique subpopulation of CD4+ T cells that inhibit T cell responses and prevent disease development/exacerbation in models of autoimmunity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Treg cells are induced in periapical lesions by dental pulp infection.
In situ hybridization (ISH) was used to localize FOXP3+ cells on day 21 after pulp exposure of the 1st molar teeth and infection with bacteria from the oral environment. FOXP3/GFP knock-in transgenic mice were used to quantify FOXP3+Treg cells that infiltrate into periapical lesions by flow cytometry on days 7, 14, and 21 after infection. Periodontal ligament from uninfected teeth served as a negative control.
ISH showed strong signals that demonstrated the presence of FOXP3+ cells mainly at the periphery of periapical lesions. In contrast no positive cells were present in the periodontal ligament of uninfected controls. Flow cytometry demonstrated an increase in the number of FOXP3+ Treg beginning between day 7 and day 14 (0.69% of the infiltrate) after infection, and increased to day 21 (0.94%) (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively vs. uninfected controls). Treg were also increased in number in draining cervical lymph nodes following pulpal infection.
These results demonstrate that Treg cells are induced to infiltrate into periapical lesions by pulpal infection, and suggest that they increase in a time-dependent manner.
T regulatory cells; periapical lesions; pulp infection; FOXP3/GFP knock-in; flow cytometry; in situ hybridization
A palatinose-based liquid formula (palatinose-formula), suppresses postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels in healthy men. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term palatinose-formula ingestion on glucose metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes. Two patients with IGT and 7 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in the palatinose-formula and dextrin-based liquid formula (dextrin-formula) loading test and long-term palatinose-formula administration study. After a 3-month control period, palatinose-formula (1046 kJ) was ingested daily by patients as a part of breakfast for 5 months. In the loading test, palatinose-formula suppressed postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels and areas under the curve compared with those after dextrin-formula ingestion. In the long-term study, glycated hemoglobin levels (after 3 months and 5 months of treatment) and serum 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels (after 5 months of treatment) were markedly decreased comparing with those at baseline. Intake of 1046 kJ palatinose-formula as a part of breakfast over a long-term period may be effective for improvement of glucose metabolism in patients with IGT or type 2 diabetes.
palatinose; postprandial hyperglycemia; glucose metabolism; HbA1c; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine
Abdominal obesity is a principal risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. Previously, we showed that a palatinose-based liquid formula, Inslow/MHN-01, suppressed postprandial plasma glucose level and reduced visceral fat accumulation better than the standard formula (SF). To elucidate the mechanism of Inslow-mediated anti-obesity effect, expression levels of genes involved in the glucose and lipid metabolism were compared in Inslow- and SF-fed rats. Both fasting plasma insulin level and average islet sizes were reduced in the Inslow group. We also found less abdominal fat accumulation and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol content in the Inslow group. Expression of the β-oxidation enzymes and uncoupling potein-2 (UCP-2) mRNAs in the liver of the Inslow group were higher than the SF group, which was due to a concomitant higher expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α mRNA in the former. Furthermore, expression of the UCP-2 and adiponectin mRNAs in the epididymal fat were higher in the Inslow group than the SF group, and were stimulated by a concomitant increase of the PPAR-γ gene expression in the former. These results strongly suggested that the anti-obesity effect of Inslow was due to an increase in the hepatic PPAR-α and adipocyte PPAR-γ gene expressions.
palatinose; PPAR-α; PPAR-γ; fat oxidation; insulin-sparing effect
Periapical granulomas are induced by bacterial infection of the dental pulp and result in destruction of the surrounding alveolar bone. In previous studies we have reported that the bone resorption in this model is primarily mediated by macrophage-expressed interleukin-1 (IL-1). The expression and activity of IL-1 is in turn modulated by a network of Th1 and Th2 regulatory cytokines. In the present study, the functional roles of the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and IFN-γ-inducing cytokines IL-12 and IL-18 were determined in a murine model of periapical bone destruction. IL-12−/−, IL-18−/−, and IFN-γ−/− mice were subjected to surgical pulp exposure and infection with a mixture of four endodontic pathogens, and bone destruction was determined by microcomputed tomography on day 21. The results indicated that all IL-12−/−, IL-18−/−, and IFN-γ−/− mice had similar infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo as wild-type control mice. Mice infused with recombinant IL-12 also had resorption similar to controls. IFN-γ−/− mice exhibited significant elevations in IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in lesions compared to wild-type mice, but these modulations had no net effect on IL-1α levels. Recombinant IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-γ individually failed to consistently modulate macrophage IL-1α production in vitro. We conclude that, at least individually, endogenous IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-γ do not have a significant effect on the pathogenesis of infection-stimulated bone resorption in vivo, suggesting possible functional redundancy in proinflammatory pathways.
BALB/c mice were intravenously injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.05 μg/g of body weight) 7 days after being primed with zymosan. Recombinant human lactoferrin (250 μg/g of body weight), intravenously administered 1 day before the injection of LPS, significantly lessened the severity of hepatitis, as assessed by levels of serum alanine transaminase compared to those seen when casein was administered. The transient rise of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after LPS treatment was also significantly lowered by the intravenous administration of lactoferrin, suggesting that the effect of lactoferrin was due to the suppression of TNF-α production. The following results indicate that the sites of action of lactoferrin for the suppression of the development of this type of hepatitis are Kupffer cells. Gadolinium chloride, a substance known to eliminate Kupffer cells, administered 1 day before LPS, inhibited the transient rise of TNF-α and protected against the development of hepatitis. Kupffer cells isolated from mice intraperitoneally injected with recombinant human lactoferrin became refractory to LPS. The specific interaction of recombinant human lactoferrin with the Kupffer cells was shown by a binding assay, which revealed two types of binding sites on mouse Kupffer cells. Of the two dissociation constants determined in this way, the lower dissociation constant, 0.47 × 10−6 M, was within the range of the 50% effective doses for the suppression of TNF-α production. These results suggest that recombinant human lactoferrin administered to mice suppresses the production of TNF-α by Kupffer cells by directly associating with the binding sites on these cells.
Periapical bone destruction occurs as a consequence of pulpal infection. In previous studies, we showed that interleukin-1 (IL-1) is the primary stimulator of bone destruction in this model. IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is induced in these infections and has both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we determined the role of IL-6 in regulating IL-1 expression and bone resorption. The first molars of IL-6 knockouts (IL-6−/−) and wild-type mice were subjected to surgical pulp exposure and infection with a mixture of four common pulpal pathogens, including Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Streptococcus intermedius. Mice were killed after 21 days, and bone destruction and cytokine expression were determined. Surprisingly, bone destruction was significantly increased in IL-6−/− mice versus that in wild-type mice (by 30%; P < 0.001). In a second experiment, the effects of chronic (IL-6−/−) IL-6 deficiency and short-term IL-6 deficiency induced by in vivo antibody neutralization were determined. Both IL-6−/− (30%; P < 0.001) and anti-IL-6 antibody-treated mice (40%; P < 0.05) exhibited increased periapical bone resorption, compared to wild-type controls. The increased bone resorption in IL-6-deficient animals correlated with increases in osteoclast numbers, as well as with elevated expression of bone-resorptive cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β, in periapical lesions and with decreased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These data demonstrate that endogenous IL-6 expression has significant anti-inflammatory effects in modulating infection-stimulated bone destruction in vivo.
C3H/HeJ mice have an impaired ability to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) due to a mutation in the gene that encodes Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The effect of TLR4 deficiency on host responses to endodontic infections is unknown. In the present study, we compared periapical bone destruction, sepsis, and inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ and wild-type control C3H/HeOuJ mice. The mandibular first molars of both strains were subjected to pulpal exposure and infection with a mixture of four anaerobic pathogens, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus intermedius, and Peptostreptococcus micros. At sacrifice on day 21, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice had significantly reduced periapical bone destruction compared to wild-type C3H/HeOuJ mice (P < 0.001). The decreased bone destruction in C3H/HeJ correlated with reduced expression of the bone resorptive cytokines interleukin 1α (IL-1α) (P < 0.01) and IL-1β (P < 0.05) as well as the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were seen in the levels of gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), or IL-10 between the two strains. The expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were all significantly reduced in vitro in macrophages from both TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScNCr strains, compared to wild-type controls. Notably, the responses of TLR4-deficient macrophages to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were similarly reduced. Neither C3H/HeJ nor C3H/HeOuJ mice exhibited orofacial abscess development or infection dissemination as determined by splenomegaly or cachexia. We conclude that intact TLR function mediates increased proinflammatory responses and bone destruction in response to mixed anaerobic infections.