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1.  Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies a Novel Locus Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility in Sikhs of Punjabi Origin From India 
Diabetes  2013;62(5):1746-1755.
We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a multistage meta-analysis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Punjabi Sikhs from India. Our discovery GWAS in 1,616 individuals (842 case subjects) was followed by in silico replication of the top 513 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 10−3) in Punjabi Sikhs (n = 2,819; 801 case subjects). We further replicated 66 SNPs (P < 10−4) through genotyping in a Punjabi Sikh sample (n = 2,894; 1,711 case subjects). On combined meta-analysis in Sikh populations (n = 7,329; 3,354 case subjects), we identified a novel locus in association with T2D at 13q12 represented by a directly genotyped intronic SNP (rs9552911, P = 1.82 × 10−8) in the SGCG gene. Next, we undertook in silico replication (stage 2b) of the top 513 signals (P < 10−3) in 29,157 non-Sikh South Asians (10,971 case subjects) and de novo genotyping of up to 31 top signals (P < 10−4) in 10,817 South Asians (5,157 case subjects) (stage 3b). In combined South Asian meta-analysis, we observed six suggestive associations (P < 10−5 to < 10−7), including SNPs at HMG1L1/CTCFL, PLXNA4, SCAP, and chr5p11. Further evaluation of 31 top SNPs in 33,707 East Asians (16,746 case subjects) (stage 3c) and 47,117 Europeans (8,130 case subjects) (stage 3d), and joint meta-analysis of 128,127 individuals (44,358 case subjects) from 27 multiethnic studies, did not reveal any additional loci nor was there any evidence of replication for the new variant. Our findings provide new evidence on the presence of a population-specific signal in relation to T2D, which may provide additional insights into T2D pathogenesis.
doi:10.2337/db12-1077
PMCID: PMC3636649  PMID: 23300278
2.  Genetic Determinants of Cardio-Metabolic Risk: A Proposed Model for Phenotype Association and Interaction 
This review provides a translational and unifying summary of metabolic syndrome genetics and highlights evidence that genetic studies are starting to unravel and untangle origins of the complex and challenging cluster of disease phenotypes. The associated genes effectively express in the brain, liver, kidney, arterial endothelium, adipocytes, myocytes and β cells. Progression of syndrome traits has been associated with ectopic lipid accumulation in the arterial wall, visceral adipocytes, myocytes, and liver. Thus it follows that the genetics of dyslipidemia, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) disease are central in triggering progression of the syndrome to overt expression of disease traits, and have become a key focus of interest for early detection and for designing prevention and treatments. To support the “birds’ eye view” approach we provide a road-map depicting commonality and interrelationships between the traits and their genetic and environmental determinants based on known risk factors, metabolic pathways, pharmacological targets, treatment responses, gene networks, pleiotropy, and association with circadian rhythm. Although only a small portion of the known heritability is accounted for and there is insufficient support for clinical application of gene-based prediction models, there is direction and encouraging progress in a rapidly moving field that is beginning to show clinical relevance.
doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2012.04.079
PMCID: PMC3559023  PMID: 23351585
3.  Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardio-Metabolic Risk in a North Indian Community with Highly Prevalent Type 2 Diabetes 
Journal of diabetes & metabolism  2012;3:10.4172/2155-6156.1000213.
Objective
The purpose of this investigation was to examine serum vitamin D status in a population of Punjabi ancestry from Northern India with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and evaluate the effects of 25(OH)D levels on cardio-metabolic traits.
Research design and methods
We assessed cardiovascular risk factors and 25(OH)D levels in 1,765 participants (887 T2D cases, 878 normoglycemic controls).
Results
76% of individuals were deficient (<50 nmol/L) in vitamin D. A higher percentage of T2D participants(83%) were vitamin D deficient compared to normoglycemic controls (68%)(p<0.0001).The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased progressively with body mass index (BMI) categories (p<0.0001): BMI<23 kg/m2, 65%; BMI 23–27.5 kg/m2, 75%; and BMI>27.5 kg/m2, 81%. T2D participants had significantly decreased serum 25(OH)D levels (β=−0.41, p=2.8 × 10−20). Individuals with low serum 25(OH)D had elevated fasting glucose(β=−0.18, p=0.022), BMI (β=-0.71, p=1.4 × 10−7) and systolic blood pressure (β=−1.68, p=0.006). A positive association of increased 25(OH)D with HOMA-B (β=0.17, p=8.0×10−6), and C-peptide (β=0.09, 0.017) was observed. Non-medicated, normoglycemic, non-hypertensive individuals classified as vitamin D deficient (n=289) exhibited a significant increase in fasting glucose (p=0.02) and BMI (p<0.0001) as well as a significant decrease in C-peptide (p<0.0001) and amylin (p<0.0001) compared to vitamin D sufficient controls (n=150).
Conclusions
Vitamin D deficiency appears to be a significant risk factor for T2D severity and associated cardio-metabolic risk. Early intervention may be considered to improve prevention of T2D related cardiovascular complications.
doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000213
PMCID: PMC3817265  PMID: 24199029
4.  Genetic Variation in Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein (CETP), Serum CETP Activity, and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Risk in Asian Indian Diabetic Cohort 
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics  2012;22(2):95-104.
Background
The role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in the metabolism of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is well studied but still controversial. More recently, GWAS and metaanalyses reported the association of a promoter variant (rs3764261) with HDL-C in Caucasians and other ethnic groups. In this study, we have examined the role of genetic variation in the promoter region of CETP with HDL-C, CETP activity, coronary artery disease (CAD), CAD risk factors, and the interaction of genetic factors with environment in a unique diabetic cohort of Asian Indian Sikhs.
Methods and Results
We genotyped four variants; three tagSNPs from promoter (rs3764261, rs12447924, rs4783961) and one intronic variant (rs708272 Taq1B) on 2,431 individuals from the Sikh Diabetes Study. Two variants (rs3764261 and rs708272) exhibited a strong associations with HDL-C in both normo-glycemic (NG) controls (β= 0.12; p= 9.35 ×10−7 for rs3764261; β= 0.10, p= 0.002 for rs708272) and diabetic cases (β= 0.07, p= 0.016 for rs3764261; β= 0.08, p= 0.005 for rs708272) with increased levels among minor homozygous ‘AA’ carriers. In addition, the same ‘A’ allele carriers in rs376426 showed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (β= −0.08, p= 0.002) in NG controls. Haplotype analysis of rs3764261, rs12447924, rs4783961, and rs708272 further revealed a significant association of ‘ATAA’ haplotype with increased HDL-C (β= 2.71, p= 6.38 ×10−5) and ‘CTAG’ haplotype with decreased HDL–C levels (β= −1.78, p= 2.5×10−2). Although there was no direct association of CETP activity and CETP polymorphisms, low CETP activity was associated with increased risk to CAD (age, BMI and gender adjusted odds ratio 2.2 95% CI (1.4–3.4, p= 0.001) in this study. Our data revealed a strong interaction of rs3764261 and rs708272 for affecting the association between CETP activity and HDL–C levels; p= 2.2 × 10−6, and p= 4.4 × 10−4, respectively.
Conclusions
Our results, in conjunction with earlier reports confirm low CETP activity to be associated with higher CAD risk. Although there was no direct association of CETP activity with CETP polymorphisms, our findings revealed a significant interaction between CETP SNPs and CETP activity for affecting HDL-C levels. These results urge a deeper evaluation of the individual genetic variation in the CETP before implementing pharmaceutical intervention of blocking CETP for preventing CAD events.
doi:10.1097/FPC.0b013e32834dc9ef
PMCID: PMC3269125  PMID: 22143414
5.  Type 2 Diabetes Genetics: Beyond GWAS 
The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is one of the most challenging problems of the 21st century leading cause of and the fifth death worldwide. Substantial evidence suggests that T2D is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified and replicated nearly 75 susceptibility loci associated with T2D and related metabolic traits, mostly in Europeans, and some in African, and South Asian populations. The GWAS serve as a starting point for future genetic and functional studies since the mechanisms of action by which these associated loci influence disease is still unclear and it is difficult to predict potential implication of these findings in clinical settings. Despite extensive replication, no study has unequivocally demonstrated their clinical role in the disease management beyond progression to T2D from impaired glucose tolerance. However, these studies are revealing new molecular pathways underlying diabetes etiology, gene-environment interactions, epigenetic modifications, and gene function. This review highlights evolving progress made in the rapidly moving field of T2D genetics that is starting to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype and has potential to show clinical relevance in the near future.
doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000198
PMCID: PMC3521576  PMID: 23243555
6.  PPARG and ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms increase type 2 diabetes risk in Asian Indian Sikhs: Pro12Ala still remains the strongest predictor 
We have examined the association of 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor gamma transcripts 1 and 2 (PPARG1&2) and 5 tagSNPs in adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes for their effect on type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in Asian Indian Sikhs. A total of 554 T2D cases and 527 normoglycemic (NG) controls were examined for association with T2D and other sub-phenotypes of T2D. With the exception of a strong association of PPARG2/Pro12Ala with T2D [OR 0.13, 95%CI (0.03–0.56), p=0.0007], no other tagSNP in the PPARG locus revealed any significant association with T2D in this population. Similarly, none of the tagSNPs in the ADIPOQ gene was associated with T2D susceptibility in single-site analysis. However, haplotype analysis provided strong evidence of association of these loci with T2D. Three-site haplotype analysis in the PPARG locus using the two marginally associated SNPs (P/rs11715073 and P/rs3892175) in combination with Pro12 Ala (P/rs1801282) revealed a strong association of one ‘risk’ (CGC) (p=0.003; permutation p=0.015) and one ‘protective’ (CAC) (p =0.001; permutation p=0.005) haplotype associated with T2D. However, the major effect still appears to be driven by Pro12Ala as the association of these haplotypes did not remain significant when analyzed conditional upon Pro12Ala (p = 0.262). Additionally, two-site haplotype analysis in the ADIPOQ locus using only two marginally associated SNPs (AD/rs182052 and AD/rs7649121) revealed a significant protective association of the GA haplotype with T2D (p=0.009; permutation p=0.026). Multiple linear regression analysis also revealed significant association of an ADIPOQ variant (AD/rs12495941) with total body weight (p= 0.010), waist (p=0.024) and hip (p=0.021), although these associations were not significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Our new findings strongly suggest that the genetic variation in PPARG and ADIPOQ loci could contribute to risk for the development of T2D in Indian Sikhs. Identification of causal SNPs in these important biological and positional candidate genes would help determine true physiological significance of these loci in T2D and obesity.
doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2009.07.043
PMCID: PMC2843807  PMID: 19846176
7.  Discovery and Refinement of Loci Associated with Lipid Levels 
Willer, Cristen J. | Schmidt, Ellen M. | Sengupta, Sebanti | Peloso, Gina M. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Kanoni, Stavroula | Ganna, Andrea | Chen, Jin | Buchkovich, Martin L. | Mora, Samia | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | Chang, Hsing-Yi | Demirkan, Ayşe | Den Hertog, Heleen M. | Do, Ron | Donnelly, Louise A. | Ehret, Georg B. | Esko, Tõnu | Feitosa, Mary F. | Ferreira, Teresa | Fischer, Krista | Fontanillas, Pierre | Fraser, Ross M. | Freitag, Daniel F. | Gurdasani, Deepti | Heikkilä, Kauko | Hyppönen, Elina | Isaacs, Aaron | Jackson, Anne U. | Johansson, Åsa | Johnson, Toby | Kaakinen, Marika | Kettunen, Johannes | Kleber, Marcus E. | Li, Xiaohui | Luan, Jian’an | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Magnusson, Patrik K.E. | Mangino, Massimo | Mihailov, Evelin | Montasser, May E. | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | O’Connell, Jeffrey R. | Palmer, Cameron D. | Perola, Markus | Petersen, Ann-Kristin | Sanna, Serena | Saxena, Richa | Service, Susan K. | Shah, Sonia | Shungin, Dmitry | Sidore, Carlo | Song, Ci | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Surakka, Ida | Tanaka, Toshiko | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Van den Herik, Evita G. | Voight, Benjamin F. | Volcik, Kelly A. | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wong, Andrew | Wu, Ying | Zhang, Weihua | Absher, Devin | Asiki, Gershim | Barroso, Inês | Been, Latonya F. | Bolton, Jennifer L. | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Brambilla, Paolo | Burnett, Mary S. | Cesana, Giancarlo | Dimitriou, Maria | Doney, Alex S.F. | Döring, Angela | Elliott, Paul | Epstein, Stephen E. | Ingi Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur | Gigante, Bruna | Goodarzi, Mark O. | Grallert, Harald | Gravito, Martha L. | Groves, Christopher J. | Hallmans, Göran | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hayward, Caroline | Hernandez, Dena | Hicks, Andrew A. | Holm, Hilma | Hung, Yi-Jen | Illig, Thomas | Jones, Michelle R. | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Kastelein, John J.P. | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Kim, Eric | Klopp, Norman | Komulainen, Pirjo | Kumari, Meena | Langenberg, Claudia | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lin, Shih-Yi | Lindström, Jaana | Loos, Ruth J.F. | Mach, François | McArdle, Wendy L | Meisinger, Christa | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Müller, Gabrielle | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Narisu, Narisu | Nieminen, Tuomo V.M. | Nsubuga, Rebecca N. | Olafsson, Isleifur | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Papamarkou, Theodore | Pomilla, Cristina | Pouta, Anneli | Rader, Daniel J. | Reilly, Muredach P. | Ridker, Paul M. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rudan, Igor | Ruokonen, Aimo | Samani, Nilesh | Scharnagl, Hubert | Seeley, Janet | Silander, Kaisa | Stančáková, Alena | Stirrups, Kathleen | Swift, Amy J. | Tiret, Laurence | Uitterlinden, Andre G. | van Pelt, L. Joost | Vedantam, Sailaja | Wainwright, Nicholas | Wijmenga, Cisca | Wild, Sarah H. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wilson, James F. | Young, Elizabeth H. | Zhao, Jing Hua | Adair, Linda S. | Arveiler, Dominique | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Bandinelli, Stefania | Bennett, Franklyn | Bochud, Murielle | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bovet, Pascal | Burnier, Michel | Campbell, Harry | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chambers, John C. | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Collins, Francis S. | Cooper, Richard S. | Danesh, John | Dedoussis, George | de Faire, Ulf | Feranil, Alan B. | Ferrières, Jean | Ferrucci, Luigi | Freimer, Nelson B. | Gieger, Christian | Groop, Leif C. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hamsten, Anders | Harris, Tamara B. | Hingorani, Aroon | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Hofman, Albert | Hovingh, G. Kees | Hsiung, Chao Agnes | Humphries, Steve E. | Hunt, Steven C. | Hveem, Kristian | Iribarren, Carlos | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kesäniemi, Antero | Kivimaki, Mika | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koudstaal, Peter J. | Krauss, Ronald M. | Kuh, Diana | Kuusisto, Johanna | Kyvik, Kirsten O. | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lind, Lars | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Martin, Nicholas G. | März, Winfried | McCarthy, Mark I. | McKenzie, Colin A. | Meneton, Pierre | Metspalu, Andres | Moilanen, Leena | Morris, Andrew D. | Munroe, Patricia B. | Njølstad, Inger | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Power, Chris | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Price, Jackie F. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Saleheen, Danish | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanghera, Dharambir K. | Saramies, Jouko | Schwarz, Peter E.H. | Sheu, Wayne H-H | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Siegbahn, Agneta | Spector, Tim D. | Stefansson, Kari | Strachan, David P. | Tayo, Bamidele O. | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uusitupa, Matti | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Vollenweider, Peter | Wallentin, Lars | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Whitfield, John B. | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. | Ordovas, Jose M. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Palmer, Colin N.A. | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Chasman, Daniel I. | Rotter, Jerome I. | Franks, Paul W. | Ripatti, Samuli | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Sandhu, Manjinder S. | Rich, Stephen S. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Kathiresan, Sekar | Mohlke, Karen L. | Ingelsson, Erik | Abecasis, Gonçalo R.
Nature genetics  2013;45(11):10.1038/ng.2797.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable, risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,578 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5×10−8, including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian, and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipids are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index. Our results illustrate the value of genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestries and provide insights into biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological, and therapeutic research.
doi:10.1038/ng.2797
PMCID: PMC3838666  PMID: 24097068
8.  Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease 
Do, Ron | Willer, Cristen J. | Schmidt, Ellen M. | Sengupta, Sebanti | Gao, Chi | Peloso, Gina M. | Gustafsson, Stefan | Kanoni, Stavroula | Ganna, Andrea | Chen, Jin | Buchkovich, Martin L. | Mora, Samia | Beckmann, Jacques S. | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L. | Chang, Hsing-Yi | Demirkan, Ayşe | Den Hertog, Heleen M. | Donnelly, Louise A. | Ehret, Georg B. | Esko, Tõnu | Feitosa, Mary F. | Ferreira, Teresa | Fischer, Krista | Fontanillas, Pierre | Fraser, Ross M. | Freitag, Daniel F. | Gurdasani, Deepti | Heikkilä, Kauko | Hyppönen, Elina | Isaacs, Aaron | Jackson, Anne U. | Johansson, Åsa | Johnson, Toby | Kaakinen, Marika | Kettunen, Johannes | Kleber, Marcus E. | Li, Xiaohui | Luan, Jian'an | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Magnusson, Patrik K.E. | Mangino, Massimo | Mihailov, Evelin | Montasser, May E. | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nolte, Ilja M. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Palmer, Cameron D. | Perola, Markus | Petersen, Ann-Kristin | Sanna, Serena | Saxena, Richa | Service, Susan K. | Shah, Sonia | Shungin, Dmitry | Sidore, Carlo | Song, Ci | Strawbridge, Rona J. | Surakka, Ida | Tanaka, Toshiko | Teslovich, Tanya M. | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Van den Herik, Evita G. | Voight, Benjamin F. | Volcik, Kelly A. | Waite, Lindsay L. | Wong, Andrew | Wu, Ying | Zhang, Weihua | Absher, Devin | Asiki, Gershim | Barroso, Inês | Been, Latonya F. | Bolton, Jennifer L. | Bonnycastle, Lori L | Brambilla, Paolo | Burnett, Mary S. | Cesana, Giancarlo | Dimitriou, Maria | Doney, Alex S.F. | Döring, Angela | Elliott, Paul | Epstein, Stephen E. | Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi | Gigante, Bruna | Goodarzi, Mark O. | Grallert, Harald | Gravito, Martha L. | Groves, Christopher J. | Hallmans, Göran | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Hayward, Caroline | Hernandez, Dena | Hicks, Andrew A. | Holm, Hilma | Hung, Yi-Jen | Illig, Thomas | Jones, Michelle R. | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Kastelein, John J.P. | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Kim, Eric | Klopp, Norman | Komulainen, Pirjo | Kumari, Meena | Langenberg, Claudia | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lin, Shih-Yi | Lindström, Jaana | Loos, Ruth J.F. | Mach, François | McArdle, Wendy L | Meisinger, Christa | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Müller, Gabrielle | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Narisu, Narisu | Nieminen, Tuomo V.M. | Nsubuga, Rebecca N. | Olafsson, Isleifur | Ong, Ken K. | Palotie, Aarno | Papamarkou, Theodore | Pomilla, Cristina | Pouta, Anneli | Rader, Daniel J. | Reilly, Muredach P. | Ridker, Paul M. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Rudan, Igor | Ruokonen, Aimo | Samani, Nilesh | Scharnagl, Hubert | Seeley, Janet | Silander, Kaisa | Stančáková, Alena | Stirrups, Kathleen | Swift, Amy J. | Tiret, Laurence | Uitterlinden, Andre G. | van Pelt, L. Joost | Vedantam, Sailaja | Wainwright, Nicholas | Wijmenga, Cisca | Wild, Sarah H. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wilson, James F. | Young, Elizabeth H. | Zhao, Jing Hua | Adair, Linda S. | Arveiler, Dominique | Assimes, Themistocles L. | Bandinelli, Stefania | Bennett, Franklyn | Bochud, Murielle | Boehm, Bernhard O. | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Borecki, Ingrid B. | Bornstein, Stefan R. | Bovet, Pascal | Burnier, Michel | Campbell, Harry | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chambers, John C. | Chen, Yii-Der Ida | Collins, Francis S. | Cooper, Richard S. | Danesh, John | Dedoussis, George | de Faire, Ulf | Feranil, Alan B. | Ferrières, Jean | Ferrucci, Luigi | Freimer, Nelson B. | Gieger, Christian | Groop, Leif C. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Gyllensten, Ulf | Hamsten, Anders | Harris, Tamara B. | Hingorani, Aroon | Hirschhorn, Joel N. | Hofman, Albert | Hovingh, G. Kees | Hsiung, Chao Agnes | Humphries, Steve E. | Hunt, Steven C. | Hveem, Kristian | Iribarren, Carlos | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Jula, Antti | Kähönen, Mika | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kesäniemi, Antero | Kivimaki, Mika | Kooner, Jaspal S. | Koudstaal, Peter J. | Krauss, Ronald M. | Kuh, Diana | Kuusisto, Johanna | Kyvik, Kirsten O. | Laakso, Markku | Lakka, Timo A. | Lind, Lars | Lindgren, Cecilia M. | Martin, Nicholas G. | März, Winfried | McCarthy, Mark I. | McKenzie, Colin A. | Meneton, Pierre | Metspalu, Andres | Moilanen, Leena | Morris, Andrew D. | Munroe, Patricia B. | Njølstad, Inger | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Power, Chris | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Price, Jackie F. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Saleheen, Danish | Salomaa, Veikko | Sanghera, Dharambir K. | Saramies, Jouko | Schwarz, Peter E.H. | Sheu, Wayne H-H | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Siegbahn, Agneta | Spector, Tim D. | Stefansson, Kari | Strachan, David P. | Tayo, Bamidele O. | Tremoli, Elena | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uusitupa, Matti | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Vollenweider, Peter | Wallentin, Lars | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Whitfield, John B. | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. | Altshuler, David | Ordovas, Jose M. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Palmer, Colin N.A. | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Chasman, Daniel I. | Rotter, Jerome I. | Franks, Paul W. | Ripatti, Samuli | Cupples, L. Adrienne | Sandhu, Manjinder S. | Rich, Stephen S. | Boehnke, Michael | Deloukas, Panos | Mohlke, Karen L. | Ingelsson, Erik | Abecasis, Goncalo R. | Daly, Mark J. | Neale, Benjamin M. | Kathiresan, Sekar
Nature genetics  2013;45(11):1345-1352.
Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10−8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
doi:10.1038/ng.2795
PMCID: PMC3904346  PMID: 24097064
9.  PhenX RISING: real world implementation and sharing of PhenX measures 
BMC Medical Genomics  2014;7:16.
Background
The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the PhenX RISING network and the site experiences in the implementation of PhenX measures into ongoing population-based genomic studies.
Methods
Eighty PhenX measures were implemented across the seven PhenX RISING groups, thirty-three of which were used at more than two sites, allowing for cross-site collaboration. Each site used between four and 37 individual measures and five of the sites are validating the PhenX measures through comparison with other study measures. Self-administered and computer-based administration modes are being evaluated at several sites which required changes to the original PhenX Toolkit protocols. A network-wide data use agreement was developed to facilitate data sharing and collaboration.
Results
PhenX Toolkit measures have been collected for more than 17,000 participants across the PhenX RISING network. The process of implementation provided information that was used to improve the PhenX Toolkit. The Toolkit was revised to allow researchers to select self- or interviewer administration when creating the data collection worksheets and ranges of specimens necessary to run biological assays has been added to the Toolkit.
Conclusions
The PhenX RISING network has demonstrated that the PhenX Toolkit measures can be implemented successfully in ongoing genomic studies. The next step will be to conduct gene/environment studies.
doi:10.1186/1755-8794-7-16
PMCID: PMC3994539  PMID: 24650325
PhenX; Phenotype; Epidemiology; Risk factors; Harmonization
10.  Genome-wide association study in people of South Asian ancestry identifies six novel susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes 
Nature genetics  2011;43(10):984-989.
We carried out a genome wide association study of type-2 diabetes (T2D) amongst 20,119 people of South Asian ancestry (5,561 with T2D); we identified 20 independent SNPs associated with T2D at P<10−4 for testing amongst a further 38,568 South Asians (13,170 with T2D). In combined analysis, common genetic variants at six novel loci (GRB14, ST6GAL1, VPS26A, HMG20A, AP3S2 and HNF4A) were associated with T2D (P=4.1×10−8 to P=1.9×10−11); SNPs at GRB14 were also associated with insulin sensitivity, and at ST6GAL1 and HNF4A with pancreatic beta-cell function respectively. Our findings provide additional insight into mechanisms underlying T2D, and demonstrate the potential for new discovery from genetic association studies in South Asians who have increased susceptibility to T2D.
doi:10.1038/ng.921
PMCID: PMC3773920  PMID: 21874001
11.  Carriers of a novel frame-shift insertion in WNT16a possess elevated pancreatic expression of TCF7L2 
BMC Genetics  2013;14:28.
Background
The discovery of TCF7L2 as a global type 2 diabetes (T2D) gene has sparked investigations to explore the clinical utility of its variants for guiding the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, interpreting the resulting associations into function still remains unclear. Canonical Wnt signaling regulates β-catenin and its binding with TCF7L2, which in turn is critical for the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). This study examines the role of a novel frame-shift insertion discovered in a conserved region of WNT16a, and it is proposed that this mutation affects T2D susceptibility in conjunction with gene variants in TCF7L2.
Results
Our results predicted that the insertion would convert the upstream open reading frame in the Wnt16a mRNA to an alternative, in-frame translation initiation site, resulting in the prevention of nonsense-mediated decay, leading to a consequent stabilization of the mutated WNT16a message. To examine the role of Wnt16a in the Wnt signaling pathway, DNA and serum samples from 2,034 individuals (48% with T2D) from the Sikh Diabetes Study were used in this investigation. Prevalence of Wnt16a insertion did not differ among T2D cases (33%) and controls (32%). However, there was a 3.2 fold increase in Wnt16a mRNA levels in pancreatic tissues from the insertion carriers and a significant increase (70%, p < 0.0001) in luciferase activity in the constructs carrying the insertion. The expression of TCF7L2 mRNA in pancreas was also elevated (~23-fold) among the insertion carriers (p=0.003).
Conclusions
Our results suggest synergistic effects of WNT16a insertion and the at-risk ‘T’ allele of TCF7L2 (rs7903146) for elevating the expression of TCF7L2 in human pancreas which may affect the regulation of downstream target genes involved in the development of T2D through Wnt/β-catenin/TCF7L2 signaling pathway. However, further studies would be needed to mechanistically link the two definitively.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-14-28
PMCID: PMC3675375  PMID: 23617586
β-cat /TCF7L2 signaling; Wnt16a; Exome sequencing; Insertion polymorphism; TCF7L2 gene variants; Gene expression; Pancreatic β-cells; Type 2 diabetes
12.  A Replication Study of GWAS-Derived Lipid Genes in Asian Indians: The Chromosomal Region 11q23.3 Harbors Loci Contributing to Triglycerides 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37056.
Recent genome-wide association scans (GWAS) and meta-analysis studies on European populations have identified many genes previously implicated in lipid regulation. Validation of these loci on different global populations is important in determining their clinical relevance, particularly for development of novel drug targets for treating and preventing diabetic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD). In an attempt to replicate GWAS findings on a non-European sample, we examined the role of six of these loci (CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1 rs599839; CDKN2A-2B rs1333049; BUD13-ZNF259 rs964184; ZNF259 rs12286037; CETP rs3764261; APOE-C1-C4-C2 rs4420638) in our Asian Indian cohort from the Sikh Diabetes Study (SDS) comprising 3,781 individuals (2,902 from Punjab and 879 from the US). Two of the six SNPs examined showed convincing replication in these populations of Asian Indian origin. Our study confirmed a strong association of CETP rs3764261 with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 2.03×10−26). Our results also showed significant associations of two GWAS SNPs (rs964184 and rs12286037) from BUD13-ZNF259 near the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 genes with triglyceride (TG) levels in this Asian Indian cohort (rs964184: p = 1.74×10−17; rs12286037: p = 1.58×10−2). We further explored 45 SNPs in a ∼195 kb region within the chromosomal region 11q23.3 (encompassing the BUD13-ZNF259, APOA5-A4-C3-A1, and SIK3 genes) in 8,530 Asian Indians from the London Life Sciences Population (LOLIPOP) (UK) and SDS cohorts. Five more SNPs revealed significant associations with TG in both cohorts individually as well as in a joint meta-analysis. However, the strongest signal for TG remained with BUD13-ZNF259 (rs964184: p = 1.06×10−39). Future targeted deep sequencing and functional studies should enhance our understanding of the clinical relevance of these genes in dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and, consequently, diabetes and CAD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037056
PMCID: PMC3356398  PMID: 22623978
13.  Genome-Wide Linkage Scan to Identify Loci Associated with Type 2 Diabetes and Blood Lipid Phenotypes in the Sikh Diabetes Study 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(6):e21188.
In this investigation, we have carried out an autosomal genome-wide linkage analysis to map genes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and five quantitative traits of blood lipids including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides in a unique family-based cohort from the Sikh Diabetes Study (SDS). A total of 870 individuals (526 male/344 female) from 321 families were successfully genotyped using 398 polymorphic microsatellite markers with an average spacing of 9.26 cM on the autosomes. Results of non-parametric multipoint linkage analysis using Sall statistics (implemented in Merlin) did not reveal any chromosomal region to be significantly associated with T2D in this Sikh cohort. However, linkage analysis for lipid traits using QTL-ALL analysis revealed promising linkage signals with p≤0.005 for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol at chromosomes 5p15, 9q21, 10p11, 10q21, and 22q13. The most significant signal (p = 0.0011) occurred at 10q21.2 for HDL cholesterol. We also observed linkage signals for total cholesterol at 22q13.32 (p = 0.0016) and 5p15.33 (p = 0.0031) and for LDL cholesterol at 10p11.23 (p = 0.0045). Interestingly, some of linkage regions identified in this Sikh population coincide with plausible candidate genes reported in recent genome-wide association and meta-analysis studies for lipid traits. Our study provides the first evidence of linkage for loci associated with quantitative lipid traits at four chromosomal regions in this Asian Indian population from Punjab. More detailed examination of these regions with more informative genotyping, sequencing, and functional studies should lead to rapid detection of novel targets of therapeutic importance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021188
PMCID: PMC3116872  PMID: 21698157
14.  Variants in KCNQ1 increase type II diabetes susceptibility in South Asians: A study of 3,310 subjects from India and the US 
BMC Medical Genetics  2011;12:18.
Background
Polymorphisms in intron 15 of potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily member 1 (KCNQ1) gene have been associated with type II diabetes (T2D) in Japanese genome-wide association studies (GWAS). More recently a meta-analysis of European GWAS has detected a new independent signal associated with T2D in intron 11 of the KCNQ1 gene. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the role of these variants with T2D in populations of Asian Indian descent from India and the US.
Methods
We examined the association between four variants in the KCNQ1 gene with T2D and related quantitative traits in a total of 3,310 Asian Indian participants from two different cohorts comprising 2,431 individuals of the Punjabi case-control cohort from the Sikh Diabetes Study and 879 migrant Asian Indians living in the US.
Results
Our data confirmed the association of a new signal at the KCNQ1 locus (rs231362) with T2D showing an allelic odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 95%CI [1.08-1.43], p = 0.002 in the Punjabi cohort. A moderate association with T2D was also seen for rs2237895 in the Punjabi (OR 1.14; p = 0.036) and combined cohorts (meta-analysis OR 1.14; p = 0.018). Three-site haplotype analysis of rs231362, rs2237892, rs2237895 exhibited considerably stronger evidence of association of the GCC haplotype with T2D showing OR of 1.24 95%CI [1.00-1.53], p = 0.001, permutation p = 8 × 10-4 in combined cohorts. The 'C' risk allele carriers of rs2237895 had significantly reduced measures of HOMA-B in the US cohort (p = 0.008) as well as in combined cohort in meta-analysis (p = 0.009).
Conclusions
Our investigation has confirmed that the variation within the KCNQ1 locus confers a significant risk to T2D among Asian Indians. Haplotype analysis further suggested that the T2D risk associated with KCNQ1 SNPs may be derived from 'G' allele of rs231362 and 'C' allele of rs2237895 and this appears to be mediated through β cell function.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-12-18
PMCID: PMC3037841  PMID: 21261977
15.  APOH Promoter Polymorphisms in Relation to Lupus and Lupus-Related Phenotypes 
The Journal of rheumatology  2009;36(2):315-322.
Objective
Sequence variation in gene promoters is often associated with disease risk. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that common promoter variation in the APOH gene (encoding for β2-glycoprotein I) is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk and SLE-related clinical phenotypes in a Caucasian cohort.
Methods
We used a case-control design and genotyped 345 SLE women and 454 healthy control women for 8 APOH promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (−1284C>G, −1219G>A, −1190G>C, −759 A>G, − 700C>A, −643T>C, −38G>A, and −32C>A). Association analyses were performed on single SNPs and haplotypes. Haplotype analyses were performed using EH (Estimate Haplotype-frequencies) and Haploview programs. In vitro reporter gene assay was performed in COS-1 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed using HepG2 nuclear cells.
Results
Overall haplotype distribution of the APOH promoter SNPs was significantly different between cases and controls (P = 0.009). The −643C allele was found to be protective against carotid plaque formation (adjusted OR = 0.37, P = 0.013) among SLE patients. The −643C allele was associated with a ~ 2-fold decrease in promoter activity as compared to wild-type −643T allele (mean ± standard deviation: 3.94 ± 0.05 vs. 6.99 ± 0.68, P = 0.016). EMSA showed that the −643T>C SNP harbors a binding site for a nuclear factor. The −1219G>A SNP showed a significant association with the risk of lupus nephritis (age-adjusted OR = 0.36, P = 0.016).
Conclusion
Our data indicate that APOH promoter variants may be involved in the etiology of SLE, especially the risk for autoimmune-mediated cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.3899/jrheum.080482
PMCID: PMC2667221  PMID: 19132787
APOH; β2-glycoprotein I; promoter; SLE; lupus; polymorphism
16.  Impact of nine common type 2 diabetes risk polymorphisms in Asian Indian Sikhs: PPARG2 (Pro12Ala), IGF2BP2, TCF7L2 and FTO variants confer a significant risk 
BMC Medical Genetics  2008;9:59.
Background
Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified several unsuspected genes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with previously unknown functions. In this investigation, we have examined the role of 9 most significant SNPs reported in GWA studies: [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARG2; rs 1801282); insulin-like growth factor two binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2; rs 4402960); cyclin-dependent kinase 5, a regulatory subunit-associated protein1-like 1 (CDK5; rs7754840); a zinc transporter and member of solute carrier family 30 (SLC30A8; rs13266634); a variant found near cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A; rs10811661); hematopoietically expressed homeobox (HHEX; rs 1111875); transcription factor-7-like 2 (TCF7L2; rs 10885409); potassium inwardly rectifying channel subfamily J member 11(KCNJ11; rs 5219); and fat mass obesity-associated gene (FTO; rs 9939609)].
Methods
We genotyped these SNPs in a case-control sample of 918 individuals consisting of 532 T2D cases and 386 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects of an Asian Sikh community from North India. We tested the association between T2D and each SNP using unconditional logistic regression before and after adjusting for age, gender, and other covariates. We also examined the impact of these variants on body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting insulin, and glucose and lipid levels using multiple linear regression analysis.
Results
Four of the nine SNPs revealed a significant association with T2D; PPARG2 (Pro12Ala) [odds ratio (OR) 0.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.03–0.52); p = 0.005], IGF2BP2 [OR 1.37; 95% CI (1.04–1.82); p = 0.027], TCF7L2 [OR 1.64; 95% CI (1.20–2.24); p = 0.001] and FTO [OR 1.46; 95% CI (1.11–1.93); p = 0.007] after adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant association of two of nine investigated loci with diabetes-related quantitative traits. The 'C' (risk) allele of CDK5 (rs 7754840) was significantly associated with decreased HDL-cholesterol levels in both NGT (p = 0.005) and combined (NGT and T2D) (0.005) groups. The less common 'C' (risk) allele of TCF7L2 (rs 10885409) was associated with increased LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.010) in NGT and total and LDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.008; p = 0.003, respectively) in combined cohort.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is first study reporting the role of some recently emerged loci with T2D in a high risk population of Asian Indian origin. Further investigations are warranted to understand the pathway-based functional implications of these important loci in T2D pathophysiology in different ethnicities.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-9-59
PMCID: PMC2481250  PMID: 18598350

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