To evaluate the usefulness and limitations of the intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) and analysis of fluorescence intensity in cerebrovascular surgery.
Forty-eight patients received ICG-VA during various surgical procedures from May 2010 to August 2010. Included among them were 45 cases of cerebral aneurysms and 3 cases of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The infrared fluorescence module integrated into the surgical microscope was used to visualize fluorescent areas in the surgical field. An integrated analytical visualization tool constantly analyzed the fluorescence video sequence and generated it in the form of an intensity diagram for objective interpretation.
Overall, the procedure of ICG VA was done 158 times in 48 patients. There was no adverse effect of ICG dye. In cerebral aneurysm cases, the images obtained were of high resolution. In 4 cases, incomplete clipping was detected by ICG-VA and allowed suitable adjustment to completely obliterate the aneurysm. In 3 aneurysm cases, the intensity diagram of ICG VA provided valuable information. ICG-VA identiﬁed the feeding arteries, the draining veins, and nidus in all 3 AVM cases, which was conﬁrmed by an immediate analysis of fluorescence intensity.
ICG-VA provides high resolution images allowing real-time assessment of the blood flow in surgical field. The intensity analysis function, in addition, is a useful adjunct to improve the accuracy of the clipping and decrease the complication rates in cerebral aneurysm cases. In cerebral AVM cases, with the help of color map and intensity diagram function, the superficial feeders, drainers, and nidus can be identified easily.