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1.  Tissue-Specific Expression of Human Calcineurin-Binding Protein 1 in Mouse Synovial Tissue Can Suppress Inflammatory Arthritis 
Calcineurin (CN) is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase. In immune cells, CN controls the activity of a wide range of transcription factors, including nuclear factor of activated T, nuclear factor-kappa B, c-fos, and Elk-1. CN plays an important role in synoviocyte activation and arthritis progression in vivo and this function is tightly linked to dysregulated intracellular Ca2+ store and Ca2+ response triggered by proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, transgenic mice expressing human calcineurin-binding protein 1 (hCabin1) were generated, driven by type II collagen promoter, and the efficiency of these mice was investigated by experimental arthritis. These transgenic mice successfully expressed hCabin1 in joint tissue as well as other organs such as liver, heart, and brain. The overexpression of hCabin1 reduced the disease severity during collagen-induced arthritis. In fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from hCabin1 transgenic mice, the productions of these cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ, were decreased and matrix metalloproteinases were also depressed in transgenic mice FLS. In addition, these effects were only found in the joint tissue, which is a major inflammation site. These findings will provide a better knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of rheumatoid arthritis and a potential animal model of the chronic inflammatory conditions, including atherosclerosis and transplantation.
doi:10.1089/jir.2010.0155
PMCID: PMC3255519  PMID: 22175542
2.  [6]-Shogaol inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer cells by directly regulating Akt1/2 
Carcinogenesis  2013;35(3):683-691.
Summary
[6]-Shogaol, a component of ginger root, suppressed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth mediated by EGFR signaling. It directly binds to Akt to suppress its kinase activity resulting in increased cancer cell death both ex vivo and in vivo.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Despite progress in developing chemotherapeutics for the treatment of NSCLC, primary and secondary resistance limits therapeutic success. NSCLC cells exhibit multiple mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which cause aberrant activation of diverse cell signaling pathways. Therefore, suppression of the inappropriate amplification of EGFR downstream signaling cascades is considered to be a rational therapeutic and preventive strategy for the management of NSCLC. Our initial molecular target–oriented virtual screening revealed that the ginger components, including [6]-shogaol, [6]-paradol and [6]-gingerol, seem to be potential candidates for the prevention and treatment of NSCLC. Among the compounds, [6]-shogaol showed the greatest inhibitory effects on the NSCLC cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. [6]-Shogaol induced cell cycle arrest (G1 or G2/M) and apoptosis. Furthermore, [6]-shogaol inhibited Akt kinase activity, a downstream mediator of EGFR signaling, by binding with an allosteric site of Akt. In NCI-H1650 lung cancer cells, [6]-shogaol reduced the constitutive phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and decreased the expression of cyclin D1/3, which are target proteins in the Akt signaling pathway. The induction of apoptosis in NCI-H1650 cells by [6]-shogaol corresponded with the cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-7. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of [6]-shogaol inhibited the growth of NCI-H1650 cells as tumor xenografts in nude mice. [6]-Shogaol suppressed the expression of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and phosphorylated Akt and STAT3 and increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positivity in xenograft tumors. The current study clearly indicates that [6]-shogaol can be exploited for the prevention and/or treatment of NSCLC.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgt365
PMCID: PMC3941745  PMID: 24282290
3.  Over-expression of extracellular superoxide dismutase in mouse synovial tissue attenuates the inflammatory arthritis 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2012;44(9):529-535.
Oxidative stress such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the inflamed joint have been indicated as being involved as inflammatory mediators in the induction of arthritis. Correlations between extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and inflammatory arthritis have been shown in several animal models of RA. However, there is a question whether the over-expression of EC-SOD on arthritic joint also could suppress the progression of disease or not. In the present study, the effect on the synovial tissue of experimental arthritis was investigated using EC-SOD over-expressing transgenic mice. The over-expression of EC-SOD in joint tissue was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The degree of the inflammation in EC-SOD transgenic mice was suppressed in the collagen-induced arthritis model. In a cytokine assay, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, IL-1β, TNFα, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was decreased in fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) but not in peripheral blood. Histological examination also showed repressed cartilage destruction and bone in EC-SOD transgenic mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that the over-expression of EC-SOD in FLS contributes to the activation of FLS and protection from joint destruction by depressing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs. These results provide EC-SOD transgenic mice with a useful animal model for inflammatory arthritis research.
doi:10.3858/emm.2012.44.9.060
PMCID: PMC3465746  PMID: 22718219
arthritis, experimental; reactive oxygen species; rheumatoid arthritis; superoxide dismutase; synovial membrane
4.  Transcortical Alterations in Na+-K+ ATPase and Microtubule-Associated Proteins Immunoreactivity in the Rat Cortical Atrophy Model Induced by Hypoxic Ischemia 
Neural Plasticity  2002;9(3):135-146.
To identify the chronological transcortical change in the contralateral hemisphere following ischemic insults, we investigated the changes in microtubule associated protein (MAP) and Na+-K+ ATPase expressions in the peri-infarct zone and contralateral hemisphere, including the hippocampus. Two days after hypoxic ischemia, Na+-K+ ATPase immunoreactivity was significantly enhanced in the contralateral cortex and was maintained up to 7 days after ischemia, whereas Na+-K+ ATPase immunoreactivity in the peri- and infarct zones was unaffected by hypoxic ischemia. In contrast, 2 to 7 days after ischemia, MAP1A and MAP2 immunoreactivity in the ipsi- and contralateral cortex significantly decreased, whereas in layer V, MAP1 immunoreactivity obviously accumulated in the neurons and their processes. In the hippocampus, 2 days after insults both MAP1A and MAP2 immunoreactivity was significantly reduced within the ipsi- and contralateral hippocampus. In the contralateral hippocampus, however, the distribution of MAP2 immunoreactivity recovered to the sham level 7 days after ischemia, whereas MAP1A immunoreactive axons remained 2 months after ischemia. The results suggest that the unilateral elevation of Na+-K+ ATPase immunoreactivity reflects elevated neuronal activity. In addition, this asymmetric hyperexcitability might play an important role in the recovery or the reorganization of the brain, accompanied by transcortical changes in MAPs expression.
doi:10.1155/NP.2002.135
PMCID: PMC2565404  PMID: 12757367

Results 1-4 (4)