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1.  Transfer of rheumatoid arthritis into severe combined immunodeficient mice. The pathogenetic implications of T cell populations oligoclonally expanding in the rheumatoid joints. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;96(4):1746-1758.
To investigate the pathogenicity of T cells infiltrating in the rheumatoid joints, mononuclear cells (MNC), predominantly T cells, isolated from either synovial fluid or synovial tissues of the patients with RA were transferred into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice by intraarticular injections. According to our observations in this experimental system, patients with RA could be classified into at least two groups. In one group of patients, the infiltrating MNC induced synovial hyperplasia in the recipient SCID mice (the positive group). Whereas, in the other group no synovial hyperplasia was observed (the negative group). The induction of synovial hyperplasia observed in the positive group was prevented by an anti-human CD3 antibody (OKT3), indicating T cell mediation. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) V beta usage by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the infiltrating MNC transferred into SCID mice revealed a marked skew towards the preferential use of certain V beta genes, which was not seen in the peripheral blood MNC, in only the positive group. The patterns of TCR/V beta skew were not uniform among the patients. The analysis of the PCR-amplified genes of such skewed TCR/ V beta by single strand conformational polymorphism showed distinct bands, indicating that the T cell populations expanding in rheumatoid joints of the positive group were oligoclonal. Furthermore, the enrichment of the T cell populations expressing such skewed TCR/V beta by in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood MNC of the patients with the relevant superantigen enabled the induction of synovial hyperplasia in the SCID mice. These results suggest that the pathogenic T cells could be activated locally in rheumatoid joints by certain antigens in some, but not in all patients with RA.
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PMCID: PMC185811  PMID: 7560066
2.  Spontaneous immunoglobulin A secretion and lack of mitogen-responsive B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1985;76(5):1865-1870.
In an analysis of lymphocyte functions of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, B cell abnormalities such as a lack of mitogen-responsive B cells and a predominance of spontaneous IgA-secreting cells (SC) were found. Lymphocyte functions of 20 SLE patients were studied. Impaired proliferative response to B cell mitogen, Staphylococcus aureus strain Cowan I (Cowan I), was observed, whereas the response to T cell mitogen phytohemagglutinin was normal. High levels of spontaneous IgA-SC were observed in SLE patients (greater than 10(2) cells/10(4) peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMC]), whereas spontaneous IgM-, IgG-, or IgE-SC were not proportionately increased. The number of spontaneous IgA-SC decreased with time in culture and became undetectable by day 5 of culture. In contrast, spontaneous immunoglobulin- (IgM, IgG, and IgA) SC were not observed in healthy volunteers (less than 10 cells/10(4) PBMC). Moreover, in SLE patients failure of induction of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) was observed when B cells were stimulated by Cowan I and B cell differentiation factor at any day tested, whereas ISC were induced in healthy volunteers on day 6 of culture. Depletion of T cells or macrophages did not affect the results obtained. These results suggest that the abnormalities observed in SLE B cells are not due to the in vitro direct effects of suppressor macrophages or suppressor T cells, and that the condition of the predominance of spontaneous IgA-SC and the unresponsiveness to exogenous stimulation may be emblematic of hyperactive B cells in SLE.
PMCID: PMC424227  PMID: 3932473

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