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1.  Gastric acid secretion and enteric infection in Bangladesh 
In developing countries many enteric infections are caused by acid-sensitive pathogens. Failure of the gastric acid barrier to infection has been reported in cholera but gastric acid secretion has been little studied in other enteric infections. We therefore studied basal and stimulated gastric acid in 185 Bangladeshi men admitted to hospital for the treatment of enteric infection. Patients with dysentery (amoebiasis, n=24 and shigellosis, n= 19) and culture-negative diarrhoea (n=69) had similar mean gastric acid levels (basal, 3–5 mmol/h; stimulated, 11–17 mmol/h), which remained stable in those patients studied throughout 12 weeks of convalescence. In contrast, patients with secretory diarrhoea caused by cholera or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) had low gastric acid levels (P
PMCID: PMC3025521  PMID: 9509179
hypochlorhydria; diarrhoeal disease; amoebiasis; shigellosis; cholera; Escherichi coli; etec; gastric acid secretion; Bangladesh
PLoS ONE  2009;4(10):e7360.
Background
Despite increasing evidence for the presence of voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav) isoforms and measurements of Nav channel currents with the patch-clamp technique in arterial myocytes, no information is available to date as to whether or not Nav channels play a functional role in arteries. The aim of the present work was to look for a physiological role of Nav channels in the control of rat aortic contraction.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Nav channels were detected in the aortic media by Western blot analysis and double immunofluorescence labeling for Nav channels and smooth muscle α-actin using specific antibodies. In parallel, using real time RT-PCR, we identified three Nav transcripts: Nav1.2, Nav1.3, and Nav1.5. Only the Nav1.2 isoform was found in the intact media and in freshly isolated myocytes excluding contamination by other cell types. Using the specific Nav channel agonist veratridine and antagonist tetrodotoxin (TTX), we unmasked a contribution of these channels in the response to the depolarizing agent KCl on rat aortic isometric tension recorded from endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Experimental conditions excluded a contribution of Nav channels from the perivascular sympathetic nerve terminals. Addition of low concentrations of KCl (2–10 mM), which induced moderate membrane depolarization (e.g., from −55.9±1.4 mV to −45.9±1.2 mV at 10 mmol/L as measured with microelectrodes), triggered a contraction potentiated by veratridine (100 µM) and blocked by TTX (1 µM). KB-R7943, an inhibitor of the reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, mimicked the effect of TTX and had no additive effect in presence of TTX.
Conclusions/Significance
These results define a new role for Nav channels in arterial physiology, and suggest that the TTX-sensitive Nav1.2 isoform, together with the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, contributes to the contractile response of aortic myocytes at physiological range of membrane depolarization.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007360
PMCID: PMC2752992  PMID: 19809503

Results 1-2 (2)