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1.  The effects of different doses of intrathecal meperidine on the incidence and severity of shivering during lower extremity orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind-clinical trial 
Background:
Shivering associated with spinal anesthesia is a common complication. It also causes more usage of oxygen, increased production of carbon dioxide (CO2), and lactic acidosis with movement of clots and bleeding after surgery. This study was performed to compare the different dosages of intrathecal meperidine and their effects on shivering during and after surgery and to compare these to the control group.
Materials and Methods:
This study is a clinical trial. Target population consisted of the patients who were candidates for lower limb orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. About 120 patients were chosen and randomly divided into four groups. In group 1, spinal anesthesia was performed with 3 ml marcaine 0.5% and 0.1 mg/kg meperidine. In group 2, 3 ml marcaine 0.5% and 0.2 mg/kg meperidine was given. In group 3, 3 ml marcaine 0.5% and 0.3 mg/kg meperidine, and in the fourth group, 3 ml marcaine 0.5% and normal saline in the same volume were injected. During surgery and recovery, hemodynamic index and shivering were recorded.
Results:
Based on the analyzed data, in the fourth group 23 patients (76.7%) had shivering. While the prevalence of shivering in the first, second, and third groups was 15 patients (50%), 11 patients (36.7%), and 3 patients (10%), respectively. Chi-square test showed significant difference in the four groups (P < 0.001).
Conclusions:
Using higher dosage of intrathecal meperidine (0.3 mg/kg) was more effective than using lower dosage of meperidine (0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg) in reducing the incidence and severity of shivering during spinal anesthesia in lower extremity orthopedic surgeries.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.148259
PMCID: PMC4300592  PMID: 25625109
Meperidine; orthopedic surgery; shivering; spinal anesthesia
2.  Effect of ketamine as an adjuvant in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A double-blind randomized clinical trial study 
Background:
Supraclavicular brachial plexus block is one of the most effective anesthetic procedures in operations for the upper extremity. Ketamine has been reported to enhance the analgesic effects of local anesthetics. We have conducted this study to assess whether coadministration of ketamine can prolong the local analgesic effect of lidocaine in the supraclavicular brachial plexus block for patients undergoing elective upper extremity surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty adult patients undergoing elective surgery of the elbow, forearm, wrist or hand were randomly allocated in two groups of 30 patients each. Group 1 (ketamine group) received 5 mg/kg lidocaine 1.5% plus 2 mg/kg ketamine, Group 2 (control group) received 5 mg/kg lidocaine 1.5% and saline. The outcome measures included severity of pain by using visual analog scale (VAS, 0 = no pain 10 cm = the most severe pain), time of first request for analgesia, and total dose of postoperative opioid administration. The data was analyzed using the χ2 test, student's t-test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Multivariate analysis tests.
Results:
Patients in the control group had a higher VAS than patients who received ketamine, at all time points during the first 24 hours after surgery (all P < 0.05). The time of first request for analgesia in the ketamine group was significantly more than in the control group (8.93 ± 1.0 vs. 7.30 ± 1.9, respectively, P < 0.001).
Conclusion:
The addition of ketamine to lidocaine in the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block could decrease the postoperative pain and need for analgesic. Therefore, it could be considered as an option in the brachial plexus block to enhance the analgesic action of lidocaine.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.145730
PMCID: PMC4260270  PMID: 25538918
Anesthesia; ketamine; supraclavicular brachial plexus block
3.  Intravenous dexamethasone versus ketamine gargle versus intravenous dexamethasone combined with ketamine gargle for evaluation of post-operative sore throat and hoarseness: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial 
Background:
Sore throat and hoarseness are the most frequent subjective complaints after tracheal intubation for general anesthesia. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous (IV) dexamethasone plus ketamine gargle for reducing the incidence and severity of post-operative sore throat (POST) and hoarseness.
Materials and Methods:
140 patients (aged 16-65 year) scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated into four groups of 35 subjects each: Group K, gargled 40 mg ketamine in 30 ml saline; Group D, were infused 0.2 mg/kg IV dexamethasone; Group KD, gargled 40 mg ketamine in 30 ml saline plus 0.2 mg/kg IV dexamethasone; Group P (placebo) that received saline (gargle and IV). POST was graded at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h after operation on a four-point scale (0-3).
Results:
The incidence and severity of POST were significantly lower in Group KD, compared with the other groups at all times after tracheal extubation for up to 24 h (P < 0.05). Also the incidence and severity of hoarseness were significantly lower in each Groups of KD and K and D compared with group placebo (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
The prophylactic use of 0.2 mg/kg of IV dexamethasone plus ketamine gargle significantly reduced the incidence and severity of POST compared with using each of these drugs alone or using placebo.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.143257
PMCID: PMC4219209  PMID: 25371869
Dexamethasone; gargle; hoarseness; ketamine; sore throat; tracheal intubation
4.  Intrathecal Meperidine versus intrathecal Fentanyl for prevention of shivering in lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anesthesia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial 
Objective:
Shivering is an unpleasant sensation for patients who undergoing spinal anesthesia. This randomized double-blind clinical trial study was designed to compare the effect of intrathecal fentanyl with intrathecal meperidine for prevention of shivering in lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anesthesia.
Methods:
Ninety patients were randomly recruited to receive either 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 20 μg of fentanyl (Group F), or 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.2 mg/kg of meperidine (Group M), or 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus normal saline (Group S). The incidence and intensity of shivering were compared in three groups. Data were analyzed by analysis of variances, Mann–Whitney U-test followed by Chi-square test.
Findings:
There were not statistically differences in complications and side-effects between three groups. Total incidence of shivering was similar between Groups F and M (16.7% vs. 13.3% respectively, P = 0.72) whereas it was significantly different to Group S (43.3%) (P = 0.025 for Group F vs. S, and P = 0.011 for Group M vs. S). Also the intensity of shivering between Groups F and M was similar (P = 0.66), while it was significantly less in these groups compared to Group S (P = 0.013 and P = 0.004, respectively).
Conclusion:
Addition of fentanyl 20 μg or meperidine 0.2 mg/kg to 0.5% bupivacaine intrathecally significantly decreased the incidence of shivering in lower limb orthopedic surgeries. There was no significant difference between two drugs with this respect.
doi:10.4103/2279-042X.145390
PMCID: PMC4262860  PMID: 25535622
Fentanyl; intrathecal; Meperidine; shivering; spinal anesthesia
5.  The predictive value of the ratio of neck circumference to thyromental distance in comparison with four predictive tests for difficult laryngoscopy in obstetric patients scheduled for caesarean delivery 
Background:
Preoperative assessment of anatomical landmarks andclinical factors help detect potentially difficult laryngoscopies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from thefollowing preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Neck circumference to thyromental distance (NC/TMD), neck circumference (NC), modified Mallampatitest (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT).
Materials and Methods:
We collected data on657 consecutive patients scheduled for elective caesarean delivery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all five factors before caesarean. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined.
Results:
Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4) occurred in 53 (8.06%) patients. There were significant differences in thyromental distance (TMD), RHTMD, NC, and NC/TMD between difficult visualization of larynx and easy visualization of larynx patients (P < 0.05). The main end-point area under curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) was lower for MMT (AUC = 0.497; 95% Confidence Interval = CI,0.045-0.536) and ULBT (AUC = 0.500, 95% CI, 0.461-0.539) compared to RHTMD, NC, TMD, and NC/TMD score ([AUC = 0.627, 95% CI, 0.589-0.664], [AUC = 0.691; 95% CI, 0.654-0.726], [AUC = 0.606; 95% CI, 0.567-0.643], [AUC = 0.689;95% CI, 0.625-0.724], respectively), and the differences of six ROC curves were statistically significant (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
The NC/TM Discomparable with NC, RHTMD, and ULBT for the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in caes are an delivery.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.142045
PMCID: PMC4202503  PMID: 25337530
Caesarean delivery; difficult laryngoscopy; modified Mallampati test; neck circumference; neck circumference to thyromental distance; ratio of height to thyromental distance; upper-lip-bite test
6.  A comparison of between hyomental distance ratios, ratio of height to thyromental, modified Mallamapati classification test and upper lip bite test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy of patients undergoing general anesthesia 
Background:
Failed intubation is imperative source of anesthetic interrelated patient's mortality. The aim of this present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from the following pre-operative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Modified Mallampati test (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), hyomental distance ratios (HMDR), and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT).
Materials and Methods:
We collected data on 525 consecutive patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all four factors before surgery. A skilled anesthesiologist, not imparted of the noted pre-operative airway assessment, did the laryngoscopy and rating (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for every airway predictor in isolation and in combination were established.
Results:
The most sensitive of the single tests was ULBT with a sensitivity of 90.2%. The hyomental distance extreme of head extension was the least sensitive of the single tests with a sensitivity of 56.9. The HMDR had sensitivity 86.3%. The ULBT had the highest negative predictive value: And the area under a receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC of ROC curve) among single predictors. The AUC of ROC curve for ULBT, HMDR and RHTMD was significantly more than for MMT (P < 0.05). No significant difference was noted in the AUC of ROC curve for ULBT, HMDR, and RHTMD (P > 0.05).
Conclusion:
The HMDR is comparable with RHTMD and ULBT for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in the general population, but was significantly more than for MMT.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.139130
PMCID: PMC4162034  PMID: 25221769
Failed intubation; hyomental distance ratios; laryngoscopy; modified Mallampati test; ratio of height to thyromental distance; upper-lip-bite test
7.  Prophylactic effects of intrathecal Meperidine and intravenous Ondansetron on shivering in patients undergoing lower extremity orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia 
Objective:
Intraoperative hypothermia is a common problem with anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia, the same as general anesthesia, affects the process of temperature regulation. The aim of this study was to compare the prophylactic effect of intravenous (IV) ondansetron with intrathecal (IT) meperidine on prevention of shivering during spinal anesthesia in patients underwent orthopedic surgery of the lower limb.
Methods:
In this study, 120 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to II, between the ages 16 and 65 were randomized into three groups. Group O and Group M were given IV ondansetron 8 mg and IT meperidine 0.2 mg/kg, before spinal anesthesia, respectively. Group C received IV saline 0.9%. The core and ambient temperatures, the incidence and intensity of shivering, blood pressure, heart rate, and maximum level of sensory block were recorded.
Findings:
Shivering was observed in 15%, 2.5%, and 37.5% of patients in Groups O, M, and C, respectively. There was a significant difference between Group O and M compared to Group C (P = 0.023 for Group O vs. Group C, P < 0.001 for Group M vs. Group C, P = 0.049 for Group M vs. Group O). Shivering incidence and intensity in Group M was significantly lower than Group O (P = 0.049 and P = 0.047, respectively). Twenty-two patients required additional IV meperidine among which 15 patients were from Group C (37.5%), six patients from Group O (15%) and one patient from Group M (2.5%).
Conclusion:
We concluded that IT meperidine and IV ondansetron comparably can decrease intensity and incidence of shivering compared to control group as well as decreasing the requirement to additional doses of meperidine for shivering the control without any hemodynamic side effect.
doi:10.4103/2279-042X.141105
PMCID: PMC4199198  PMID: 25328899
Hypothermia; Meperidine; Ondansetron; orthopedic surgery; shivering; spinal anesthesia
8.  Comparing the effects of three different additional doses of propofol infusion on intubation condition and hemodynamic changes during general anesthesia under elective surgery: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial 
Background:
Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation can induce unfavorable hemodynamic changes as propofol itself can induce hypotension. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different additional doses of propofol infusion on intubation conditions and hemodynamic changes occurred after intubation.
Materials and Methods:
This double-blinded prospective study was performed on 140 patients aged 18-60 who received different additional doses of propofol and were randomly allocated into 4 groups as follows: A: Received additional dose of propofol 0.5 mg/kg infused after an initial dose 1.5 mg/kg. B: Received additional dose of propofol 1 mg/kg infused after an initial dose 1 mg/kg. C: Received additional dose of propofol 1.5 mg/kg after an initial dose 1 mg/kg. D: Received propofol 2 mg/kg as a bolus with no additional dose.
Results:
Intubation conditions were acceptable in 91.4% of Group A patients, 94.2% of Group B patients, 97.1% of Group C patients and 68.5% of Group D patients. There were no significant differences in the mean of heart rate between four groups at any time before and after laryngoscopy. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) 3 min after laryngoscopy was significantly lower in Group D versus Group A (P = 0.015) while MAP was not different at any time between other groups.
Conclusion:
Infusion of propofol 1.5 mg/kg added to initial bolus dose of propofol 1 mg/kg improves intubation conditions significantly without inducing hemodynamic changes.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.133195
PMCID: PMC4063089  PMID: 24949293
Hemodynamic; intubation conditions; laryngoscopy; propofol
9.  Prediction of difficult laryngoscopy: Extended mallampati score versus the MMT, ULBT and RHTMD 
Background:
Preoperative using of anatomical landmarks detects potentially difficult laryngoscopies. The main object of the present study was to evaluate the predictive power of Extended Mallampati Score (EMS) in comparison with modified Mallampati test (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) and the Upper-Lip-Bite test (ULBT) in isolation and combination.
Materials and Methods:
Four hundred seventy sixadult patients who candidate for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were included in this study and evaluated based of all four factors before surgery. This study was randomized prospective double - blind. After that, laryngoscopy was performed by an anesthesiologist who didn’t involve in preoperative airway assessment and graded based on Cormack and Lehane's classification. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) (AUC) for each score.
Results:
The AUCof the ROC was significantly more for the ULBT (AUC = 0.820, P = 0.049) and RHTMD score (AUC = 0.845, P = 0.033) than the EMS (AUC = 0.703). This variable was significantly higher for the EMS compared with MMT (0.703 vs. 0.569, P = 0.046 respectively). There was no significant difference between the AUC of the ROC for the ULBT and the RHTMD score (P = 0.685). The optimalcut-off point for the RHTMD for predicting difficult laryngoscopy was 29.3.
Conclusion:
EMS predicted difficult laryngoscopy better than MMT while both ULBT and RHTMD had more power than EMS and MMT in this regard. ULBT and RHTMD had similar predictive value for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in general population.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.133270
PMCID: PMC4063103  PMID: 24949304
Difficult laryngoscopy; extended mallampati score; modified mallampati; ratio of patient's height to thyromental distance; upper lip bite test
10.  The evaluations of frequency distribution heparin resistance during coronary artery bypass graft 
Background:
Heparin is one of the most important medication that is used in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operations, but some patients demonstrate heparin resistance (HR) during CABG. Heparin resistance was defined as at least one activated clothing time <400 seconds after heparinization and/or the need for purified antithrombin III (AT-III) administration. The goal of this study was the investigation of HR prevalence in our country and relation between HR and post-operative CABG complications.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred patients that candidate for CABG were selected and surveyed for HR and complications. The data entered to computer and analyzed by SPSS soft ware. The Chi-square and student t-tests were used for data analysis.
Results:
The prevalence of heparin resistance in our study was 3%. There was no relation among bleeding, cardiac arrest and HR. Bleeding happened in 13 patients of which 1 person was in HR group (33.3%) and 12 in non HR group (12.4%) (P = 0.34). Cardiac arrest happened in 8 patients, 1 person was in HR group (33.3%) and 7 in non HR group (7.2%) (P = 0.22). According our data there were no relation among HR and gender and ventilator dependency time.
Conclusions:
HR is a nearly prevalent complication among patients that undergone CABG that may led to some complications such as bleeding and cardiac arrest. In our study, we did not find significant relation among them, but in frequency these complications were higher in HR group.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.125798
PMCID: PMC3950837  PMID: 24627861
Bleeding; coronary artery bypass graft; heparin; heparin complication; heparin resistance
11.  Adding metoclopramide to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia in trauma patients 
Background:
Metoclopromide have local anesthetic properties. The main object of performing the present study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of metoclopromide 10 mg when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) of upper extremities in trauma patients.
Materials and Methods:
Ninety patients undergoing upper limb producer were randomly allocated to the three groups to receive 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 ml (Group L, n = 30) or 10 mg metoclopromide plus 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 ml (group LM, n = 30) or 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 ml plus 10 mg metoclopromide intravenously (Group IM, n = 30).
Results:
Our study showed that the onset times for sensory and motor block were significantly shorter in Group LM compared with Group L and Group IM (4.5 ± 0.7 vs. 5.0 ± 0.7 and 5.0 ± 0.6, respectively, P = 0.006 for sensory block; 6.3 ± 0.7 vs. 5.1 ± 0.9 and 5.9 ± 0.6 respectively, P = 0.000 for motor block). The postoperative VAS scores were significantly less at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after tourniquet release in Group LM compared with Group L and Group IM (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
The results of our study showed that adding 10 mg metoclopromide to lidocaine for IVRG in trauma patients reduced intraoperative and postoperative analgesic use till 24 hours and improve quality of anesthesia.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.125753
PMCID: PMC3949339  PMID: 24627853
Anesthetic techniques; intravenous regional anesthesia lidocaine; metoclopromide; postoperative pain
12.  An evaluation of the efficacy of different doses of ketamine for treatment of catheter-related bladder discomfort in patients underwent urologic surgery: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study 
Urology Annals  2014;6(1):51-56.
Background:
Urinary catheterization might have catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD). We evaluated the efficacy of different doses of ketamine in comparison to placebo as a treatment of CRBD.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred twenty patients who were candidate for urological surgery requiring catheterization of the urinary bladder were randomly divided into four groups including 30 patients in each. Group I received normal saline, Group II received ketamine 150 μg/kg/iv, Group III received ketamine 200 μg/kg/iv, and Group IV received 250 μg/kg/iv in the equal volume of 2 mL. The patients were observed for each 15 min in the recovery room and in the 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h after discharging from it for severity of CRBD and pain, levels of sedation, and post-operative nausea and vomiting.
Results:
The severity of CRBD at the recovery room was significantly reduced in Group III and Group IV after 24 h compared with Group I and Group II (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between Group III and Group IV in this respect. The median sedation level was significantly lower in 15 min and 30 min after arrival to the recovery in Group III and Group IV compared with Group I and Group II (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between Group III and Group IV in this regard.
Conclusions:
Ketamine 200 μg/kg/iv had similar efficacy with ketamine 250 μg/kg/iv in reducing the severity of CRBD without occurring significant side effect.
doi:10.4103/0974-7796.127030
PMCID: PMC3963344  PMID: 24669123
Anesthesia; catheter-related bladder discomfort; ketamine; urologic surgery
13.  Investigating the relationship between intra-operative electrolyte abnormalities (sodium and potassium) with post-operative complications of coronary artery bypass surgery 
Background:
Generally, the electrolyte abnormalities are seen in many hospitalized patients, and this problem increases in ones with heart diseases. The purpose of this study is determination of the prevalence of electrolyte abnormalities during the coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and detecting the relationship between these abnormalities with the complications after the surgeries.
Materials and Methods:
This is a cross-sectional study, which is done in Chamran hospital, the medical and educational center of Isfahan, Iran, in 2011. The target population included the patients who have undergone CABG in this hospital. In this study, 100 patients who had been candidates for CABG were selected, and we extracted their recorded intra-operative electrolyte information. The collected data was entered into the computer and analyzed by SPSS software. The Chi-square and t student tests were used for data analysis.
Results:
The mean ± SD of sodium during CABG was 137.95 ± 4.6 (range 127-152) mg\dl. Also, the mean ± SD of potassium was 4.65 ± 0.9 (range: 2.9-7.4). According to these results, 48 patients (48% of all) had electrolyte imbalance and 52 patients (52% of all) were normal. Sodium level in 71% of patients was normal, and in 29% of them was abnormal. Potassium level in 73% of individuals was normal, and in 27% of them was abnormal.
Conclusion:
Giving an attention to electrolyte abnormalities in patients who have undergone CABG surgery is a considerable necessity for them, and sufficient arrangements are needed to prevent such abnormalities.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.120871
PMCID: PMC3908493  PMID: 24520549
Coronary artery bypass surgery; electrolytes imbalance; potassium; sodium
14.  A comparison of the effect of pretreatment with intravenous dexamethasone, intravenous ketamine, and their combination, for suppression of remifentanil-induced cough: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial 
Background:
The injection of remifentanil can cause cough during induction of anesthesia. This study was designed to examine the efficacy of ketamine, dexamethasone, and their combination on remifentanil-induced cough (RIC).
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and twenty patients scheduled for elective surgery were randomly assigned into four groups: Group K received 10 mg ketamine; Group D received 10 mg dexamethasone; Group KD received 10 mg ketamine in combination with dexamethasone; and Group S received saline in a similar volume, five minutes prior to the injection of remifentanil. The incidence and severity of the cough was recorded in each person.
Results:
The incidence of RIC was significantly lower in Group KD compared to Group K, Group D, and Group S (3.3 vs. 20%, 20%, and 46.7%, respectively, P < 0.05). The severity of RIC was significantly lower in Group KD compared to Group K, Group D, and Group S (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between Group K and Group D in this regard (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the onset time of coughing among the four groups (19.8 ± 1.3, 20.8 ± 0.9, 19.0 ± 1.1, and 19.9 ± 2.2 in Group K, Group D, Group KD, and Group S, respectively, P > 0.05).
Conclusion:
We found that pretreatment with 10 mg ketamine in combination with 10 mg dexamethasone five minutes prior to the injection of remifentanil could significantly reduce the incidence of RIC, and it was better than using each drug singly.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.115808
PMCID: PMC3814903  PMID: 24223375
Cough; dexamethasone; ketamin; remifentanil
15.  Effect of adding 8 milligrams ondansetron to lidocaine for Bier's block on post-operative pain 
Background:
Ondansetron has analgesic properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic effect of 8 mg ondansetron when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA).
Materials and Methods:
Ninety patients undergoing hand surgery were randomly allocated to the three groups to receive 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 mL (Group L, n = 30) or 8 mg ondansetron plus 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 mL (group LO, n = 30) or 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 mL plus 8 mg ondansetron intravenously (Group IO, n = 30). Tourniquet pain and analgesic use were recorded before and after the tourniquet application.
Results:
The sensory and motor block onset times were significantly shorter in Group LO compared with Group L and Group IO (4.2 ± 1.7 vs. 5.2 ± 0.8 and 5.1 ± 1.2 respectively, P < 0.05; 4.5 ± 1.4 vs. 5.8 ± 1.5 and 5.7 ± 1.4 respectively, P < 0.05). The sensory and motor block recovery times were significantly longer in Group LO compared with Group L and Group IO (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.1 ± 1.3 and 4.5 ± 0.9 respectively, P < 0.05; 6.7 ± 1.4 vs. 4.4 ± 0.9 and 4.7 ± 0.7 respectively, P < 0.05). Post-operative VAS scores were significantly less in Group LO compared with Group L and Group IO till 24 h after tourniquet deflation (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
The addition of 8 mg ondansetron to lidocaine for IVRA reduced intraoperative and post-operative analgesic use till 24 h.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.114197
PMCID: PMC3905338  PMID: 24516852
Anesthetic techniques; intravenous regional; lidocaine; ondansetron; pain; post-operative
16.  The comparison of intraincisional injection tramadol, pethidine and bupivacaine on postcesarean section pain relief under spinal anesthesia 
Background:
Bupivacaine, tramadol, and pethidine has local anesthetic effect. The aim of this study was to compare effect of subcutaneous (SC) infiltration of tramadol, pethidine, and bupivacaine on postoperative pain relief after cesarean delivery.
Materials and Methods:
120 patient, scheduled for elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia, were randomly allocated to 1 of the 4 groups according to the drugs used for postoperative analgesia: Group P (Pethidine) 50 mg ,Group T (Tramadol) 40 mg, Group B (Bupivacaine 0.25%) 0.7 mg/kg, and Group C (control) 20CC normal saline injection in incision site of surgery. Pain intensity (VAS = visual analogous scale) at rest and on coughing and opioid consumption were assessed on arrival in the recovery room, and then 15, 30, 60 minutes and 2, 6, 12, 24 hours after that.
Results:
VAS scores were significantly lower in groups T and P compared with groups B and C except for 24 hours (VAS rest) and 6 hours (VAS on coughing) postoperatively (P < 0.05). The number of patients requiring morphine were significantly different between the groups (105 doses vs. 87, 56, 46, doses for group C, B, T and P, respectively, P < 0.05) in all the times, except for 2 and 6 hours postoperatively.
Conclusions:
The administration of subcutaneous pethidine or tramadol after cesarean section improves analgesia and has a significant morphine-sparing effect compared with bupivacaine and control groups.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.100165
PMCID: PMC3544092  PMID: 23326784
bupivacaine; pethidine; post-cesarean section pain; spinal anesthesia; tramadol
17.  Effects of preemptive analgesia with celecoxib or acetaminophen on postoperative pain relief following lower extremity orthopedic surgery 
Background:
Efficacy of preemptive analgesia with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in comparison with acetaminophen is controversial. The present study evaluates the preemptive analgesia efficacy of celecoxib and acetaminophen in comparison with placebo for postoperative pain relief in patients who underwent orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia.
Materials and Methods:
Ninetypatients eligible for elective distal extremity surgery were categorized in three groups: group C includedpatients who received oral celecoxib 200 mg 2 h before surgery; group A included those who received oral acetaminophen 320 mg 2 h before surgery; and group P included those who received oral placebo 2 h before surgery. Pain scores were recorded at 4, 12, and 24 h after operation.
Results:
The pain scores 4 h after operation was significantly less in group C than in groups A and P (4.7±1.7 vs. 5±1.5 vs. 6.8±1.7, respectively, P = 0.015). No significant difference was noted in pain scores at 12 h (4.6±2, 4.9±1.9, 4.3±1.4 in group A, group C, group P, respectively P > 0.05) and 24 h (3.1±1.7, 3.0±1.4, 3.3±1.7 in group A, group C, group P, respectively, P > 0.05) after operation among the three groups.
Conclusion:
Using oral celecoxib 200 mg 2 h before operation is better thanusing oral acetaminophen 320 mg 2 h before the beginning of surgery for control of postoperative pain in patients who underwent lower extremity orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.100197
PMCID: PMC3587127  PMID: 23459777
Celecoxib; acetaminophen; postoperative pain; preemptive analgesia; analgesia; orthopedic surgery; elderly patients
18.  Unusual right internal jugular vein catheter malposition into the right axillary vein: A rare case report 
One of disastrous complications of central venous cannulation (CVC) is malposition of central venous catheter. In this case report, we present an adult patient with history of multiple trauma and intracranial hemorrhage in whom the right axillary vein was accidentally cannulated during CVC insertion.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.96072
PMCID: PMC3507013  PMID: 23210075
Central venous cannulation; malposition of central venous catheter; right internal jugular vein; right axillary vein
19.  Prophylactic administration of haloperidol plus midazolam reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting better than using each drug alone in patients undergoing middle ear surgery 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;6(2):145-151.
Aims:
The efficacy of using midazolam or haloperidol for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) has been investigated before. The main object of the present study was to evaluate the anti-emetic effects of combining administration of intravenous haloperidol with intravenous midazolam on PONV in patients underwent middle ear surgery in comparison with using each drug alone.
Methods:
Study design was randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled. 80 patients, aged 18-60 years, scheduled for middle ear surgery in Kashani Hospital Medical Center under general anesthesia were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were divided into 4 groups of 20 each and received haloperidol 2 mg i.v. (Group H); midazolam 2 mg i.v. (Group M); haloperidol 2 mg plus midazolam 2 mg i.v. (Group HM); saline i.v. (Group C). The incidences of PONV and complete response were evaluated at 0-2 hours after arrival to the PACU and 2-24 hours after arrival to the ward in 4 groups.
Results:
Patients in group HM had significantly lower incidence of PONV compared with groups H, M, and C throughout 0-24 h (P<00.5). The HM group had the lowest incidence of PONV (0-2, 2-24, and 0-24 h) and the highest incidence of complete response. Postoperative anti-emetic requirement was significantly less in group HM compared with group M or H (P<0.05).
Conclusion:
Combine administration of haloperidol 2 mg plus midazolam 2 mg significantly reduced PONV better than using each drug alone in patients underwent middle ear surgery under general anesthesia.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.97028
PMCID: PMC3385257  PMID: 22754441
Anti-emetics; haloperidol; midazolam; otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures; postoperative nausea and vomiting
20.  Treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: A randomized, double-blinded comparison of midazolam, ondansetron, and a combination 
Background:
The antiemetic efficacy of midazolam and ondansetron was shown before. The aim of the present study was to compare efficacy of using intravenous midazoalm, ondansetron, and midazolam in combination with ondansetron for treatment of nausea and vomiting after cesarean delivery in parturient underwent spinal anesthesia.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred thirty two parturients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: group M (n = 44) that received intravenous midazoalm 30 μg/kg; group O (n = 44) that received intravenous ondansetron 8 mg; group MO (n = 44) that received intravenous midazoalm 30 μg/kg combined with intravenous ondansetron 8 mg if patients had vomiting or VAS of nausea ≥ 3 during surgery (after umbilical cord clamping) and 24 hours after that. The incidence and severity of vomiting episodes and nausea with visual analog scale (VAS) > 3 were evaluated at 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after injection of study drugs.
Results:
The incidence of nausea was significantly less in group MO compared with group M and group O at 6 hours postoperatively (P = 0.01). This variable was not significantly different in three groups at 2 hours and 24 hours after operation. The severity of nausea and vomiting was significantly different in three groups at 6 hours after operation (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
Our study showed that using intravenous midazolam 30 μg/kg in combination with intravenous ondansetron 8 mg was superior to administering single drug in treatment of emetic symptoms after cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.94424
PMCID: PMC3507018  PMID: 23210061
Anesthesia; cesarean section; midazoalm; ondansetron; postoperative nausea and vomiting; spinal
21.  Effect of erythropoietin on Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Sale in patient with diffuse axonal injury 
BACKGROUND:
Erythropoietin (EPO) as a major stimulator of red blood cell (RBC) production play a key role on brain protection and have a caring effect on neurons from hypoxic or traumatic injury. The objective of this trial was to study the safety and efficacy of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) on level of consciousness and other outcomes in patient with post traumatic diffuse axonal injury (PTDAI).
METHODS:
In a controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial, 54 patients aged 20-47 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups. Subjects in intervention group (n = 27) received 2000U open-label rhEPO (Erythropoietin-ß; Roche, Gren-zach-Wyhlen, Germany) subcutaneously for six doses in two weeks (on days: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10). The efficacies of the intervention were evaluated by GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale) and GOS (Glasgow Outcome Scale).
RESULTS:
The patients that were treated by rhEPO improved earlier with the difference between the treatment groups occurring on the day 10 (score differences of 9.6 for GCS and 1.9 for GOS). The better course of the rhEPO-treated patients continued throughout the remaining study period. The hematocrit and red blood cell counts did not increase to levels exceeding the normal range in rhEPO patients.
CONCLUSIONS:
Intravenous EPO was well tolerated in diffuse axonal injury and was associated with an improvement in patients’ outcome in 2 weeks.
PMCID: PMC3523438  PMID: 23248657
Erythropoietin; Outcome; Diffuse Axonal Injury
22.  Preincisional administration of intravenous or subcutaneous infiltration of low-dose ketamine suppresses postoperative pain after appendectomy 
Background
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, can suppress hyperalgesia and allodynia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of preincisional intravenous or subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine for postoperative pain relief after appendectomy.
Methods
Ninety patients, aged 18–60 years, scheduled for appendectomy was enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into three groups of 30 each and received subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (KS), intravenous ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (KI), or subcutaneous infiltration of normal saline 3 mL (C) before surgery. Visual analog scale (VAS) values and analgesic consumption were evaluated for 24 hours after surgery.
Results
VAS scores were significantly lower at the time of arrival in the recovery room, and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes thereafter in group KI and group KS compared with group C (P < 0.05). VAS scores were not significantly different between group KI and group KS at these intervals. Postoperative VAS scores were significantly lower at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours in group KI compared with group C (P < 0.05). In group KS, the postoperative VAS score was significantly lower at 6 hours (P < 0.05). VAS scores were significantly lower at 12, 18, and 24 hours after surgery in group KI compared with group KS (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
A 0.5 mg/kg dose of ketamine given at approximately 15 minutes before surgery by the intravenous route provided analgesia for 24 hours after surgery in patients undergoing appendectomy.
doi:10.2147/JPR.S26476
PMCID: PMC3273401  PMID: 22328829
pain; postoperative; analgesia; ketamine; appendectomy
23.  The analgesic effect of midazolam when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia* 
BACKGROUND:
Midazolam has analgesic properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic effect of midazolam when added to lidocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA).
METHODS:
Sixty patients undergoing hand surgery were randomly allocated into two groups to receive 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the control group (group lidocaine saline ~ LS, n=30) or 50 μg/kg midazolam plus 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the midazolam group (group lidocaine midazolam ~ LM, n=30). Before and after the tourniquet application, hemodynamic variables, tourniquet pain, sedation, and analgesic use were recorded.
RESULTS:
Shortened sensory and motor block onset time [4.20 (0.84) vs. 5.94 (0.83) min, p = 0.001 and 6.99 (0.72) vs. 9.07 (0.99) min, p = 0.001 in LM and LS groups, respectively], prolonged sensory and motor block recovery times [8.41 (0.94) vs. 5.68 (0.90) min, p = 0.001 and 11.85 (1.18) vs. 7.06 (0.82) min, p = 0.001 in LM and LS groups, respectively], shortened visual analog scale (VAS) scores of tourniquet pain (p < 0.05), and improved quality of anesthesia were found in group LM (p < 0.05). VAS scores were lower in group LM in the postoperative period (p = 0.001). Postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly smaller in group LM (p = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:
The addition of 50 μg/kg midazolam to lidocaine for IVRA shortens the onset of sensory and motor block, and improves quality of anesthesia and perioperative analgesia without causing side effects.
PMCID: PMC3430038  PMID: 22973382
Anaesthetic Techniques; IV Regional Lidocaine; Postoperative; Analgesics; Midazolam; Tourniquet Pain
24.  Gabapentin: An update of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in epilepsy 
The new antiepileptic medications are prescribed for the treatment of patients with seizure disorders since 17 years ago. Gabapentin (GBP) was approved on January 1994 as adjunctive treatment in patients 12 years or older with partial seizures, with or devoid of secondary generalization. GBP, was formerly known as an anticonvulsant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mimetic, is considered as a safe and well-tolerated antiepileptic drug (AED) with promising pharmacokinetic properties and a wide therapeutic index. GBP is useful for the therapy of mixed seizure disorders and refractory partial seizures in children. GBP must be regarded as the first treatment for older patients with recently diagnosed seizures. GBP has a well recognized clinical efficacy in those types of focal epilepsy which were resistant to the traditional AEDs. The main object of this review was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, dosing schedules and safety of GBP that have been investigated in peer-reviewed journals.
PMCID: PMC3263084  PMID: 22279483
Antiepileptic drugs; efficacy; epilepsy; gabapentin; new antiepileptic drugs; seizures
25.  A comparison of the ratio of patient's height to thyromental distance with the modified Mallampati and the upper lip bite test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2011;5(3):258-263.
Background:
The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from the following preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: modified Mallampati test (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) and the Upper-Lip-Bite test (ULBT).
Methods:
We collected data on 603 consecutive patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all three factors before surgery. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value, Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) Curve and the area under ROC curve (AUC) for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined.
Results:
Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4) occurred in 41 (6.8%) patients. The main endpoint of the present study, the AUC of the ROC, was significantly lower for the MMT (AUC, 0.511; 95% CI, 0.470–0.552) than the ULBT (AUC, 0.709; 95% CI, 0.671–0.745, P=0.002) and the RHTMD score (AUC, 0.711; 95% CI, 0.673–0.747, P=0.001). There was no significant difference between the AUC of the ROC for the ULBT and the RHTMD score. By using discrimination analysis, the optimal cutoff point for the RHTMD for predicting difficult laryngoscopy was 21.06 (sensitivity, 75.6%; specificity, 58.5%).
Conclusion:
The RHTMD is comparable with ULBT for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in general population.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.84098
PMCID: PMC3168341  PMID: 21957403
Difficult laryngoscopy; endotracheal intubation; RHTMD; thyromental distance; ULBT

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