Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13–17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior.
For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior.
Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths’ sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Adolescent involvement in risk behaviors is a concern that crosses geographical and cultural boundaries. Research has identified a number of factors which influence child behavior outcomes. This study explored the role of perceived neighborhood problems, parent-child relationships and parental monitoring, as they relate to engagement in risk behaviors among a sample of 497 Bahamian early adolescents. Contrary to the hypothesized direction, results of the latent growth model showed an increase in perceived parental monitoring over the four year period. Consistent with our hypotheses, adolescents who reported greater monitoring reported less involvement in sexual activity, less involvement in physical fights and less alcohol consumption. Positive interactions between parent and child also significantly predicted the initial status and rate of change of parental monitoring.
adolescent risk behavior; parental monitoring; Caribbean
In order to examine the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and perceptions, and risk intentions and behaviors among adolescents in Goa, India, cross-sectional data from 942 youth were collected and assessed. The prevalence rates in past 6 months for fighting, smoking, drinking, and drug use were 16.5%, 3.8%, 17.8%, and 1.1% respectively; 5.2% acknowledged ever having engaged in sex. Prior risk involvement was significantly correlated with future risk intention (OR: 9.7~19.7), and those involved in one risk behavior were more likely to engage in other risk behaviors (OR: 1.3~23.5). The findings suggest the importance of targeted interventions for youth engaging or intending to engage in risk behaviors and universal interventions regarding basic facts and skills for all youth in Goa.
Risk behaviors; Intention; Perception; Knowledge; HIV/AIDS; Youth; Goa; India
This research evaluates condom-use self-efficacy and its increase throughout adolescence. Documentation of the development of condom-use self-efficacy would be important for prevention efforts given the influence of self-efficacy on actual condom-usage. This study assesses a hypothesized mediation mechanism of the development of self-efficacy using a mediation analysis approach. The participants, 497 grade-6 Bahamian students, were randomly assigned to the control condition in a 3-year longitudinal HIV prevention program trial. Condom–use self-efficacy consistently increased and condom-use self-efficacy assessed at earlier periods was positively associated with its values at subsequent periods. Additionally, self-efficacy assessed between two time points one year apart or longer (e.g., 6 months between baseline and 12 months) significantly mediated the impact of its levels at the previous assessment on the level at the subsequent assessment. To sustain program effect, HIV prevention programs should strive to enhance self-efficacy and provide reinforcing “boosters” no later than 12 months post-intervention.
Limited data are available as to what happens in institutions involved in behavioral intervention trials after the trial has ended. Specifically, do the trainers continue to administer the behavioral intervention that had been the focus of the trial? To address this question, we examined data in grade six schools before a year-long behavioral intervention had been delivered in some schools (and a year-long control condition in others) and data obtained again 6 and 7 years later in the same two sets of schools. Data were derived from the baseline surveys of two interventions: (1) national implementation of the evidence-based Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC) intervention in 2011; and (2) the randomized, controlled trial of the FOYC intervention in 2004/2005. Cross-sectional, longitudinal comparisons and random coefficient regression analysis were conducted to evaluate long-term intervention effects. Results indicate that grade six students in 2011 from schools in which the FOYC intervention had been implemented in 2004/2005 had a higher level of HIV/AIDS knowledge, increased reproductive health skills, increased self-efficacy regarding their ability to prevent HIV infection, and greater intention to use protection if they were to have sex compared to their counterparts from schools where no such training took place. We concluded that new cohorts of students benefited from the extensive training and/or experience in teaching the FOYC curriculum received by teachers, guidance counselors and administrators in schools which had delivered the FOYC intervention as part of a randomized trial several years earlier. The findings suggest that teachers who previously were trained to deliver the FOYC intervention may continue to teach at least some portions of the curriculum to subsequent classes of students attending these schools.
FOYC intervention; AIDS knowledge; Self-efficacy; Intention to use protection; Enduring effect
In this study, we examined how adolescents compare monitoring efforts by their parents to those of a "good parent" standard and assessed the impact of these comparisons on adolescent self-disclosure and risk behavior and their perceptions of their parents' monitoring knowledge. Survey responses from 519 adolescents (12–17 years) at baseline of a larger, longitudinal study examining parental monitoring and adolescent risk were examined. Adolescents’ “good parent comparisons” differed greatly by monitoring areas (e.g., telephone use, health, money); however, between 5.5% and 25.8% of adolescents believed their parents needed to monitor their activities more than they currently were monitoring. Alternatively, between 8.5% and 23.8% of adolescents believed their parents needed to monitor their activities less often. These perceptions significantly distinguished adolescents in terms of their level of disclosure, perceived monitoring knowledge, and risk involvement. Adolescents who viewed their parents as needing to monitor more were less likely to disclose information to their parents (p<.001), less likely to perceive their parents as having greater monitoring knowledge (p<.001), and more likely to be involved in a risk behaviors (p<.001) than adolescents who perceived their parents needed no change. Adolescent disclosure to a parent is a powerful predictor of adolescent risk and poor health outcomes. These findings demonstrate that adolescents' comparisons of their parents' monitoring efforts can predict differences in adolescent disclosure and future risk. Obtaining adolescent "good parent" comparisons may successfully identify intervention opportunities with the adolescent and parent by noting the areas of need and direction of monitoring improvement.
Teachers’ implementation of evidence-based prevention programs in schools is inconsistent. Using data gathered from the national implementation among grade six students in The Bahamas of an evidence-based HIV intervention [Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC)], this study examines differences in the degree of implementation (“dose”) and adherence to the core activities (“fidelity of implementation”) by teachers according to theoretically and historically relevant teachers’ characteristics, attitudes, and experiences pre-intervention and post-intervention. The relationship of implementation dose and implementation fidelity is assessed according to student outcomes.
Beginning in 2008, the Bahamian Ministry of Education (MOE) included FOYC in the grade six curriculum nationwide. Consistent with standard practice, teachers were offered MOE training workshops in FOYC prior to delivery. The MOE conducted an anonymous curricular assessment among the grade six students at the beginning and end of the school year. Teachers agreeing to participate in the research component were asked to complete a pre-implementation and post-implementation assessment of attitudes and prior experiences.
Teachers taught 15.6 out of 30 core activities, 24 out of the 46 total activities, and 4.6 out of 8 sessions on average. Three teachers’ implementation groups were identified: 1) High Implementation Group (31.7% of the teachers), characterized by high levels of implementation dose and fidelity of implementation; 2) Moderate Implementation Group (52.8%), showing moderate levels of implementation dose but high levels of fidelity of implementation; and 3) Low Implementation Group (15.6%), with low levels of implementation dose and fidelity of implementation. Low Implementation Group teachers compared to teachers in the two higher performing groups had less training in interactive teaching, limited prior exposure to the FOYC curriculum, incomplete attendance at FOYC training workshops, and low levels of comfort in teaching FOYC lessons. Students taught by teachers in the Low Implementation Group demonstrated poorer outcomes relevant to the four student outcomes (HIV/AIDS knowledge, preventive reproductive health skills, self-efficacy, and intention to use protection if they were to have sex).
Both implementation dose and implementation fidelity are related to student outcomes. Teachers at risk for limited implementation can be identified pre-intervention, thus opening the possibility for focused pre-intervention training.
Implementation cluster; HIV prevention; Implementation dose; Fidelity of implementation; Adolescents; The Bahamas
Few studies have analyzed the development course beginning in pre-/early adolescence of overall engagement in health-risk behaviors and associated social risk factors that place individuals in different health-risk trajectories through mid-adolescence. The current longitudinal study identified 1276 adolescents in grade six and followed them for three years to investigate their developmental trajectories of risk behaviors and to examine the association of personal and social risk factors with each trajectory. Group-based trajectory modeling was applied to identify distinctive trajectory patterns of risk behaviors. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of the personal and social risk factors on adolescents’ trajectories. Three gender-specific behavioral trajectories were identified for males (55.3% low-risk, 37.6% moderate-risk, increasing, and 7.1% high-risk, increasing) and females (41.4% no-risk, 53.4% low-risk, increasing and 5.2% moderate to high-risk, increasing). Sensation-seeking, family, peer, and neighborhood factors at baseline predicted following the moderate-risk, increasing trajectory and the high-risk, increasing trajectory in males; these risk factors predicted following the moderate to high-risk, increasing trajectory in females. The presence of all three social risk factors (high-risk neighborhood, high-risk peers and low parental monitoring) had a dramatic impact on increased probability of being in a high-risk trajectory group. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early personal and social risk factors on subsequent risk behaviors in early to middle adolescence. Future adolescent health behavior promotion interventions might consider offering additional prevention resources to pre- and early adolescent youth who are exposed to multiple contextual risk factors (even in the absence of risk behaviors) or youth who are early-starters of delinquency and substance use behaviors in early adolescence.
adolescent; sensation-seeking; parental monitoring; peer risk involvement; neighborhood risk; developmental trajectory; risk behaviors; The Bahamas
In 1988 a group of pediatricians, developmental, clinical, child and social psychologists, anthropologists and health educators began researching in Baltimore, Maryland, on an Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) prevention intervention, Focus on Youth (FOY). Over the next 25 years, the questions being addressed by FOY reflected those of the global HIV research experience. During the first phase, the questions being addressed by the broader research community included: Can HIV risk behaviors be purposefully impacted by behavioral interventions? If so, how do successful interventions differ from those that are not effective? Are theory-based interventions more likely to be effective than information-only-based interventions? Can theories be translated into culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions including those that are appropriate for children and adolescents? Should parents be involved – and if so, how? During its next phase, the FOY team increasingly became concerned with a disturbing reality. A large number of interventions had been developed and some had been shown to have evidence of impact. But virtually all of these interventions had been conducted in the USA or Europe. The questions facing researchers included: With the global burden of HIV disproportionately impacting low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), especially those in southern Africa, the Caribbean and parts of Asia, what is known about the effectiveness of western-based interventions in these culturally, racially and economically disparate settings? With the exciting proliferation of interventions, federal agencies in the USA and international agencies including Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS realized the importance of assessing the research portfolio and developing metrics of effectiveness. The questions during this phase included: What is an “effective” intervention? How are effective interventions implemented in a new setting? This phase merged with the next phase as researchers and public health workers realized that the dissemination to a new community of an intervention developed and found to be effective in one community requires change. The central questions during this time included: What changes or kinds of changes can be made to an intervention without undermining its effectiveness? What aspects of an intervention cannot be changed without potentially undermining its effectiveness? What constitutes a “change”? Who should be involved in this decision-making? These efforts culminated in our current phase, one focused on implementation. We must learn more about the factors that allow an intervention to survive and thrive and selectively target these critical factors. The main objective of this paper is to review our experiences and lessons learned in developing, implementing and evaluating FOY in a wide range of socio-cultural settings over the past quarter of century.
HIV/AIDS; implementation science; children and adolescents
The Bahamian Ministry of Education has elected to implement at a national level in all Bahamian government grade six classes an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention [Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC)]. This study explores fidelity of implementation of the intervention, factors that may influence implementation fidelity, and the impact of variations in implementation fidelity on student outcomes. Data were collected in the first wave of national implementation in 2011, involving 35 government primary schools and 110 teachers and 2811 students. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the relationships among factors which facilitated or impeded teachers’ implementation of FOYC. Results indicate that teachers taught 16.3 out of 30 core activities, 24.9 out of 46 total activities and 4.4 out of 8 sessions on average. The strongest predictor of implementation fidelity was teacher comfort level with the FOYC curriculum. Teachers who did not perceive the FOYC intervention to be important for their students or who had attended only part of a FOYC training workshop were more likely to change the curriculum. Increased duration of experience as a teacher (>10 years) was negatively associated with fidelity of implementation. Teacher’s perception of the importance of the FOYC intervention and implementation fidelity had direct positive effects on students’ HIV/AIDS knowledge, reproductive health skills, protective intentions and self-efficacy. Youth did not appear to benefit from FOYC if two or fewer sessions were delivered. We concluded that an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention can be implemented at a national level. Prior training of teachers in the intervention curriculum, teacher perception of the importance of the intervention, and fewer years as a teacher are associated with implementation fidelity. Implementation fidelity is associated with improved student outcomes.
Implementation research; HIV prevention; fidelity; adolescents; Bahamas
In 1988 a group of pediatricians, developmental, clinical, child and social psychologists, anthropologists and health educators began researching in Baltimore, Maryland on an HIV prevention intervention, Focus on Youth. Over the next 25 years the questions being addressed by Focus on Youth, reflected those of the global HIV research experience.
During the first phase, the questions being addressed by the broader research community included: Can HIV risk behaviors be purposefully impacted by behavioral interventions? If so, how do successful interventions differ from those that are not effective? Are theory-based interventions more likely to be effective than information-only based interventions? Can theories be translated into culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions including those that are appropriate for children and adolescents? Should parents be involved--and if so, how?
During its next phase, the Focus on Youth team increasingly became concerned with a disturbing reality. A large number of interventions had been developed and some had been shown to have evidence of impact. But virtually all of these interventions had been conducted in the USA or Europe. The questions facing researchers included: With the global burden of HIV disproportionately impacting Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), especially those in southern Africa, the Caribbean and parts of Asia, what is known about the effectiveness of western-based interventions in these culturally, racially and economically disparate settings?
With the exciting proliferation of interventions, federal agencies in the USA and international agencies including UNAIDS realized the importance of assessing the research portfolio and developing metrics of effectiveness. The questions during this phase included: What is an “effective” intervention? How are effective interventions implemented in a new setting? This phase merged with the next phase as researchers and public health workers realized that the dissemination to a new community of an intervention developed and found to be effective in one community requires change. The central questions during this time included: What changes or kinds of changes can be made to an intervention without undermining its effectiveness? What aspects of an intervention cannot be changed without potentially undermining its effectiveness? What constitutes a “change”? Who should be involved in this decision-making?
These efforts culminated in our current phase, one focused on implementation. We must learn more about the factors that allow an intervention to survive and thrive and selectively target these critical factors. The main objective of this paper is to review our experiences and lessons learned in developing, implementing, and evaluating Focus on Youth in a wide range of socio-cultural settings over the past a quarter of century.
Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2564 grade 10 students and their parents in The Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention which should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs.
adolescent; condom use skills; self-efficacy; parent-adolescent communication; brief parental intervention; risk behaviors; The Bahamas
Smoking prevalence is high among men in China. One result is that a large number of nonsmoking Chinese women may be exposed daily to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exposure is particularly problematic for pregnant women because of potential adverse reproductive effects. To determine the extent of this exposure and to summarize existing intervention studies designed to reduce SHS exposure in China, a systematic review of the literature published from 1995 through 2012 was conducted.
We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies published from 1995 through 2012 using various search terms including SHS, pregnant women, and China. Only articles on prevalence of SHS exposure and interventions to reduce exposure to SHS were selected.
We identified 132 studies during the initial searches. Eight of 13 eligible studies reported the prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women; estimates ranged from 38.9% to 75.1%. Few SHS prevention interventions among pregnant women in China have been studied; we found only 5 such studies. The interventions primarily focused on changing husbands’ smoking behaviors; some interventions focused on women’s avoidance behaviors.
Prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women is high in China. Information is limited on effective interventions to protect pregnant women from exposure. The results of this review can provide the basis for the design and evaluation of interventions to help pregnant women avoid SHS exposure.
This study examined adolescents’ beliefs about the benefits and risks of withdrawal (coitus interruptus) with respect to both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the course of qualitative interviews with African-American youth aged 14–19 (n = 124) about sexuality and risk, 24 adolescents spontaneously introduced the subject of withdrawal as a sexual risk reduction strategy. Eighteen percent of the sexually experienced adolescents mentioned their own use of withdrawal as a contraceptive method. From adolescents’ accounts of their own and their peers’ use of withdrawal, we learned that the cultural meanings of withdrawal within the context of adolescent relationships were multifaceted. Using withdrawal could signal sexual prowess in male youth, was seen as promoting trust and caring within a stable relationship, and was seen as mitigating the risk of pregnancy. However, adolescents also recognized that withdrawal did not protect against most STIs. Beliefs about withdrawal as a gendered skill and as a sign of trust may undermine some adolescents’ attempts to negotiate condom use for protection against STIs.
Sexually transmitted infections; HIV/AIDS; Adolescents; Withdrawal; Contraception; African-American
The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent–adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. The results obtained with mixed-effects models indicate that parental knowledge, youth disclosure, and parental control are negatively associated with both delinquency and substance use. Open parent—adolescent communication was associated with decreased sexual risk behavior, whereas problematic parent–adolescent communication was associated with increased sexual risk behavior. The results obtained with path models indicate that youth disclosure is a significant longitudinal predictor of reduced adolescent delinquency and that parental control during early adolescence predicted reduced substance use in middle adolescence. The findings suggest that parental knowledge, youth disclosure and parental control differ in their impacts on substance use, delinquency and sexual risk behaviors. Problematic parent–adolescent communication is consistently associated with increases in all three types of adolescent risk behaviors. Future parental monitoring interventions should focus on enhancing parents’ interpersonal communication skills and emphasize the differences in and importance of the unique components of parental monitoring.
adolescent; parental knowledge; youth disclosure; parental solicitation; parental control; parent–adolescent communication; risk behaviors; Bahamas
Age of the target audience at time of intervention is thought to be a critical variable influencing the effectiveness of adolescent sexual risk reduction interventions. Despite this postulated importance, to date studies have not been designed to enable a direct comparison of outcomes according to age at time of intervention delivery.
We examined outcomes of 598 youth who were sequentially involved in two randomized controlled trials of sexual risk prevention interventions, the first one delivered in grade 6 [Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC)] and the second one in grade ten [Bahamian Focus on Older Youth (BFOOY)]. Four groups were examined, including those who received: 1) both treatment conditions, FOYC and BFOOY; 2) FOYC in grade 6 and the control condition in grade 10; 3) the control condition in grade 6 and BFOOY in grade 10; and 4) both control conditions. Intentions, perceptions, condom-use skills as well as HIV-related knowledge were assessed over 60 months.
Data showed that those who received both interventions had the greatest increase in condom-use skills. Youth who received FOYC in grade 6 had greater scores in knowledge and intention.
These results suggest that youth receive the most protection with early and repeated exposure to interventions. These findings suggest that educators should consider implementing HIV prevention and risk reduction programs as a fixed component of education curriculum beginning in the pre-adolescent years and if possible also during the adolescent years.
HIV Prevention Intervention; Adolescence; Condom-use skills; Randomized Controlled Trials; Risk Reduction Behavior
Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs.
A wide range of behavioral prevention interventions have been demonstrated through longitudinal, randomized controlled trials to reduce sexual risk behaviors. Many of these interventions have been made available at little cost for implementation on a public health scale. However, efforts to utilize such programs typically have been met with a range of problems to be addressed, leading to the recognition that new processes must be identified and integrated into the emerging field of implementation science. A randomized, controlled trial conducted among Bahamian grade six students attending fifteen elementary schools found the sexual risk-reduction intervention “Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC) and Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together (CImPACT)” to be effective through three years of follow-up. Based on these results, the Bahamian Ministry of Education decided to implement FOYC-CImPACT throughout all government grade six classes in The Bahamas. This manuscript describes the considerations, approaches, and actions taken regarding national implementation of this evidence-based intervention. The implementation process included active data-gathering, observation and feedback components to inform subsequent intervention phases. This manuscript reviewed the success and challenges to date within this framework and described changes made to enable next stages of the national implementation effort.
HIV/AIDS Prevention; Reproductive Health Education; Implementation Research
This study assesses potential predictive factors for unresponsiveness to the “Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC)” intervention using longitudinal data from 1360 Bahamian sixth-grade youth. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicate that the intervention had a greater impact on knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, and condom use intention among low and medium initial scorers. High initial scores in knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, and intention were predictive of relative unresponsiveness to the intervention. Advanced age and male sex were predictive of unresponsiveness to the intervention for HIV/AIDS knowledge. Female gender was predictive of unresponsiveness to the intervention for self-efficacy. High academic self-evaluation was predictive of unresponsiveness to the intervention for condom use intention. The greatest intervention impact was observed at the six-month post-intervention follow-up; these intervention-related gains were sustained over the subsequent follow-up periods. Youth with higher risk attributes (lower knowledge, skills and self-efficacy) were more likely to respond to a risk reduction intervention.
HIV/AIDS knowledge; condom use skills; self-efficacy; condom use intention; intervention; unresponsiveness
This qualitative study aims to investigate parental HIV disclosure and psychological impact from the perspectives of their children. In-depth individual interviews with 47 children who had lost one or both parents to AIDS were conducted in China. All transcripts were coded using the software ATLAS.ti 5. Results showed that few of children knew of parental HIV status before the death of their parents. The main disclosers were the children’s current caregivers. Some children knew about their parent’s HIV infection based on their own observations or through overheard conversation, or their interactions with villagers. Both positive and negative psychological outcomes related to parental HIV disclosure were reported. Psychological counseling is needed for both parents and children to dealing with the parental HIV infection.
Parental HIV disclosure; Psychosocial impact; Orphan; China
Adolescents are at particularly high risk to acquire HIV infection; increasing the likelihood of condom use is an effective measure to reduce the risk of such infections. Challenges in assessing actual condom use behavior among early adolescents render the precursor measure, intention to use condoms, an appealing alternative. While analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a theory-based intervention program to promote condom use among early adolescents, we observed a modest effect with regard to condom use intention when the linear analytical approach was used. If intention, as a measure of the readiness to perform a behavior, also contains a nonlinear discrete component, it would be more appropriately modeled using a non-linear approach. In this study, data from a randomized controlled trial (N=1360) were analyzed using the cusp catastrophe method with HIV knowledge and condom skills as the asymmetry variables and condom use self-efficacy as the bifurcation variables. Findings from concurrent and longitudinal modeling analyses indicated a much better fit of the cusp model (R2 = 0.85 and 4+ times smaller AIC and BIC) than the linear (R2 <=0.10 and 4+ times larger AIC and BIC) or the logistic model (R2<0.15, also 4+ times larger AIC and BIC). Receipt of the intervention as an asymmetry variable was significantly predicted condom use intention but did not as a bifurcation variable. In conclusion, adolescent intentions to use a condom contain both a continuous process and a discrete process and can better be modeled with cusp methods. A much greater program effect is likely from the same prevention intervention if additional measures are taken to foster sudden changes in condom intention.
Behavioral Intention; Cusp modeling; HIV/AIDS; Bahamian Youth; Condom use
Using data from the preparatory phase prior to national implementation of an effective HIV prevention program [Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC)] in all Bahamian government sixth-grade classes, we describe: 1) actual FOYC implementation; 2) factors which influenced implementation; and 3) the relationship of implementation with intervention outcome. Six elementary schools (with 17 grade six classrooms) were selected to participate in the preparatory phase. The 17 teachers were invited to: attend a training workshop; coordinate administration of questionnaires to the students; teach the 10 sessions of FOYC; and complete self-assessment checklists. 395 students submitted baseline and 311 students submitted year-end questionnaires. Thirteen teachers initiated FOYC; five completed all 10 sessions. Implementation of FOYC was not related to teacher FOYC workshop experience but did cluster by school. There were significant positive correlations between improved student knowledge of HIV/AIDS, protective health skills, perceived parental monitoring and reduced risk behaviors with the number of FOYC sessions delivered. Implementation was impeded by logistic impediments, structural issues with the measures, and comfort-level issues, most of which can be addressed for national implementation. Degree of FOYC implementation is correlated with positive student outcomes.
Bahamas; implementation; HIV prevention; AIDS knowledge; intention; risk behavior; preadolescents
Behavioral interventions based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) have been demonstrated to reduce HIV risk behavior among mid- and older adolescents in different settings across the globe but have not been evaluated among Caribbean nations and have received limited evaluation among pre-adolescents.
To determine 1) the effectiveness among pre-adolescents in The Bahamas of a PMT-based HIV prevention program “Focus on Youth in the Caribbean” (FOYC) and 2) the role of the targeted PMT constructs in intervention effect.
1,360 sixth grade youth (10-11 years of age) from 15 urban schools in New Providence, The Bahamas were randomized by school to receive either FOYC or a control condition. Data collected at baseline, six and 12 months post intervention were analyzed. A five-step scheme was used to assess sexual behavior progression, ranging from “1” = “a virgin without intention to have sex” to” 5″ = “having sex without a condom”. Group-based trajectory analysis was utilized in assessing the program effect.
Two sexual behavior progression patterns were detected: slow progressors and quick progressors. Receiving FOYC reduced the likelihood for adolescents to become quick progressors (adjusted OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-1.00). The observed effectiveness was especially impacted by a subset of the targeted PMT constructs.
FOYC effectively delays sexual risk among Bahamian pre-adolescents. The group-based trajectory analysis provides an analytical approach for assessing interventions among adolescents with low rates and diverse progression patterns of sexual activity.
Behavioral Intervention; FOK; HIV/AIDS; Adolescent risk behavior; The Bahamas
Limited data are available regarding the effects of domestic chores workload on psychological problems among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China. The current study aims to examine association between children’s depressive symptoms and the domestic chores workload (i.e., the frequency and the amount of time doing domestic chores). Data were derived from the baseline survey of a longitudinal study which investigated the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on psychological problems of children. A total of 1,449 children in family-based care were included in the analysis: 579 orphaned children who lost one or both parents due to AIDS, 466 vulnerable children living with one or both parents being infected with HIV, and 404 comparison children who did not have HIV/AIDS infected family members in their families. Results showed differences on domestic chores workload between children affected by HIV/AIDS (orphans and vulnerable children) and the comparison children. Children affected by HIV/AIDS worked more frequently and worked longer time on domestic chores than the comparison children. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that domestic chores workload was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The data suggest that children affected by HIV/AIDS may face increasing burden of domestic chores and it is necessary to reduce the excessive workload of domestic chores among children affected by HIV/AIDS through increasing community-based social support for children in the families affected by HIV/AIDS.
Domestic chores workload; Depressive symptoms; Orphan; HIV/AIDS; China