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1.  Alloimmunization among transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients 
Background:
Thalassemia is a common hemoglobin disorder in Iran and one of the major public health problems. Although blood transfusions are lifesavers for thalassemia patients, they may be associated with some complications especially erythrocyte alloimmunization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of red blood cell alloantibodies and to determine types of these antibodies among multiple-transfused thalassemic patients.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 313 thalassemia patients in the northeast of Iran, who received regular blood transfusion, were included in this study. Screening of antibodies was performed on fresh serum of all patients and then antibodies were identified in patients’ serum that had positive antibody screening test using a panel of recognized blood group antigens.
Results:
We identified 12 alloantibodies in 9 patients (2.87%) that all were against Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens (D, C, E). Three patients developed 2 antibodies, and others had one antibody. The most common alloantibodies were Anti-D (88.88%) and followed by Anti-C and Anti-E. Higher frequency of alloimmunization was observed in female, Rh negative and splenectomized patients.
Conclusion:
This study showed that evaluation of the packed cells for Rh (C, E) from the start of transfusion can be helpful in decreasing the rate of alloantibody synthesis.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.53884
PMCID: PMC2920480  PMID: 20808654
Alloantibody; thalassemia; transfusion
2.  Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in Iranian children 
Background:
Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional anaemia among children. Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in children of Mashhad, Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This cross sectional study was performed on children between 1 year and 10 years, in Imam Reza teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. Indeed during complete blood count (CBC), we measured iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) by colorimetric methods, ferritin by radioimmune assay and blood lead concentration by atomic absorption method. Results were analysed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 11.5), using statistical tests including independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as a significant level.
Results:
We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD) blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212) μg/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159) μg/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713). We also did not find any correlation between blood lead concentration and haemoglobin, ferritin, iron, TIBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets.
Conclusion:
Based on these results, no correlation was found between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in the children. Because all children had lead intoxication, further studies in highly polluted and a comparison with a low polluted area are necessary to make a general conclusion.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.122353
PMCID: PMC3883233  PMID: 24403711
Anaemia; iron deficiency; lead
3.  Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with the Lewis and ABO blood groups in dyspeptic patients 
Background:
Helicobacter pylori infection is a basic risk factor for chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Based on some studies, the reason is binding of H. pylori to H and Leb antigens in gastric mucosa. However, some other findings have not determined any association between the infection and these antigens. Because of this controversy and the fact that H. pylori infection and gastric adenocarcinoma are common diseases in Iran, the assessment of the association of H. pylori infection with these blood groups could be valuable.
Materials and Methods:
In a cross sectional study on 135 adult dyspeptic patients in Mashhad, Iran, from 2009 to 2010, H. pylori infection was evaluated by using the Heliprobe 14C-urea breath test and the ABO and Lewis blood group antigens were determined by the tube method. Association between the Lewis and ABO phenotypes with H. pylori infection were analysed by Fisher's exact test. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant.
Results:
68 (50.4%) patients were positive for H. pylori infection. The frequencies of the ABO, Lewis and secretion phenotypes were not significant in the infected and non-infected patients. We also did not find a significant association between Lea and Leb antigens and this infection.
Conclusion:
We could not establish a significant association between the Lewis, ABO and secretion phenotypes with H. pylori infection. Diversity of sequences of blood group antigen b-binding adhesion (babA gene) of H. pylori may be a reason why our findings are different from other studies in other geographic areas.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.114583
PMCID: PMC3719247  PMID: 23901182
ABO blood groups; gastritis; Helicobacter pylori; Lewis blood group; secretor blood group
4.  Is there any relationship between Chlamydophila pneumoniae and coronary atherosclerosis among Iranians? 
Background:
Atherosclerosis is a coronary heart disease, andis the most common cause of death in the industrialized world. Some studies suggested that atherosclerosis may be triggered by infectious agents, mostly Chlamydophila pneumoniae. However, the role of C. pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis is still controversial.
Objectives:
This study was performed to evaluate whether there is a significant association between coronary artery atherosclerosis and C. pneumoniae by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
Materials and Methods:
This case-control study was carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies of the coronary arteries obtained from 30 patients with coronary atherosclerosis and 30 subjects without atherosclerosis living in Northeast of Iran. All subjects' weight and height were determined, and the body mass index was calculated. We also reviewed the medical history and previous laboratory reports of patients. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted, and C. pneumonia DNA was amplified and detected using PCR assay.
Results:
The age of the patients in the study group was from 18 to 50 years, and the male to female ratio was 5:1. Only oneout of the 30 coronary tissue samples had positive PCR for C. pneumoniae (3.3%), while it was negative for patients in the control group.
Conclusions:
This study showed that C. pneumoniae infection is not strongly associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis in Northeast of Iran.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.108894
PMCID: PMC3644743  PMID: 23661898
Atherosclerosis; Chlamydophila pneumonia; coronary artery; Iran
5.  Role of the Lewis and ABO Blood Group Antigens in Helicobacter pylori Infection 
Background:
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor for chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. Some findings show increased frequencies of these diseases in individuals with type O blood and in secretors (expressing Leb antigen), but other studies have not found any relationship between blood groups and this infection. Given that H. pylori infection and gastric cancer are common in Iran, the assessment of the pathogenesis of this infection in relation to these blood groups could be valuable.
Methods:
In a cross-sectional study, we determined the ABO and Lewis blood groups of participants using the tube method and evaluated the level of anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study included 171 Iranian blood donors from Mashhad, Iran, during 2010. The significance of the differences in the frequencies of the Lewis and ABO phenotypes between individuals infected with and without H. Pylori infection were tested using the Chi-square test. A P-value < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results:
H. pylori infection was found in 76.6% of the study subjects (n = 131). The most common ABO blood group was O (33.9%), and the most common Lewis blood group was Le(a-b+) (54.7%). The frequencies of the ABO, Lewis, and secretion phenotypes were not significantly different between the infected and uninfected subjects.
Conclusion:
We did not find any significant relationship between the Lewis, ABO, and secretion phenotypes and H. pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC3629660  PMID: 23610545
ABO blood groups; blood group antigens; Helicobacter pylori; Lewis blood group; secretor blood group
6.  Serum Immunoglobulins in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia 
Iron deficiency is a common cause of anemia worldwide. Documentation shows that these patients have impaired immunity and are prone to infections. The aim of this study was to confirm whether serum immunoglobulins change in adult nonpregnant females with iron deficiency anemia. Based on patients’ clinical history, CBC results, and serum ferritin, iron and total iron binding capacity, 45 healthy patients and 45 iron deficiency anemia (hypochrom microcytic) patients were entered into this case–control study. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM were measured in patient and control groups using the nephelometry method. Both of the groups were compared using suitable statistical test. Mean serum values of IgG, IgA and IgM in the patient group were 12.47 ± 7.67, 1.93 ± 0.92 and 1.35 ± 0.90 g/l respectively. Mean serum values for the control group were 12.51 ± 6.85, 2.14 ± 0.88 and 1.49 ± 0.73 g/l respectively. Although serum immunoglobulins were slightly lower in the patient group compared to the control group these differences were not significant with the t test. Our study showed serum immunoglobulin levels did not change in iron deficiency anemia.
doi:10.1007/s12288-010-0025-3
PMCID: PMC3002066  PMID: 21629635
Iron deficiency anemia; Humoral immunity; Immunoglobulin
7.  Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia 
Background:
Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA.
Methods:
In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared.
Results:
Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043).
Conclusion:
This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection.
PMCID: PMC3216203  PMID: 22135572
flow cytometry; immunology; iron-deficiency anaemia; pre-menopause; T lymphocytes; women

Results 1-7 (7)