The oxidation of water to dioxygen is catalyzed within photosystem II (PSII) by a Mn4Ca cluster, the structure of which remains elusive. Polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on PSII single crystals constrain the Mn4Ca cluster geometry to a set of three similar high-resolution structures. Combining polarized EXAFS and x-ray diffraction data, the cluster was placed within PSII, taking into account the overall trend of the electron density of the metal site and the putative ligands. The structure of the cluster from the present study is unlike either the 3.0 or 3.5 angstrom–resolution x-ray structures or other previously proposed models.
Replication initiation is a crucial step in genome duplication and homohexameric DnaB helicase plays a central role in the replication initiation process by unwinding the duplex DNA and interacting with several other proteins during the process of replication. N-terminal domain of DnaB is critical for helicase activity and for DnaG primase interactions. We present here the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of H. pylori DnaB (HpDnaB) helicase at 2.2 Å resolution and compare the structural differences among helicases and correlate with the functional differences. The structural details of NTD suggest that the linker region between NTD and C-terminal helicase domain plays a vital role in accurate assembly of NTD dimers. The sequence analysis of the linker regions from several helicases reveals that they should form four helix bundles. We also report the characterization of H. pylori DnaG primase and study the helicase-primase interactions, where HpDnaG primase stimulates DNA unwinding activity of HpDnaB suggesting presence of helicase-primase cohort at the replication fork. The protein-protein interaction study of C-terminal domain of primase and different deletion constructs of helicase suggests that linker is essential for proper conformation of NTD to interact strongly with HpDnaG. The surface charge distribution on the primase binding surface of NTDs of various helicases suggests that DnaB-DnaG interaction and stability of the complex is most probably charge dependent. Structure of the linker and helicase-primase interactions indicate that HpDnaB differs greatly from E.coli DnaB despite both belong to gram negative bacteria.
The crystallization of HLA-B*1402 in complex with two peptides is reported.
The product of the human major histocompatibility (HLA) class I allele HLA-B*1402 only differs from that of allele HLA-B*1403 at amino-acid position 156 of the heavy chain (Leu in HLA-B*1402 and Arg in HLA-B*1403). However, both subtypes are known to be differentially associated with the inflammatory rheumatic disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in black populations in Cameroon and Togo. HLA-B*1402 is not associated with AS, in contrast to HLA-B*1403, which is associated with this disease in the Togolese population. The products of these alleles can present peptides with Arg at position 2, a feature shared by a small group of other HLA-B antigens, including HLA-B*2705, the prototypical AS-associated subtype. Complexes of HLA-B*1402 with a viral peptide (RRRWRRLTV, termed pLMP2) and a self-peptide (IRAAPPPLF, termed pCatA) were prepared and were crystallized using polyethylene glycol as precipitant. The complexes crystallized in space groups P21 (pLMP2) and P212121 (pCatA) and diffracted synchrotron radiation to 2.55 and 1.86 Å resolution, respectively. Unambiguous solutions for both data sets were obtained by molecular replacement using a peptide-complexed HLA-B*2705 molecule (PDB code 1jge) as a search model.
HLA-B14 subtypes; major histocompatibility complex polymorphism; HLA-B*1402; subtype-dependent peptide-binding modes; ankylosing spondylitis
The accurate partitioning of Firmicute plasmid pSM19035 at cell division depends on ATP binding and hydrolysis by homodimeric ATPase δ2 (ParA) and binding of ω2 (ParB) to its cognate parS DNA. The 1.83 Å resolution crystal structure of δ2 in a complex with non-hydrolyzable ATPγS reveals a unique ParA dimer assembly that permits nucleotide exchange without requiring dissociation into monomers. In vitro, δ2 had minimal ATPase activity in the absence of ω2 and parS DNA. However, stoichiometric amounts of ω2 and parS DNA stimulated the δ2 ATPase activity and mediated plasmid pairing, whereas at high (4:1) ω2 : δ2 ratios, stimulation of the ATPase activity was reduced and δ2 polymerized onto DNA. Stimulation of the δ2 ATPase activity and its polymerization on DNA required ability of ω2 to bind parS DNA and its N-terminus. In vivo experiments showed that δ2 alone associated with the nucleoid, and in the presence of ω2 and parS DNA, δ2 oscillated between the nucleoid and the cell poles and formed spiral-like structures. Our studies indicate that the molar ω2 : δ2 ratio regulates the polymerization properties of (δ•ATP•Mg2+)2 on and depolymerization from parS DNA, thereby controlling the temporal and spatial segregation of pSM19035 before cell division.
Three different crystal forms were obtained of human saposin C. The structures could not be determined by molecular replacement using known solution structures of the protein as search models, supporting the notion of a highly flexible protein.
The amphiphilic saposin proteins (A, B, C and D) act at the lipid–water interface in lysosomes, mediating the hydrolysis of membrane building blocks by water-soluble exohydrolases. Human saposin C activates glucocerebrosidase and β-galactosylceramidase. The protein has been expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and crystallized in three different crystal forms, diffracting to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å. Hexagonal crystals grew from 2-propanol-containing solution and contain a single molecule in the asymmetric unit according to the Matthews coefficient. Orthorhombic and tetragonal crystals were both obtained with pentaerythritol ethoxylate and are predicted to contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Attempts to determine the respective crystal structures by molecular replacement using either the known NMR structure of human saposin C or a related crystal structure as search models have so far failed. The failure of the molecular-replacement method is attributed to conformational changes of the protein, which are known to be required for its biological activity. Crystal structures of human saposin C therefore might be the key to mapping out the conformational trajectory of saposin-like proteins.
sphingolipid-activator proteins; saposin-like proteins; saposin C; protein flexibility
The crystallization of HLA-B*2706 in complex with two peptides is reported.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles HLA-B*2704 and HLA-B*2706 show an ethnically restricted distribution and are differentially associated with ankylosing spondylitis, with HLA-B*2706 lacking association with this autoimmune disease. However, the products of the two alleles differ by only two amino acids, at heavy-chain residues 114 (His in HLA-B*2704; Asp in HLA-B*2706) and 116 (Asp in HLA-B*2704; Tyr in HLA-B*2706). Both residues could be involved in contacting amino acids of a bound peptide, suggesting that peptides presented by these subtypes play a role in disease pathogenesis. Two HLA-B*2706–peptide complexes were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG as precipitant. Data sets were collected to resolutions of 2.70 Å (viral peptide pLMP2, RRRWRRLTV; space group P212121) and 1.83 Å (self-peptide pVIPR, RRKWRRWHL; space group P21). Using HLA-B*2705 complexed with the pGR peptide (RRRWHRWRL) as a search model, unambiguous molecular-replacement solutions were found for both HLA-B*2706 complexes.
HLA-B27 subtypes; major histocompatibility complex polymorphism; HLA-B*2706; subtype-dependent peptide-binding modes; ankylosing spondylitis
Crystallization of HLA-B*2704 in complex with two peptides.
The product of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene HLA-B*2704 differs from that of the prototypical subtype HLA-B*2705 by three amino acids at heavy-chain residues 77 (Ser instead of Asp), 152 (Glu instead of Val) and 211 (Gly instead of Ala). In contrast to the ubiquitous HLA-B*2705 subtype, HLA-B*2704 occurs only in orientals. Both subtypes are strongly associated with spondyloarthropathies and the peptides presented by these subtypes are suspected to play a role in disease pathogenesis. HLA-B*2704 was crystallized in complex with a viral peptide and with a self-peptide using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG as a precipitant. Both crystals belong to space group P212121. Data sets were collected to 1.60 Å (complex with the self-peptide pVIPR) or to 1.90 Å (complex with the viral peptide pLMP2) resolution using synchrotron radiation. With HLA-B*2705 complexed with pVIPR as a search model, unambiguous molecular-replacement solutions were found for the complexes of HLA-B*2704 with both peptides.
HLA-B27 subtypes; HLA-B*2704; subtype-dependent peptide-binding modes; ankylosing spondylitis; polymorphism
The product of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene HLA-B*2703 differs from that of the prototypical subtype HLA-B*2705 by a single amino acid at heavy-chain residue 59 that is involved in anchoring the peptide N-terminus within the A pocket of the molecule. Two B*2703–peptide complexes were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. A pocket of the molecule, two HLA-B*2703–peptide complexes were crystallized and data sets were collected to high resolution using synchrotron radiation.
The product of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene HLA-B*2703 differs from that of the prototypical subtype HLA-B*2705 by a single amino acid at heavy-chain residue 59 that is involved in anchoring the peptide N-terminus within the A pocket of the molecule. Two B*2703–peptide complexes were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. The crystals belong to space group P21 (pVIPR peptide) or P212121 (pLMP2 peptide). Data sets were collected to 1.55 Å (B*2703–pVIPR) or 2.0 Å (B*2703–pLMP2) resolution using synchrotron radiation. With B*2705–pVIPR as a search model, a clear molecular-replacement solution was found for both B*2703 complexes.
HLA-B*2703; HLA-B27 subtypes; subtype-dependent peptide-binding modes; ankylosing spondylitis; residue 59 polymorphism
Repressor ω regulates transcription of genes required for copy number control, accurate segregation and stable maintenance of inc18 plasmids hosted by Gram-positive bacteria. ω belongs to homodimeric ribbon-helix-helix (RHH2) repressors typified by a central, antiparallel β-sheet for DNA major groove binding. Homodimeric ω2 binds cooperatively to promotors with 7 to 10 consecutive non-palindromic DNA heptad repeats (5′-A/TATCACA/T-3′, symbolized by →) in palindromic inverted, converging (→←) or diverging (←→) orientation and also, unique to ω2 and contrasting other RHH2 repressors, to non-palindromic direct (→→) repeats. Here we investigate with crystal structures how ω2 binds specifically to heptads in minimal operators with (→→) and (→←) repeats. Since the pseudo-2-fold axis relating the monomers in ω2 passes the central C–G base pair of each heptad with ∼0.3 Å downstream offset, the separation between the pseudo-2-fold axes is exactly 7 bp in (→→), ∼0.6 Å shorter in (→←) but would be ∼0.6 Å longer in (←→). These variations grade interactions between adjacent ω2 and explain modulations in cooperative binding affinity of ω2 to operators with different heptad orientations.
The structure of photosystem I at 3.8 A resolution illustrated the main structural elements of the water-oxidizing photosystem II complex, including the constituents of the electron transport chain. The location of the Mn cluster within the complex has been identified for the first time to our knowledge. At this resolution, no individual atoms are visible, however, the electron density of the Mn cluster can be used to discuss both the present models of the Mn cluster as revealed from various spectroscopic methods and the implications for the mechanisms of water oxidation. Twenty-six chlorophylls from the antenna system of photosystem II have been identified. They are arranged in two layers, one close to the stromal side and one close to the lumenal side. Comparing the structure of the antenna system of photosystem II with the chlorophyll arrangement in photosystem I, which was recently determined at 2.5 A resolution shows that photosystem II lacks the central domain of the photosystem I antenna, which is discussed in respect of the repair cycle of photosystem II due to photoinhibition.
The products of the human leukocyte antigen subtypes HLA-B*2705 and HLA-B*2709 differ only in residue 116 (Asp vs. His) within the peptide binding groove but are differentially associated with the autoimmune disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS); HLA-B*2705 occurs in AS-patients, whereas HLA-B*2709 does not. The subtypes also generate differential T cell repertoires as exemplified by distinct T cell responses against the self-peptide pVIPR (RRKWRRWHL). The crystal structures described here show that pVIPR binds in an unprecedented dual conformation only to HLA-B*2705 molecules. In one binding mode, peptide pArg5 forms a salt bridge to Asp116, connected with drastically different interactions between peptide and heavy chain, contrasting with the second, conventional conformation, which is exclusively found in the case of B*2709. These subtype-dependent differences in pVIPR binding link the emergence of dissimilar T cell repertoires in individuals with HLA-B*2705 or HLA-B*2709 to the buried Asp116/His116 polymorphism and provide novel insights into peptide presentation by major histocompatibility antigens.
X-ray structure; major histocompatibility antigen; peptide binding modes; ankylosing spondylitis; residue 116
pSM19035-encoded ω protein forms a dimer (ω2) that binds to a set of 7-bp repeats with sequence 5′-NATCACN-3′. Upon binding to its cognate sites, ω2 regulates transcription of genes required for copy number control and stable inheritance of plasmids, and promotes accurate plasmid segregation. Protein ω2 binds poorly to one heptad but the affinity to DNA increases with two and more unspaced heptads in direct or inverted orientation. DNA titration of increasing numbers of heptads with ω2, monitored by circular dichroism measurements, indicates the binding of one ω2 to one heptad (ω2:heptad stoichiometry of 1:1). Spacing of two directly or inversely oriented heptads by 1 to 7 bp reduces the affinity of the protein for its cognate target site. The binding affinity of ω2 for two directly repeated heptads was severely reduced if one of the base pairs of the core 5′-ATCAC-3′ sequence of one of the heptads was individually substituted by any other base pair. Hydroxyl radical footprinting shows a protection pattern at the 5′-ATCAC-3′ core. These data suggest that each heptad defines an operator half-site and that tight binding of the symmetric ω2 to the central 5′-TCA-3′ core of symmetric or asymmetric targets (differently oriented heptads) is probably achieved by structural changes of DNA and/or protein or both.
In the known monoclinic crystals the 3-dimensional structure of the hexameric, replicative helicase RepA encoded by plasmid RSF1010 shows 6-fold rotational symmetry. In contrast, in the cubic crystal form at 2.55 Å resolution described here RepA has 3-fold symmetry and consists of a trimer of dimers. To study structure–function relationships, a series of repA deletion mutants and mutations yielding single amino acid exchanges were constructed and the respective gene products were analyzed in vivo and in vitro. Hexamerization of RepA occurs via the N-terminus and is required for NTP hydrolysis. The C-terminus is essential both for the interaction with the replication machinery and for the helicase activity. Functional analyses of RepA variants with single amino acid exchanges confirmed most of the predictions that were based on the published 3-dimensional structure. Of the five motifs conserved in family 4 helicases, all residues conserved in RepA and T7 gp4 helicases participate in DNA unwinding. Residues K42, E76, D77, D139 and H178, proposed to play key roles in catalyzing the hydrolysis of NTPs, are essential for RepA activity. Residue H178 of motif H3 couples nucleotide consumption to DNA strand separation.
Helicases couple the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) to the unwinding of double-stranded nucleic acids and are essential in DNA metabolism. Thus far, no inhibitors are known for helicases except heliquinomycin isolated from Streptomyces sp. As the three-dimensional structure of the hexameric replicative DNA helicase RepA encoded by the broad host-range plasmid RSF1010 is known, this protein served as a model helicase to search for inhibitory compounds. The commercially available flavone derivatives luteolin, morin, myricetin and dimyricetin (an oxidation product of myricetin) inhibited the ATPase and double-stranded DNA unwinding activities of RepA. Dimyricetin was the most effective inhibitor for both activities. Single-stranded DNA-dependent RepA ATPase activity is inhibited non-competitively by all four compounds. This finding contrasts the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by flavones that fit into the ATP binding pocket of this enzyme. Myricetin also inhibited the growth of a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterial species. As we found other hexameric and non-hexameric prokaryotic helicases to be differentially sensitive to myricetin, flavones may provide substructures for the design of molecules helpful for unraveling the mechanism of helicase action and of novel pharmacologically useful molecules.