To assess the long-term impact of HIV-prevention interventions delivered to youth before sexual initiation and the effects of interventions delivered in non-study settings.
A five-group comparison of HIV knowledge, and condom-use skills, self-efficacy, intentions and practice among 1997 grade 10 youth attending one of the eight government high schools in Nassau, The Bahamas. Group 1 received an HIV-prevention intervention, Focus on youth in the Caribbean (FOYC), in Grade 6 as part of a randomized trial; Group 2 received FOYC as part of the regular school curriculum but outside of the trial; Group 3 received the control condition as part of the trial; Group 4 received the control condition as part of the school curriculum but outside of the trial; and, Group 5 (Naïve Controls) were not enrolled in a school receiving FOYC or the control and did not participate in the trial.
FOYC youth compared to control youth and Naive Controls had higher HIV knowledge, condom-use skills and self-efficacy four years later. By subgroups, Group 1 demonstrated higher HIV/AIDS knowledge than all groups except Group 2, higher condom skills than all groups, and higher condom self-efficacy than Naïve Controls. Youth in Group 2 demonstrated higher HIV knowledge than youth in Groups 3 to 5. Behavioral effects were not found.
FOYC delivered to grade 6 students continued to have protective effects four years later. Positive effects are present among youth who received FOYC as part of the school curriculum but were not enrolled in the trial.
HIV Prevention; pre-adolescents; long-term follow-up; testing effect
Sample representativeness remains one of the challenges in effective HIV/STD surveillance and prevention targeting MSM worldwide. Although convenience samples are widely used in studies of MSM, previous studies suggested that these samples might not be representative of the broader MSM population. This issue becomes even more critical in many developing countries where needed resources for conducting probability sampling are limited. We examined variations in HIV and Syphilis infections and sociodemographic and behavioral factors among 307 young migrant MSM recruited using four different convenience sampling methods (peer outreach, informal social network, Internet, and venue-based) in Beijing, China in 2009. The participants completed a self-administered survey and provided blood specimens for HIV/STD testing. Among the four MSM samples using different recruitment methods, rates of HIV infections were 5.1%, 5.8%, 7.8%, and 3.4%; rates of Syphilis infection were 21.8%, 36.2%, 11.8%, and 13.8%; rates of inconsistent condom use were 57%, 52%, 58%, and 38%. Significant differences were found in various sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., age, migration history, education, income, places of employment) and risk behaviors (e.g., age at first sex, number of sex partners, involvement in commercial sex, and substance use) among samples recruited by different sampling methods. The results confirmed the challenges of obtaining representative MSM samples and underscored the importance of using multiple sampling methods to reach MSM from diverse backgrounds and in different social segments and to improve the representativeness of the MSM samples when the use of probability sampling approach is not feasible.
HIV; MSM; Migrant workers; Sampling methods; China
This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.
Self-report; African American female adolescents; Sexually transmitted infection (STI); Validity; Measurement
HIV-related stigma has been shown to impede HIV-antibody testing and safer sexual practices in adults. Less is known about the effects of stigma on group-based prevention programs among at-risk youth. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between HIV-related stigma and gains in HIV-knowledge.
Data were provided by 1654 African-American adolescents who participated in a large multi-city prevention trial (Project iMPACCS). Participants were randomly assigned to an empirically-validated skill-based intervention (Focus on Youth) or a general health promotion control group. Both stigma and knowledge were assessed at pre- and post-intervention assessments.
Results from a covariance model suggested that adolescents participating in FOY showed improvements in HIV-knowledge and decreases in HIV-related stigma when compared to controls. The treatment effect on HIV-related stigma was comprised of a direct effect and an indirect effect through change in HIV knowledge. After controlling for baseline associations between HIV-related stigma and HIV knowledge, higher baseline stigma was shown to reduce gains in knowledge in both the treatment and control groups.
Results suggest that HIV-stigma can interfere with how youth identify with and internalize messages from group-based prevention trials.
HIV; Stigma; Adolescence; Knowledge; Prevention
We examined the long-term effects of two interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behavior among African American adolescents. African American adolescents (N=1383, ages 14-17) were recruited from community-based organizations over a period of 15 months in two northeastern and two southeastern mid-sized U.S. cities with high rates of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Participants were screened for three STIs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis) and completed an audio computer-assisted attitude, intention, and behavior self-interview. Youth who tested positive for an STI (8.3%) received treatment and risk reduction counseling. In addition, television and radio HIV-prevention messages were delivered during the recruitment period and 18 months of follow-up in one randomly selected city in each region. Analyses determined effects of the media program for those receiving a positive versus negative STI test result on number of sexual partners and occurrence of unprotected sex. Adolescents who tested STI-positive reduced their number of vaginal sex partners and the probability of unprotected sex over the first 6 months. However, in the absence of the mass media program, adolescents returned to their previously high levels of sexual risk behavior after 6 months. Adolescents who tested positive for STI and received the mass media program showed more stable reductions in unprotected sex. Community-based STI treatment and counseling can achieve significant, but short-lived reductions in sexual risk behavior among STI-positive youth. A culturally sensitive mass media program has the potential to achieve more stable reductions in sexual risk behavior and can help to optimize the effects of community-based STI screening.
community-based STI screening; mass media interventions; STI/HIV prevention; African American adolescent
To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents.
Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346).
The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities.
Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth.
mass media interventions; HIV-prevention; African American adolescents; condom use; culturally sensitive messages
to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China.
Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach alpha=.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire (TRQ) developed by Mustillo and colleagues (2005). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future.
Group mean comparisons using ANOVA suggested a significant association (p<.0001) between the trusting relationship with current caregivers and all the psychosocial measures except anxiety and depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family SES, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables.
The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for these children. Future study is needed to explore the possible reasons for the lack of association between a trusting relationship and some internalizing symptoms such as anxiety and depression among children affected by HIV/AIDS.
Trusting relationship; AIDS; Orphans; Vulnerable children; Psychosocial adjustment
While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial wellbeing has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1,299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial wellbeing and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PPS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial wellbeing of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS.
Perceived Social Support; Orphans; China; Internalizing Problems; Externalizing Problems; Educational Resilience; HIV/AIDS
The present study randomly assigned 15 Bahamian elementary schools to one of three intervention conditions. To assess the adequacy of cluster randomization, we examined two concerns identified by the local research team: inequality of gender distribution and environmental risk among groups. Baseline significant differences in risk and protective behaviors were minimal. There were significantly more males in the intervention group. Males had higher rates of risk behavior at all assessments. Poor school performance was also higher among the intervention condition and was significantly associated with increased rates of many but not all risk behaviors. Prior to adjusting for gender and school performance, several risk behaviors appeared to be higher after intervention among intervention youth. Adjusting for gender and school performance eradicated the group differences in risk behavior rates. Results demonstrate the importance of adequate randomization where outcomes of interest are rare events at baseline or differ by gender and there is an unequal gender distribution and the importance of the local research team's knowledge of potential inequalities in environmental risk (i.e., school performance). Not considering such individual differences could impact the integrity of trial outcomes.
This study assessed the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with psychosocial outcomes among children in high HIV-prevalence communities in rural China. Data were collected from HIV orphans (n = 417; children who had lost one or both parents to HIV), vulnerable children (n = 326; children living with HIV-infected parents), and comparison children (n = 276; children who had not experienced HIV-related familial illness or death). About 30% reported having experienced at least 1 form of CSA; more boys (37%) than girls (24%) reported CSA; 24% reported only non-physical CSA, 5% reported both physical and non-physical CSA; 2% reported only physical CSA. Multivariate analysis revealed that CSA was significantly associated with problem behaviors and quality of life independent of key demographic factors. Findings suggest that these children were vulnerable to CSA and highlight the need to address the issues of CSA in this population.
children; childhood sexual abuse; China; HIV; psychosocial outcomes
Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004–2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.
China; Rural-to-urban migrants; Discrimination; Perceived social inequity; Mental health; SCL-90
There is an estimated 100 000 children orphaned by AIDS in China, but data on the care arrangement of these orphans are limited. In this study, we examine the relationship between AIDS orphans’ care arrangement and their psychosocial well-being among a sample of AIDS orphans in rural China. A total of 296 children who lost both parents to AIDS participated in the study, including 176 in orphanages, 90 in kinship care and 30 in community-based group homes. All participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their traumatic symptoms, physical health and schooling. Data reveal that the AIDS orphans in group homes reported the best outcomes in three domains of psychosocial well-being, followed by those in the orphanages and then the kinship care. The differences in psychosocial well-being among the three groups of children persist after controlling for key demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that the appropriate care arrangement for AIDS orphans should be evaluated within the specific social and cultural context where the orphans live. In resource-poor regions or areas stricken hardest by the AIDS epidemic, kinship care may not sufficiently serve the needs of AIDS orphans. Community-based care models, with appropriate government and community support preserving the family style and low child-to-caregiver ratio may constitute an effective and sustainable care model for the best interest of the AIDS orphans in developing countries.
AIDS orphans; care arrangement; psychosocial well-being; China; resource-poor regions
Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths’ engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths’ reported and parents’ perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors.
185 randomly selected parent-youth dyads in four communes in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province. Descriptive and comparative analysis included chi-square tests, independent samples t-tests, and ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was utilized to assess relationships between parental knowledge, level of comfort, frequency of talk, and discordancy.
Seventy-six percent of parents and 44% of youth were female. Youth mean age was 17.2 years. For parental “reproductive health knowledge” mean score was 24.74 (SD 3.84: range 15–34). Lower parental reproductive health knowledge was positively associated with lower levels of education [F=2.983, df 184: p=0.014]. Data indicate a linear model in which knowledge is related to “comfort” (β =0.17; p=0.048) and “comfort” to frequency of “talk” (β =0.6; p<0.0001). Frequency of “talk” is not related to parents’ discordant perceptions regarding their child’s reported involvement in relationships (β =0.002; p=0.79) or sexual touching (β =0.57; p=0.60).
Parent and youth in Viet Nam are engaged in limited communication about reproductive health. There is need for more data to assess the impact of these communication patterns on youths’ engagement in sexual behaviors and for development of family-centered interventions to increase parental knowledge and skills for positive communication.
Previous studies suggested a rapid increase of HIV prevalence among MSM in China in recent years, from 0.4% in 2004 to 5.8% in 2008. However, some MSM had never been tested for HIV. In order to expand the accessibility to HIV testing, understanding HIV testing behavior and barriers among MSM is important. Using data collected from 307 young migrant MSM (aged 18–29 years) in 2009 in Beijing, we aimed to identify psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. MSM were recruited through peer outreach, informal social networks, internet outreach, and venue-based outreach. Participants completed a confidential self-administered questionnaire. Results show that about 72% of MSM had ever had HIV testing. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the HIV testing behavior was associated with sexual risk behaviors (e.g., multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use for anal sex) and history of STDs. Eighty four MSM (28%) who had never had HIV testing reported that the psychological barriers mainly were perceived low risk of HIV infection and fears of being stigmatized. The structural barriers reported included inconvenience of doing test and lack of confidentiality. Future HIV prevention programs should be strengthened among MSM to increase their awareness of HIV risk. Efforts are needed to increase access to quality and confidential HIV testing among MSM and reduce stigma against MSM.
MSM; HIV testing; HIV Prevention; Stigma; China
To investigate the association of age, period and cohort with the changing pattern of cigarette smoking among youth and young adults for better planning tobacco control in the United States.
Age-period-cohort analysis of the 1990-2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data.
Rates of lifetime and 30-day smoking for adolescents fluctuated between 1990-96 before they declined; the same rates for young adults progressively increased until 2002 before declining. There were significant cohort effects on changes in the prevalence rates of cigarette smoking.
The cohort effects on smoking underscore the need for sustained tobacco control policies.
tobacco control; adolescent smoking; APC Modeling; United States
In the 1990s, an interdisciplinary group including pediatricians, anthropologists, health educators, psychologists, and statisticians developed and evaluated an HIV prevention intervention targeting early adolescents living in public housing developments in the USA. The intervention, “Focus on Kids,” (FOK) was effective in reducing risk behaviors, intentions, and perceptions and ultimately was included in the Center for Disease Control’s portfolio of effective adolescent programs, “Programs that Work.” Learning about FOK and concerned about the need for a structured program to address high rates of teen pregnancy and risk for HIV, professionals from the Ministries of Health of The Bahamas approached the researchers about collaborating to develop a program for Bahamian youth. A partnership developed which has spanned over a decade and led to the development of an intervention program targeting Bahamian children in grade six, a 10-session adolescent HIV prevention program entitled “Focus on Youth in the Caribbean” (FOYC). Two programs including a video and parent discussion were developed for their parents. Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together (CImPACT) emphasizes the importance of parent-child communication about sexuality and Goal for It” (GFI) emphasizes the importance of planning ahead. The US-Bahamian team evaluated these interventions through a randomized, controlled 3-celled longitudinal trial (36 months follow-up) involving 15 elementary schools in The Bahamas. The programs have been shown to be effective. This article describes the context in which the epidemic occurred, events leading up to the collaboration and the issues, decisions, processes, and relationships that we have developed that have allowed it to succeed.
AIDS; Caribbean; youth
Purpose. To identify correlates of combined hormonal contraception and condom use (dual method use) compared with no methods, condoms only or hormonal contraception only. Data are from a baseline assessment of 335 youth (52% female) enrolled in an intervention trial. Multinomial logistic regression identified theory-based factors associated with dual method use. At last intercourse 47% of respondents used dual methods, 29% condom only, 14% hormonal contraception only, and 10% no methods. No method users were less likely than dual-method users to feel “dirty” about pregnancy, to have ask about historical condom use, to have more than two partners, to view condom use as normative for boys and more likely to perceive pregnancy risk as remote. Hormonal-contraception-only users were more likely to have sex weekly and perceive sex as pleasurable for girls, and less likely to view condom use as normative for boys and to ask a partner to use a condom. Condom-only users were more likely to perceive pregnancy chance as remote, and less likely to have more than two partners and to want peers to think they were virgins. Interventions should include benefits of dual methods while counseling about the negative impact of STI and unplanned teen pregnancy.
We report on African American adolescents' (N = 850; M age = 15.4) contraceptive practices and type of contraception utilized during their last sexual encounter. Respondents completed measures of demographics, contraceptive use, sexual partner type, and ability to select “safe” sexual partners. 40% endorsed use of dual or multiple contraceptive methods; a total of 35 different contraceptive combinations were reported. Perceived ability to select “safe” partners was associated with not using contraception (OR = 1.25), using less effective contraceptive methods (OR = 1.23), or hormonal birth control (OR = 1.50). Female gender predicted hormonal birth control use (OR = 2.33), use of less effective contraceptive methods (e.g., withdrawal; OR = 2.47), and using no contraception (OR = 2.37). Respondents' age and partner type did not predict contraception use. Adolescents used contraceptive methods with limited ability to prevent both unintended pregnancies and STD/HIV. Adolescents who believed their partners posed low risk were more likely to use contraceptive practices other than condoms or no contraception. Reproductive health practitioners are encouraged to help youth negotiate contraceptive use with partners, regardless of the partner's perceived riskiness.
This study compares psychosocial well-being between paternal and maternal orphans in rural China in a sample (N = 459) of children who had lost one parent to HIV and who were in family-based care. Measures included academic marks, education expectation, trusting relationships with current caregivers, self-reported health status, depression, loneliness, posttraumatic stress, and social support. No significant differences were found between maternal and paternal orphans, except that paternal orphans reported better trusting relationships with caregivers than maternal orphans. Children with a healthy surviving parent reported significantly better depression, loneliness, posttraumatic stress, and social support scores than children with a sick parent. Analyses revealed significance with regard to orphan status on academic marks and trusting relationships with caregivers while controlling for age, gender, surviving parent’s health status, and family SES. Findings underscore the importance of psychosocial support for children whose surviving parent is living with HIV or another illness.
AIDS; China; HIV; maternal orphans; paternal orphans; well-being
The objectives of this study were to examine symptoms of depression among caregivers of rural AIDS orphans (i.e., children who had lost one or both of their parents to HIV/AIDS) and vulnerable children (i. e., children who were living with HIV-infected alive parents), and to explore factors associated with the presence of symptoms of depression among caregivers.
Cross-sectional data were collected from 160 adult caregivers (parents, relatives or other adults) from a rural area in China where many residents were infected with HIV through unhygienic blood collection. The sample included 120 caregivers from households caring for AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and 40 from households without OVC. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess the symptoms of depression among the caregivers. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the associations of depressive symptoms with various individual and family factors among caregivers.
The mean score of CES-D for the entire sample was 19.18 (17.84 for men and20.44 for women). The univariate analysis indicated that the score of CES-D was significantly higher among caregivers with lower education, fewer household items/assets, from families with adult or pediatric HIV infection. Controlling for age, gender, and caregivers’ education, multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations between symptoms of depression and reduced family SES, adult or pediatric HIV infection in family.
Our results indicated an elevated level of depression symptoms among caregivers of OVC and underscored the needs for psychological support and intervention for their caregivers, especially for those with lower family SES, from families with an adult or pediatric HIV infection.
Depression; Caregiver; AIDS orphan; Vulnerable Children; China; HIV/AIDS
Multilevel analytical techniques are being applied in condom use research to ensure the validity of investigation on environmental/structural influences and clustered data from venue-based sampling. The literature contains reports of consistent associations between perceived gatekeeper support and condom use among entertainments establishment-based female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. However, the clustering inherent in the data (FSWs being clustered within establishment) has not been accounted in most of the analyses. We used multilevel analyses to examine perceived features of gatekeepers and individual correlates of consistent condom use among FSWs and to validate the findings in the existing literature.
We analyzed cross-sectional data from 318 FSWs from 29 entertainment establishments in Guangxi, China in 2004, with a minimum of 5 FSWs per establishment. The Hierarchical Linear Models program with Laplace estimation was used to estimate the parameters in models containing random effects and binary outcomes.
About 11.6% of women reported consistent condom use with clients. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated 18.5% of the variance in condom use could be attributed to their similarity between FSWs within the same establishments. Women’s perceived gatekeeper support and education remained positively associated with condom use (P < 0.05), after controlling for other individual characteristics and clustering.
After adjusting for data clustering, perceived gatekeeper support remains associated with consistent condom use with clients among FSWs in China. The results imply that combined interventions to intervene both gatekeepers and individual FSW may effectively promote consistent condom use.
In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population.
Social capital; Stigma; Rural migrants; China
(1) examine the psychometric properties of two parallel measures of HIV-related stigma (i.e., perceived public stigma and children’s personal stigma against PLWHA) among these children; (2) examine whether expressions of stigma measures differ by child’s sex, developmental stage, family SES, or orphanhood status (i.e., AIDS orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children); and (3) examine the association between HIV-related stigma and children’s psychosocial adjustments among these children.
Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (children who had lost one or both their parents to AIDS), 466 vulnerable children who lived with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children who did not experience HIV-related illness and death in their families. The measures included perceived public stigma, personal stigma, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectations, hopefulness about the future, and perceived control over the future.
Both stigma scales were positively associated with psychopathological symptoms (e.g., depression, loneliness) and negatively associated with psychosocial wellbeing (e.g., self-stigma, positive future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future). Both stigma measures contribute to children’s psychosocial problems independent of their orphanhood status and other key demographic factors.
Community-wide stigma reduction and psychological support should be part of the care efforts for children affected by AIDS. Stigma reduction efforts should not only target the stigma against PLWHA but also possible stigma against the entire community (e.g., villages) with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The stigma reduction efforts also needs to be appropriate for children’s age, gender, family SES and AIDS experience in the family. Future research should explore individual and contextual factors such as social support, coping and attachment in mitigating the negative effect of stigma among these children.
Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic concentration of the research in Asia and North America. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and clients. Integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of alcohol to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among both FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs. Alcohol use was associated with adverse physical health, illicit drug use, mental health problems, and victimization of sexual violence, although its associations with HIV/sexually transmitted infections and unprotected sex among FSWs were inconclusive. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched. Research in this area in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components in order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients.