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1.  Ubiquitin Fusion Degradation Protein 1 as a Blood Marker for The Early Diagnosis of Ischemic Stroke 
Biomarker Insights  2007;2:155-164.
Background
Efficacy of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke is strongly related to physician’s ability to make an accurate diagnosis and to intervene within 3–6 h after event onset. In this context, the discovery and validation of very early blood markers have recently become an urgent, yet unmet, goal of stroke research. Ubiquitin fusion degradation protein 1 is increased in human postmortem CSF, a model of global brain insult, suggesting that its measurement in blood may prove useful as a biomarker of stroke.
Methods
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure UFD1 in plasma and sera in three independent cohorts, European (Swiss and Spanish) and North-American retrospective analysis encompassing a total of 123 consecutive stroke and 90 control subjects.
Results
Highly significant increase of ubiquitin fusion degradation protein 1 (UFD1) was found in Swiss stroke patients with 71% sensitivity (95% CI, 52–85.8%), and 90% specificity (95% CI, 74.2–98%) (N = 31, p < 0.0001). Significantly elevated concentration of this marker was then validated in Spanish (N = 39, p < 0.0001, 95% sensitivity (95% CI, 82.7–99.4%)), 76% specificity (95% CI, 56.5–89.7%)) and North-American stroke patients (N = 53, 62% sensitivity (95% CI, 47.9–75.2%), 90% specificity (95% CI, 73.5–97.9%), p < 0.0001). Its concentration was increased within 3 h of stroke onset, on both the Swiss (p < 0.0001) and Spanish (p = 0.0004) cohorts.
Conclusions
UFD1 emerges as a reliable plasma biomarker for the early diagnosis of stroke, and in the future, might be used in conjunction with clinical assessments, neuroimaging and other blood markers.
PMCID: PMC2717829  PMID: 19662200
Diagnosis; Plasma Markers; Stroke; UFD1; Brain Damage
2.  Neopterin Is a Cerebrospinal Fluid Marker for Treatment Outcome Evaluation in Patients Affected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Sleeping Sickness 
Background
Post-therapeutic follow-up is essential to confirm cure and to detect early treatment failures in patients affected by sleeping sickness (HAT). Current methods, based on finding of parasites in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and counting of white blood cells (WBC) in CSF, are imperfect. New markers for treatment outcome evaluation are needed. We hypothesized that alternative CSF markers, able to diagnose the meningo-encephalitic stage of the disease, could also be useful for the evaluation of treatment outcome.
Methodology/Principal findings
Cerebrospinal fluid from patients affected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT and followed for two years after treatment was investigated. The population comprised stage 2 (S2) patients either cured or experiencing treatment failure during the follow-up. IgM, neopterin, B2MG, MMP-9, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CXCL10 and CXCL13 were first screened on a small number of HAT patients (n = 97). Neopterin and CXCL13 showed the highest accuracy in discriminating between S2 cured and S2 relapsed patients (AUC 99% and 94%, respectively). When verified on a larger cohort (n = 242), neopterin resulted to be the most efficient predictor of outcome. High levels of this molecule before treatment were already associated with an increased risk of treatment failure. At six months after treatment, neopterin discriminated between cured and relapsed S2 patients with 87% specificity and 92% sensitivity, showing a higher accuracy than white blood cell numbers.
Conclusions/Significance
In the present study, neopterin was highlighted as a useful marker for the evaluation of the post-therapeutic outcome in patients suffering from sleeping sickness. Detectable levels of this marker in the CSF have the potential to shorten the follow-up for HAT patients to six months after the end of the treatment.
Author Summary
The reduction of the number of lumbar punctures performed during the follow-up of patients affected by sleeping sickness (HAT) is considered a research priority. Follow-up, consisting of the examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for presence of parasites and for the number of leukocytes, is necessary to assess treatment outcome. However, diagnosis of treatment failure is still imperfect and WHO encourages improvements in defining criteria. Many studies have attempted to standardize actual methods and to define a cut-off for the number of white blood cells in CSF to define relapses, while only few have proposed alternatives to current practice. Here we show that neopterin, already proven to be a powerful marker for staging T. b. gambiense HAT, is also useful in evaluating post-therapeutic outcome. The measurement of neopterin concentration in CSF during the follow-up may allow reduction in the number of lumbar punctures from five to three for the majority of cured patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002088
PMCID: PMC3585011  PMID: 23469311
3.  New biomarkers for stage determination in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness patients 
Accurate stage determination is crucial in the choice of treatment for patients suffering from sleeping sickness, also known as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Current staging methods, based on the counting of white blood cells (WBC) and the detection of parasites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have limited accuracy. We hypothesized that immune mediators reliable for staging T. b. gambiense HAT could also be used to stratify T. b. rhodesiense patients, the less common form of HAT.
A population comprising 85 T. b. rhodesiense patients, 14 stage 1 (S1) and 71 stage 2 (S2) enrolled in Malawi and Uganda, was investigated. The CSF levels of IgM, MMP-9, CXCL13, CXCL10, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, neopterin and B2MG were measured and their staging performances evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses.
IgM, MMP-9 and CXCL13 were the most accurate markers for stage determination (partial AUC 88%, 86% and 85%, respectively). The combination in panels of three molecules comprising CXCL13-CXCL10-MMP-9 or CXCL13-CXCL10-IgM significantly increased their staging ability to partial AUC 94% (p value < 0.01).
The present study highlighted new potential markers for stage determination of T. b. rhodesiense patients. Further investigations are needed to better evaluate these molecules, alone or in panels, as alternatives to WBC to make reliable choice of treatment.
doi:10.1186/2001-1326-2-1
PMCID: PMC3561069  PMID: 23369533
Sleeping sickness; Biomarkers; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; Cerebrospinal fluid; Stage determination
4.  Matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cellular fibronectin plasma concentrations are predictors of the composite endpoint of length of stay and death in the intensive care unit after severe traumatic brain injury 
Background
The relationship between severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blood levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) or cellular fibronectin (c-Fn) has never been reported. In this study, we aimed to assess whether plasma concentrations of MMP-9 and c-Fn could have predictive values for the composite endpoint of intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) of survivors and mortality after severe TBI. Secondary outcomes were the state of consciousness measured with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of survivors at 14 days and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 3 months.
Methods
Forty-nine patients with abbreviated injury scores of the head region ≥ 4 were included. Blood was sampled at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after injury. MMP-9 and c-Fn concentrations were measured by ELISA. The values of MMP-9 and c-Fn, and, for comparison, the value of the GCS on the field of the accident (fGCS), as predictors of the composite outcome of ICU LOS and death were assessed by logistic regression.
Results
There was a linear relationship between maximal MMP-9 concentration, measured during the 6-12-hour period, and maximal c-Fn concentration, measured during the 24-48-hour period. The risk of staying longer than 9 days in the ICU or of dying was increased in patients with a maximal early MMP-9 concentration ≥ 21.6 ng/ml (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 1.3 to 18.6; p = 0.02) or with a maximal late c-Fn concentration ≥ 7.7 μg/ml (OR = 5.4; 95% CI: 1.4 to 20.8; p = 0.01). A similar risk association was observed with fGCS ≤8 (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.2-15.8; p = 0.02). No relationship was observed between MMP-9, c-Fn concentrations or fGCS and the GCS at 14 days of survivors and GOSE at 3 months.
Conclusions
Plasma MMP-9 and c-Fn concentrations in the first 48 hours after injury are predictive for the composite endpoint of ICU LOS and death after severe TBI but not for consciousness at 14 days and outcome at 3 months.
doi:10.1186/1757-7241-20-83
PMCID: PMC3570325  PMID: 23249478
Head injury; Prediction; Outcome; Plasmatic biomarker
5.  Cerebrospinal Fluid Neopterin as Marker of the Meningo-Encephalitic Stage of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Sleeping Sickness 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40909.
Background
Sleeping sickness, or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is a protozoan disease that affects rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa. Determination of the disease stage, essential for correct treatment, represents a key issue in the management of patients. In the present study we evaluated the potential of CXCL10, CXCL13, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9, B2MG, neopterin and IgM to complement current methods for staging Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients.
Methods and Findings
Five hundred and twelve T. b. gambiense HAT patients originated from Angola, Chad and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R.C.). Their classification as stage 2 (S2) was based on the number of white blood cells (WBC) (>5/µL) or presence of parasites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF concentration of the eight markers was first measured on a training cohort encompassing 100 patients (44 S1 and 56 S2). IgM and neopterin were the best in discriminating between the two stages of disease with 86.4% and 84.1% specificity respectively, at 100% sensitivity. When a validation cohort (412 patients) was tested, neopterin (14.3 nmol/L) correctly classified 88% of S1 and S2 patients, confirming its high staging power. On this second cohort, neopterin also predicted both the presence of parasites, and of neurological signs, with the same ability as IgM and WBC, the current reference for staging.
Conclusions
This study has demonstrated that neopterin is an excellent biomarker for staging T. b. gambiense HAT patients. A rapid diagnostic test for detecting this metabolite in CSF could help in more accurate stage determination.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040909
PMCID: PMC3399808  PMID: 22815865
6.  Fractalkine (CX3CL1), a new factor protecting β-cells against TNFα 
Molecular Metabolism  2014;3(7):731-741.
Objective
We have previously shown the existence of a muscle–pancreas intercommunication axis in which CX3CL1 (fractalkine), a CX3C chemokine produced by skeletal muscle cells, could be implicated. It has recently been shown that the fractalkine system modulates murine β-cell function. However, the impact of CX3CL1 on human islet cells especially regarding a protective role against cytokine-induced apoptosis remains to be investigated.
Methods
Gene expression was determined using RNA sequencing in human islets, sorted β- and non-β-cells. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and glucagon secretion from human islets was measured following 24 h exposure to 1–50 ng/ml CX3CL1. GSIS and specific protein phosphorylation were measured in rat sorted β-cells exposed to CX3CL1 for 48 h alone or in the presence of TNFα (20 ng/ml). Rat and human β-cell apoptosis (TUNEL) and rat β-cell proliferation (BrdU incorporation) were assessed after 24 h treatment with increasing concentrations of CX3CL1.
Results
Both CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 are expressed in human islets. However, CX3CL1 is more expressed in non-β-cells than in β-cells while its receptor is more expressed in β-cells. CX3CL1 decreased human (but not rat) β-cell apoptosis. CX3CL1 inhibited human islet glucagon secretion stimulated by low glucose but did not impact human islet and rat sorted β-cell GSIS. However, CX3CL1 completely prevented the adverse effect of TNFα on GSIS and on molecular mechanisms involved in insulin granule trafficking by restoring the phosphorylation (Akt, AS160, paxillin) and expression (IRS2, ICAM-1, Sorcin, PCSK1) of key proteins involved in these processes.
Conclusions
We demonstrate for the first time that human islets express and secrete CX3CL1 and CX3CL1 impacts them by decreasing glucagon secretion without affecting insulin secretion. Moreover, CX3CL1 decreases basal apoptosis of human β-cells. We further demonstrate that CX3CL1 protects β-cells from the adverse effects of TNFα on their function by restoring the expression and phosphorylation of key proteins of the insulin secretion pathway.
doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2014.07.007
PMCID: PMC4209359  PMID: 25353001
Islets; Insulin secretion; Myokines; Survival; Insulin signaling pathway; Inflammation
7.  pROC: an open-source package for R and S+ to analyze and compare ROC curves 
BMC Bioinformatics  2011;12:77.
Background
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are useful tools to evaluate classifiers in biomedical and bioinformatics applications. However, conclusions are often reached through inconsistent use or insufficient statistical analysis. To support researchers in their ROC curves analysis we developed pROC, a package for R and S+ that contains a set of tools displaying, analyzing, smoothing and comparing ROC curves in a user-friendly, object-oriented and flexible interface.
Results
With data previously imported into the R or S+ environment, the pROC package builds ROC curves and includes functions for computing confidence intervals, statistical tests for comparing total or partial area under the curve or the operating points of different classifiers, and methods for smoothing ROC curves. Intermediary and final results are visualised in user-friendly interfaces. A case study based on published clinical and biomarker data shows how to perform a typical ROC analysis with pROC.
Conclusions
pROC is a package for R and S+ specifically dedicated to ROC analysis. It proposes multiple statistical tests to compare ROC curves, and in particular partial areas under the curve, allowing proper ROC interpretation. pROC is available in two versions: in the R programming language or with a graphical user interface in the S+ statistical software. It is accessible at http://expasy.org/tools/pROC/ under the GNU General Public License. It is also distributed through the CRAN and CSAN public repositories, facilitating its installation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-12-77
PMCID: PMC3068975  PMID: 21414208
8.  A Combined CXCL10, CXCL8 and H-FABP Panel for the Staging of Human African Trypanosomiasis Patients 
Background
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, is a parasitic tropical disease. It progresses from the first, haemolymphatic stage to a neurological second stage due to invasion of parasites into the central nervous system (CNS). As treatment depends on the stage of disease, there is a critical need for tools that efficiently discriminate the two stages of HAT. We hypothesized that markers of brain damage discovered by proteomic strategies and inflammation-related proteins could individually or in combination indicate the CNS invasion by the parasite.
Methods
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) originated from parasitologically confirmed Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients. Patients were staged on the basis of CSF white blood cell (WBC) count and presence of parasites in CSF. One hundred samples were analysed: 21 from stage 1 (no trypanosomes in CSF and ≤5 WBC/µL) and 79 from stage 2 (trypanosomes in CSF and/or >5 WBC/µL) patients. The concentration of H-FABP, GSTP-1 and S100β in CSF was measured by ELISA. The levels of thirteen inflammation-related proteins (IL-1ra, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, G-CSF, VEGF, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL4, CXCL8 and CXCL10) were determined by bead suspension arrays.
Results
CXCL10 most accurately distinguished stage 1 and stage 2 patients, with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 100%. Rule Induction Like (RIL) analysis defined a panel characterized by CXCL10, CXCL8 and H-FABP that improved the detection of stage 2 patients to 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
Conclusion
This study highlights the value of CXCL10 as a single biomarker for staging T. b. gambiense-infected HAT patients. Further combination of CXCL10 with H-FABP and CXCL8 results in a panel that efficiently rules in stage 2 HAT patients. As these molecules could potentially be markers of other CNS infections and disorders, these results should be validated in a larger multi-centric cohort including other inflammatory diseases such as cerebral malaria and active tuberculosis.
Author Summary
The actual serological and parasitological tests used for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, are not sensitive and specific enough. The card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) assay, widely used for the diagnosis, is restricted to the gambiense form of the disease, and parasitological detection in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is often very difficult. Another very important problem is the difficulty of staging the disease, a crucial step in the decision of the treatment to be given. While eflornithine is difficult to administer, melarsoprol is highly toxic with incidences of reactive encephalopathy as high as 20%. Staging, which could be diagnosed as early (stage 1) or late (stage 2), relies on the examination of CSF for the presence of parasite and/or white blood cell (WBC) counting. However, the parasite is rarely found in CSF and WBC count is not standardised (cutoff set between 5 and 20 WBC per µL). In the present study, we hypothesized that an early detection of stage 2 patients with one or several proteins in association with clinical evaluation and WBC count would improve staging accuracy and allow more appropriate therapeutic interventions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000459
PMCID: PMC2696178  PMID: 19554086
9.  Exploring glycopeptide-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: a combined proteomics and transcriptomics approach for the identification of resistance-related markers 
BMC Genomics  2006;7:296.
Background
To unravel molecular targets involved in glycopeptide resistance, three isogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus with different susceptibility levels to vancomycin or teicoplanin were subjected to whole-genome microarray-based transcription and quantitative proteomic profiling. Quantitative proteomics performed on membrane extracts showed exquisite inter-experimental reproducibility permitting the identification and relative quantification of >30% of the predicted S. aureus proteome.
Results
In the absence of antibiotic selection pressure, comparison of stable resistant and susceptible strains revealed 94 differentially expressed genes and 178 proteins. As expected, only partial correlation was obtained between transcriptomic and proteomic results during stationary-phase. Application of massively parallel methods identified one third of the complete proteome, a majority of which was only predicted based on genome sequencing, but never identified to date. Several over-expressed genes represent previously reported targets, while series of genes and proteins possibly involved in the glycopeptide resistance mechanism were discovered here, including regulators, global regulator attenuator, hyper-mutability factor or hypothetical proteins. Gene expression of these markers was confirmed in a collection of genetically unrelated strains showing altered susceptibility to glycopeptides.
Conclusion
Our proteome and transcriptome analyses have been performed during stationary-phase of growth on isogenic strains showing susceptibility or intermediate level of resistance against glycopeptides. Altered susceptibility had emerged spontaneously after infection with a sensitive parental strain, thus not selected in vitro. This combined analysis allows the identification of hundreds of proteins considered, so far as hypothetical protein. In addition, this study provides not only a global picture of transcription and expression adaptations during a complex antibiotic resistance mechanism but also unravels potential drug targets or markers that are constitutively expressed by resistant strains regardless of their genetic background, amenable to be used as diagnostic targets.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-7-296
PMCID: PMC1687195  PMID: 17121677
10.  STAT6 promotes bi-directional modulation of PKM2 in liver and adipose inflammatory cells in Rosiglitazone-treated mice 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:2350.
STAT6 interacts with PPARγ to elicit macrophage polarization towards an anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing phenotype. Mice deficient in STAT6 display liver lipid accumulation (hepatosteatosis). Rosiglitazone (RSG), a PPARγ agonist, ameliorates hepatosteatosis and enhances insulin sensitivity. To elucidate the role of STAT6 in PPARγ action on hepatosteatosis we compared liver proteomes of RSG-treated wild type and STAT6-deficient mice and we identified pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a glycolysis and proliferation-regulating enzyme that displayed STAT6-dependent expression. RSG induced PKM2 within inflammatory cells in liver but suppressed its expression in adipose tissue. RSG diminished hepatosteatosis and oxidative stress, enhanced fat accumulation and improved insulin sensitivity in STAT6-deficient mice. Our data reveal a complex interaction between STAT6 and PPARγ in the regulation of liver and adipose tissue lipid depot distribution and design STAT6 as a novel link between inflammatory cell metabolism and adipocyte and hepatocyte function.
doi:10.1038/srep02350
PMCID: PMC3734444  PMID: 23917405
11.  Blood Glutathione S-Transferase-π as a Time Indicator of Stroke Onset 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e43830.
Background
Ability to accurately determine time of stroke onset remains challenging. We hypothesized that an early biomarker characterized by a rapid increase in blood after stroke onset may help defining better the time window during which an acute stroke patient may be candidate for intravenous thrombolysis or other intravascular procedures.
Methods
The blood level of 29 proteins was measured by immunoassays on a prospective cohort of stroke patients (N = 103) and controls (N = 132). Mann-Whitney U tests, ROC curves and diagnostic odds ratios were applied to evaluate their clinical performances.
Results
Among the 29 molecules tested, GST-π concentration was the most significantly elevated marker in the blood of stroke patients (p<0.001). More importantly, GST-π displayed the best area under the curve (AUC, 0.79) and the best diagnostic odds ratios (10.0) for discriminating early (N = 22, <3 h of stroke onset) vs. late stroke patients (N = 81, >3 h after onset). According to goal-oriented distinct cut-offs (sensitivity(Se)-oriented: 17.7 or specificity(Sp)-oriented: 65.2 ug/L), the GST-π test obtained 91%Se/50%Sp and 50%Se/91%Sp, respectively. Moreover, GST-π showed also the highest AUC (0.83) and performances for detecting patients treated with tPA (N = 12) compared to ineligible patients (N = 103).
Conclusions
This study demonstrates that GST-π can accurately predict the time of stroke onset in over 50% of early stroke patients. The GST-π test could therefore complement current guidelines for tPA administration and potentially increase the number of patients accessing thrombolysis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043830
PMCID: PMC3444482  PMID: 23028472
12.  Nucleolin Interacts with US11 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Is Involved in Its Trafficking 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(3):1449-1457.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection induces profound nucleolar modifications at the functional and organizational levels, including nucleolar invasion by several viral proteins. One of these proteins is US11, which exhibits several different functions and displays both cytoplasmic localization and clear nucleolar localization very similar to that of the major multifunctional nucleolar protein nucleolin. To determine whether US11 interacts with nucleolin, we purified US11 protein partners by coimmunoprecipitations using a tagged protein, Flag-US11. From extracts of cells expressing Flag-US11 protein, we copurified a protein of about 100 kDa that was further identified as nucleolin. In vitro studies have demonstrated that nucleolin interacts with US11 and that the C-terminal domain of US11, which is required for US11 nucleolar accumulation, is sufficient for interaction with nucleolin. This association was confirmed in HSV-1-infected cells. We found an increase in the nucleolar accumulation of US11 in nucleolin-depleted cells, thereby revealing that nucleolin could play a role in US11 nucleocytoplasmic trafficking through one-way directional transport out of the nucleolus. Since nucleolin is required for HSV-1 nuclear egress, the interaction of US11 with nucleolin may participate in the outcome of infection.
doi:10.1128/JVI.06194-11
PMCID: PMC3264372  PMID: 22130536
13.  Labeling of Bifidobacterium longum Cells with 13C-Substituted Leucine for Quantitative Proteomic Analyses▿ † 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2007;73(17):5653-5656.
Stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture was used for Bifidobacterium longum. A comprehensive proteomic strategy was developed and validated by designing an appropriate semidefined medium that allows stable replacement of natural leucine by [13C6]leucine. Using this strategy, proteins having variations of at least 50% in their expression rates can be quantified with great confidence.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00667-07
PMCID: PMC2042066  PMID: 17601805
14.  Functional Proteomic Analysis of Human NucleolusD⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2002;13(11):4100-4109.
The notion of a “plurifunctional” nucleolus is now well established. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes occurring within this nuclear domain remain only partially understood. As a first step in elucidating these mechanisms we have carried out a proteomic analysis to draw up a list of proteins present within nucleoli of HeLa cells. This analysis allowed the identification of 213 different nucleolar proteins. This catalog complements that of the 271 proteins obtained recently by others, giving a total of ∼350 different nucleolar proteins. Functional classification of these proteins allowed outlining several biological processes taking place within nucleoli. Bioinformatic analyses permitted the assignment of hypothetical functions for 43 proteins for which no functional information is available. Notably, a role in ribosome biogenesis was proposed for 31 proteins. More generally, this functional classification reinforces the plurifunctional nature of nucleoli and provides convincing evidence that nucleoli may play a central role in the control of gene expression. Finally, this analysis supports the recent demonstration of a coupling of transcription and translation in higher eukaryotes.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271
PMCID: PMC133617  PMID: 12429849
15.  The 1999 SWISS-2DPAGE database update 
Nucleic Acids Research  2000;28(1):286-288.
SWISS-2DPAGE (http://www.expasy.ch/ch2d/ ) is an annotated two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) database established in 1993. The current release contains 24 reference maps from human and mouse biological samples, as well as from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli and Dictyostelium discoideum origin. These reference maps have now 2824 identified spots, corresponding to 614 separate protein entries in the database, in addition to virtual entries for each SWISS-PROT sequence or any user-entered amino acids sequence. Last year improvements in the SWISS-2DPAGE database are as follows: three new maps have been created and several others have been updated; cross-references to newly built federated 2-DE databases have been added; new functions to access the data have been provided through the ExPASy proteomics server.
PMCID: PMC102456  PMID: 10592248

Results 1-15 (15)