Papillary carcinoma of the breast is a very rare entity accounting for approx 1 % of all breast carcinomas. The diagnosis is difficult due to different clinical and radiological features. Pathological diagnosis is conclusive. Being aware of the diagnostic difficulties and differences in management from the more commonly reported IDC, makes it easier to treat these patients. Because this is an uncommon disease, we report here 2 cases recently diagnosed and treated in our hospital. We have also reviewed the literature regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of these patients.
Papillary; Carcinoma; Breast
The aim of this study was to see the biochemical effects of pesticides on sprayers of grape gardens before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementations in Western Maharashtra (India), who were occupationally exposed to various pesticides over a long period of time (about 5 to 15 years). Blood samples were collected from all study group subjects for biochemical parameters assays before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementation. Sprayers of grape gardens were given 400 mg of vitamin E tablet/day for 15 days. After 15 days of vitamin E supplementation to sprayers of grape gardens, we observed significantly decreased aspartate transaminase (10.88 %, P < 0.05, r = 0.88), alanine transaminase (25.92 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.46) and total proteins (3.32 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.33), whereas, no statistically significant change was found in serum acetyl cholinesterase, C-reactive proteins, albumin (ALB), globulins and ALB/globulin ratio as compared to before vitamin E supplementation. Sprayers of grape gardens, who received vitamin E supplementation, showed significantly decreased serum lipid peroxide (LP) (18.75 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.63) and significantly increased RBC-superoxide dismutase (SOD) (12.88 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.85), RBC-Catalase (CAT) (24.49 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.70), plasma ceruloplasmin (CP) (4.6 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.80), serum zinc (4.57 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.83) and serum copper (4.37 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.79) as compared to values before vitamin E supplementation. These results showed that vitamin E supplementation has ameliorating effects on these transaminase enzymes, suggesting that it may have a protective effect on liver, from pesticides induced damage. In this study vitamin E supplementation might have decreased LP levels by breaking chain reaction of lipid peroxidation. Present results indicate that vitamin E plays a crucial role in restoring the antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and CP, in population exposed to pesticides. This helps to enhance its antioxidant ability. Therefore, it is suggested that farmers, pesticide applicators, workers in the pesticide industry and other pesticide users, who come in regular contact with pesticides, may be benefited by supplementation with vitamin E.
Acetylcholinesterase; C-reactive proteins; Aspartate transaminase; Alanine transaminase; Lipid peroxidation; Superoxide dismutase; Catalase; Ceruloplasmin; Glutathione-S-transferase
To assess changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in brainstem gliomas in children and to observe the temporal evolution of changes in the white matter tracts following therapy using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis.
Serial ADC and FA measurements were obtained in 3 patients with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas on two approved treatment protocols. Values were compared with a set of normative ADC, FA, and eigenvalues of age-matched children of the corticospinal, transverse pontine and medial lemniscal tracts. Fiber tracking of the tracts coursing through the brainstem was performed using standard diffusion tractography analysis.
We found increased ADC values within tumor at baseline compared to age-matched controls, with subsequent drop following treatment and subsequent increase with recurrence. Correspondingly, FA values were reduced at presentation, but transiently recovered during the phase of tumor response to treatment, and finally decreased significantly during tumor progression. These changes were concordant with the tractography analysis of white matter tracts in the brainstem. Based on these results, we suggest that initial changes in ADC and FA values reflects tract infiltration by tumor, but not complete disruption, whereas tumor progression results in complete loss of anisotropy possibly due to tract disruption.
Serial changes in ADC and FA values and tractography data in pediatric brainstem gliomas suggest initial tumor infiltration, with transient improvement on treatment and subsequent loss of tract anisotropy during tumor progression. This technique may have potential use in assessing response to treatment regimens for pediatric brainstem gliomas.
MRI; diffusion tensor imaging; brainstem glioma; pediatrics
Rationale and Objectives
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic neurocutaneous syndrome in which cognitive and social-behavioral outcomes for patients vary widely in an unpredictable manner. The cause of adverse neurological outcome remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis that disordered white matter and abnormal neural connectivity are associated with adverse neurological outcome.
Materials and Methods
Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in 40 subjects with TSC (age range 0.5 – 25 years, mean age 7.2 and median age 5 years), 12 of whom had autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and in 29 age-matched controls. Tractography of the corpus callosum was used to define a 3-dimensional volume of interest. Regional averages of four diffusion scalar parameters of the callosal projections were calculated for each subject. These were the average fractional anisotropy (AFA) and average mean, radial and axial diffusivity (AMD, ARD, AAD).
Subjects with TSC had significantly lower AFA and higher AMD, ARD and AAD values compared to controls. Subjects with TSC and ASD had significantly lower AFA values compared to those without ASD, and compared to controls. TSC subjects without ASD had similar AFA values compared to controls.
Diffusion tensor scalar parameters provided measures of properties of the three-dimensional callosal projections. In TSC, changes in these parameters may reflect microstructural changes in myelination, axonal integrity, or extracellular environment. Alterations in white matter microstructural properties were associated with TSC and larger changes were associated with TSC and ASD, thus establishing a relationship between altered white matter microstructural integrity and brain function.
The Indian guidelines on following up sputum smear-negative Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients differ from the current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in that the former recommends two follow up sputum examinations (once at the end of intensive phase and the other at the end of treatment) while the latter recommends only one follow up sputum smear microscopy examination, which is done at the end of the intensive phase. This study was conducted to examine if there was any added value in performing an additional sputum smear examination at the end of treatment within the context of a national TB program.
This study was a descriptive record based review conducted in nine tuberculosis (TB) units in Delhi, India. All consecutive new sputum smear-negative PTB patients registered in these nine TB units from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2009 were included in the study.
Of 2567 new sputum smear-negative TB patients, 1973 (90%) had sputum specimens examined at the end of the intensive phase, of whom 36 (2%) were smear-positive: the majority (n = 28) successfully completed treatment with either the same or a re-treatment regimen. At treatment completion, 1766 (85%) patients had sputum specimens examined, of whom 16 (0.9%) were smear-positive: all these were changed to a re-treatment regimen. Amongst the sputum-positive patients identified as a result of follow up (n = 52), four were diagnosed with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), three of whom were detected after smear examination at the end of treatment.
Given the high burden of TB in India, a 0.9% additional yield of smear-positive sputum smears at the end of treatment translates to 3,297 cases of smear-positive PTB. End-of-treatment smear is a low-yield strategy for detection of smear-positive TB cases, although further studies are needed to determine its population-level impact and cost, particularly in relation to other TB control interventions.
Usually patients receive healthcare services from multiple hospitals, and consequently their healthcare data are dispersed over many facilities’ paper and electronic-based record systems. Therefore, many countries have encouraged the research on data interoperability, access, and patient authorization. This study is an important part of a national project to build an information exchange environment for cross-hospital digital medical records carried out by the Department of Health (DOH) of Taiwan in May 2008. The key objective of the core project is to set up a portable data exchange environment in order to enable people to maintain and own their essential health information.
This study is aimed at exploring the factors influencing behavior and adoption of USB-based Personal Health Records (PHR) in Taiwan.
Quota sampling was used, and structured questionnaires were distributed to the outpatient department at ten medical centers which participated in the DOH project to establish the information exchange environment across hospitals. A total of 3000 questionnaires were distributed and 1549 responses were collected, out of those 1465 were valid, accumulating the response rate to 48.83%.
1025 out of 1465 respondents had expressed their willingness to apply for the USB-PHR. Detailed analysis of the data reflected that there was a remarkable difference in the “usage intention” between the PHR adopters and non-adopters (χ2 =182.4, p < 0.001). From the result of multivariate logistic regression analyses, we found the key factors affecting patients’ adoption pattern were Usage Intention (OR, 9.43, 95%C.I., 5.87-15.16), Perceived Usefulness (OR, 1.60; 95%C.I., 1.11-2.29) and Subjective Norm (OR, 1.47; 95%C.I., 1.21-1.78).
Higher Usage Intentions, Perceived Usefulness and Subjective Norm of patients were found to be the key factors influencing PHR adoption. Thus, we suggest that government and hospitals should promote the potential usefulness of PHR, and physicians should encourage patients' to adopt the PHR.
Personal Health Records (PHR); Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Adoption, Behavior, Taiwan
Carnivorous plants match their animal prey for speed of movements and hence offer fascinating insights into the evolution of fast movements in plants. Here, we describe the mechanics of prey capture in aquatic bladderworts Utricularia stellaris, which prey on swimming insect larvae or nematodes to supplement their nitrogen intake. The closed Utricularia bladder develops lower-than-ambient internal pressures by pumping out water from the bladder and thus setting up an elastic instability in bladder walls. When the external sensory trigger hairs on their trapdoor are mechanically stimulated by moving prey, the trapdoor opens within 300–700 μs, causing strong inward flows that trap their prey. The opening time of the bladder trapdoor is faster than any recorded motion in carnivorous plants. Thus, Utricularia have evolved a unique biomechanical system to gain an advantage over their animal prey.
carnivorous plants; Utricularia; high-speed videography
Patients with Stage IV melanoma have limited therapeutic options with few long term survivors. Our goal was to study the impact of metastasectomy on survival in these patients.
Patients with Stage IV melanoma were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (1988–2006). Those who had metastasectomy performed were compared with patients that did not.
The median age of the study population (n= 4229) was 63 years and median survival was 7 months. Patients who underwent metastasectomy (33.6%) had an improved median and 5-year overall survival as compared to patients who did not; 12 months vs. 5 months and 16% vs. 7%, p <0.001). In patients with M1a disease (n= 1994), this improvement of survival following metastasectomy was enhanced; median survival of 14 months vs. 6 months and 5-year overall survival of 20% vs. 9% (p <0.001). Younger age and diagnosis from 2001–2006 were predictors of metastasectomy. Metastasectomy was an independent and significant predictor of survival for the entire cohort (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.55– 0.63).
Metastasectomy in patients with Stage IV melanoma may improve long term survival. The true therapeutic benefit, if any, of metastatectomy needs to be determined by a randomized trial.
Stage IV melanoma; metastasectomy; survival
Rise of diphtheria cases in adults is a cause of concern worldwide. Pertussis is also now affecting adults. We assessed serum levels of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis antibodies in 62 adults in Pune, India, who had missed their primary immunization. All adults were then given three doses of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months. All adults were immune to tetanus but 78% had long-term protection. For diphtheria, 88% were protected but only 9% had long term immunity. Only 60% were immune to pertussis. After three doses of the vaccine, long term immunity to both tetanus and diphtheria increased to 87% and 97%, respectively (P < 0.05). Geometric mean titres (GMT) of both antibodies also increased significantly. The vaccine caused minor local reactions and mild fever in a few subjects. There is need of three doses of Td vaccination in those Indian adults, who missed their primary immunization. Susceptibility to pertussis also needs to be further explored.
Currently, no data from randomized controlled clinical trials are available to guide the depth of resection for intermediate-thickness primary cutaneous melanoma. Thus, we hypothesized that substantial variability exists in this aspect of surgical care. We have summarized the literature regarding depth of resection and report the results of our survey of surgeons who treat melanoma. Most of the 320 respondents resected down to, but did not include, the muscular fascia (extremity, 71%; trunk, 66%; and head and neck, 62%). However, significant variation exists. We identified variability in our own practice and have elected to standardize this common aspect of routine surgical care across our institution. In light of the lack of evidence to support resection of the deep muscular fascia, we have elected to preserve the muscular fascia as a matter of routine, except when a deep primary melanoma or thin subcutaneous tissue dictates otherwise.
Extra-anatomical bypass grafting is a recognised method of lower limb re-vascularisation in high-risk patients who cannot tolerate aortic cross clamping, or in those with a hostile abdomen. We present a single surgeon series of such procedures and determine relevant outcomes.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A retrospective review was performed on a prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing femoro-femoral or axillo-femoral bypass surgery between 1986 and 2004.
Patency rates for femoral (n = 28; 32%) versus axillary (n = 59; 68%) bypass procedures at 1 month, 1, 3 and 5 years were (92% vs 93%), (69% vs 85%), (60% vs 72%) and (55% vs 67%), respectively. Patient survival rates for the corresponding procedures and time intervals were (96% vs 90%), (96% vs 67%), (85% vs 45%) and (73% vs 38%) and revealed a significantly lower survival rate in those undergoing axillary procedures (P = 0.002). Limb salvage rates were calculated at (100% vs 91%), (96% vs 84%), (96% vs 81%) and (92% vs 81%) with no statistically significant difference found between the two groups (P = 0.124). Two-thirds of the patients who required major amputation died within 12 months of surgery.
Acceptable 30-day morbidity, long-term primary patency and survival rates are obtainable in patients suitable for extra-anatomical bypass surgery despite having significant co-morbidities. We have shown 5-year patency rates in those that survive axillary procedures to be as good as those undergoing femoral procedures. Furthermore, surviving patients who evade amputation within a year have an excellent chance of long-term limb salvage.
Extra-anatomical bypass grafting; Femoro-femoral; Axillo-femoral; Limb salvage
Migrating insects use their sensory systems to acquire local and global cues about their surroundings. Previous research on tethered insects suggests that, in addition to vision and cephalic bristles, insects use antennal mechanosensory feedback to maintain their airspeeds. Owing to the large displacements of migratory insects and difficulties inherent in tracking single individuals, the roles of these sensory inputs have never been tested in freely migrating insects. We tracked individual uraniid moths (Urania fulgens) as they migrated diurnally over the Panama Canal, and measured airspeeds and orientation for individuals with either intact or amputated flagella. Consistent with prior observations that antennal input is necessary for flight control, 59 per cent of the experimental moths could not fly after flagella amputation. The remaining fraction (41%) was flight-capable and maintained its prior airspeeds despite severe reduction in antennal input. Thus, maintenance of airspeeds may not involve antennal input alone, and is probably mediated by other modalities. Moths with amputated flagella could not recover their proper migratory orientations, suggesting that antennal integrity is necessary for long-distance navigation.
insect migration; antenna; flight
Since its first description in 1990, sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become the standard for accurate staging of a melanoma-draining regional lymphatic basin. This minimally invasive, multidisciplinary technique can detect occult metastases by selective sampling and focused pathologic analysis of the first nodes on the afferent lymphatic pathway from a primary cutaneous melanoma. An understanding of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative lymphatic mapping, and the definition of SN are critical for surgical expertise with SN biopsy.
Sentinel node biopsy; lymphoscintigraphy
There is debate on optimal techniques that reduce bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A national survey of Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland (AUGIS) members was carried out to determine current surgical practice for gallstones, including the use of intra-operative cholangiography (IOC) or critical view of safety to reduce the risk of bile duct injury.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
An anonymous postal survey was sent to all 417 AUGIS members. Data on grade of surgeon, place of work (district general hospital, teaching), subspecialty, number LC per year, use of IOC, critical view of safety, and management of stones detected during surgery were collated.
There was a 36% (152/417) response – 134 (88%) from consultant surgeons (36, HPB; 106,OG; 64, DGH; 88, teaching hospital). Of these, 38% performed > 100 LC per year, 36% 50–100 LC per year, and 22% 25–50 LC per year. IOC was routine for 24%; and selective for 72%. Critical view of Calot's triangle was advocated by 82%. Overall, 55% first clip and divide the cystic artery, whereas 41% first clip and divide the cystic duct. Some 39% recommend IOC and 23% pre-oper-ative MRCP if dilated common bile duct (CBD) is noted on pre-operative ultrasound. When bile duct stones are identified on IOC, 61% perform laparoscopic CBD exploration (LCBDE), 25% advise postoperative ERCP, and 13% perform either LCBDE or ERCP. Overall, 88% (n = 134) recommend index cholecystectomy for acute pathology, and this is more likely in a teaching hospital setting (P= 0.003). Laparoscopic CBD exploration was more likely to be performed in university hospitals (P< 0.05).
A wide dissection of Calot's triangle to provide a critical view of safety is the technique most commonly recommended by AUGIS surgeons (83%) to minimise risk of bile duct injury, in contrast to 24% that recommend routine IOC. The majority (88%) of AUGIS surgeons advise index admission cholecystectomy for acute gallbladder disease.
Gallbladder disease; Intra-operative cholangiography; Calot's triangle; UK audit
During a routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy of the Rural Medical College, Loni, we found a rare variation in branching pattern of the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA) bilaterally. The knowledge of possible anatomical variations of CCA and ECA are especially important in the surgeries of head, neck and face; and also for the radiologist to understand and interpret carotid system imaging when undertaking cerebral angiography. This case and the clinical significance of this variation are reported in this paper.
Common carotid artery; external carotid artery; superior thyroid artery,; linguo-facial trunk; ascending pharyngeal artery; occipital artery
Background and Objectives:
Little is known about the natural history of neonates born in the rural and tribal areas in India. The Neonatal Disease Surveillance Study (NDSS) measures the incidence of high-priority neonatal diseases, neonatal health events and associated risk factors to plan appropriate and effective actions.
Materials and Methods:
The NDSS is being conducted in Ramtek Revenue Block, Nagpur district, Maharashtra state, given its considerably high level of neonatal mortality. All households from five selected primary health centers were screened. Both active and passive surveillance systems were used for systematic collection of mother's health during pregnancy and of baby's health from birth to 4 months after birth. First-year results from November 2006 to October 2007 are presented.
Pregnancy outcomes were available for 1,136 women, with an overall neonatal mortality of 73 per 1,000 live births. The pregnancy outcomes varied by gestational age of the baby; miscarriages and abortions were higher in tribal than in non-tribal women, and tribal women had higher rates of low-birth weight (LBW) neonates than non-tribal women. The main cause of neonatal mortality was LBW, followed by sepsis and respiratory illness. The mortality of non-tribal babies was most strongly associated with pre term. For tribal babies, mortality was also associated with maternal morbidity and delay in the initiation of breastfeeding.
Interpretation and Conclusions:
The NDSS provides valuable information on the potentially modifiable factors associated with increased likelihood of neonatal mortality and morbidity. The Neonatal Health Research Initiative is now developing community-based interventions to reduce the high rate of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the rural areas of India.
Neonatal morbidity; neonatal mortality; rural communities; tribal communities
Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings.
flexible wings; flapping flight; aerodynamics
Periodic retraining ensures that experts are updated in the advances in the science and methods of their profession. Such periodic retraining is sparsely accessible to Indian occupational health physicians and researchers. However, there is significant material that is available online in occupational health and related fields. This information is open-source and is freely available. It does not require any special subscription on the client's part. This information can supplement the efforts of motivated occupational health practitioners in India.
Education; online resources; training
Local anaesthetic inguinal hernia repair may be technically demanding. There are minimal data regarding the outcomes of local anaesthetic hernia repair by trainees in comparison with consultants.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
All consecutive local anaesthetic repairs performed by trainees and one consultant over a 9-year period were reviewed. Operation time, volume of local anaesthetic used, early and long-term complications were assessed. A postal survey was conducted to assess chronic groin pain and satisfaction rates.
A total of 369 repairs were reviewed of which 265 repairs were performed by the consultant and 104 by trainees. The male-to-female ratio was 25:1 and the median age of the study group was 61 years (range, 18–93 years). The volume of local anaesthetic used was significantly higher for trainees than the consultant (42 ml versus 69 ml; P = 0.03). The operative time for the consultant and the trainees was 35 min and 40 min (P = 0.8). The day-case rate was higher for the consultant than the trainees (84% versus 69%; P = 0.02). Three patients operated by trainees required conversion to a general anaesthetic repair. No difference was noted in chronic groin pain (consultant 28% versus trainees 32%; P = 0.52) on the postal survey. The median follow-up was 5 years (range, 2–7 years).
Local anaesthetic inguinal hernia repair can be performed safely by surgical trainees under consultant supervision with minimal short- and long-term morbidity. A large volume dilute solution of Lignocaine and Marcaine is recommended when hernia repair is undertaken by trainees.
Inguinal hernia; Training; Local anaesthesia
Neurogenesis continues through adulthood in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of mammals. Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in learning and memory, and linked with depression. Hippocampal neurogenesis is increased in response to a number of stimuli, including exposure to an enriched environment, increased locomotor activity, and administration of antidepressants. Adult neurogenesis is depressed in response to aging, stress and sleep deprivation. Intriguingly, caffeine modulates a number of these same stimuli in a dose-dependent manner. We examined the dose and duration dependent effects of caffeine on the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons in adult mice. Extended, 7-day caffeine administration, alters the proliferation of adult hippocampal precursors in the mouse in a dose dependent manner; moderate to high doses (20–30mg/kg/day) of caffeine depress proliferation while supraphysiological doses (60mg/kg/day) increase proliferation of neuronal precursors. Acute, 1-day administration had no affect on proliferation. Caffeine administration does not affect the expression of early or late markers of neuronal differentiation, or rates of long-term survival. However, neurons induced in response to supraphysiological levels of caffeine have a lower survival rate than control cells; increased proliferation does not yield an increase in long-term neurogenesis. These results demonstrate that physiologically relevant doses of caffeine can significantly depress adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Adult Neurogenesis; Caffeine; Hippocampus; cleaved caspase-3; differentiation
Street sweepers play an important role in maintaining the health and hygiene within the cities. This job exposes the street sweepers to a variety of risk factors such as dust, toxins and diesel exhaust pollution, which make them vulnerable to develop certain occupational diseases. Therefore, it was thought necessary to study the morbidity profile in this occupational group.
To study the prevalence of morbidities among street sweepers and comparison group.
A cross-sectional study with a comparison group.
Nagpur Municipal Corporation, Nagpur.
The study included two groups: (1) A study group comprising 273 street sweepers. (2) A comparison group comprising 142 class IV workers working in the office buildings of Nagpur Municipal Corporation, Nagpur.
Materials and Methods:
A pretested proforma was used to record the necessary information such as clinical history, sociodemographic factors, findings of clinical examination and investigations performed.
Results and Conclusions:
The important morbidities detected among street sweepers were the following: anemia (20.5%), hypertension (9.5%), upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) (7.3%) and chronic bronchitis (5.9%). In the comparison group, important morbidities detected were the following: anemia (20.4%), hypertension (11.3%), hyperacidity (9.9%), URTI (7.0%) and refractive error (7.0%). Chronic bronchitis was detected in two subjects (1.4%) of the comparison group. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly high among street sweepers than that of subjects of the comparison group. Therefore, it is recommended that further studies with a larger sample size be undertaken to identify the factors responsible for higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis among the street sweepers.
Cross-sectional study; occupational morbidities; street sweepers
To study the effect of the methomyl on mixed function oxidase system in rats.
Materials and Methods:
The effect of the methomyl on mixed function oxidase was studied using different dosages, durations and sex. Microsomes were isolated using the calcium precipitation method. The levels of cytochrome P450 , and cytochrome b5 were determined using extinction coefficient of 91 and 85 mM-1 respectively. The activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, hemoglobin content, liver function enzymes, and serum cholinesterase activity were assayed by using standard methods.
Intraperitoneal administration of methomyl (4 mg/kg body weight) showed significant decrease in the level of cytochrome P450 , and the activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase on the third day of the treatment. Methomyl (4 mg/kg) treatment of old male rat and adult female rat also showed a decrease in the level of cytochrome P450 , and aminopyrine N-demethylase activity. The serum samples from methomyl treated rats (male and female), when analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) and aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) as markers of the liver toxicity, showed significant increase in the activity. The activities of SGPT and SGOT were significantly higher in the treated rats (2 and 4 mg/kg) than in the control group. A significant decrease in the level of hemoglobin and serum cholinesterase activity was observed, when there was an increase in the dose level. A significant increase was observed in alkaline phosphatase activity at all dose levels.
Methomyl influences mixed function oxidase and creates abnormality of liver functions in the rats. This effect depends on the dose and duration of methomyl.
Aminopyrine N-demethylase; cytochrome P450; methomyl; mixed function oxidase; toxicity
Vascular tumours of the stomach are rare, representing 0.9%–3.3% of all gastric neoplasms. A 58 year old man was admitted as an emergency with a one day history of haematemesis and melaena. He underwent an emergency laparotomy for a tumour in the lesser curve of the stomach. The tumour showed the characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features of epithelioid haemangioendothelioma. Surgery in the form of wide excision seems to be the treatment of choice for this rare neoplasm. This case highlights the difficulty in diagnosing this rare tumour preoperatively and emphasises the need for long term follow up in view of its uncertain metastatic potential.