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1.  Randomized comparison of the i-gel™, the LMA Supreme™, and the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D using clinical and fibreoptic assessments in elective patients 
BMC Anesthesiology  2012;12:18.
Background
The i-gel™, LMA-Supreme (LMA-S) and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (LTS-D) are single-use supraglottic airway devices with an inbuilt drainage channel. We compared them with regard to their position in situ as well as to clinical performance data during elective surgery.
Methods
Prospective, randomized, comparative study of three groups of 40 elective surgical patients each. Speed of insertion and success rates, leak pressures (LP) at different cuff pressures, dynamic airway compliance, and signs of postoperative airway morbidity were recorded. Fibreoptic evaluation was used to determine the devices’ position in situ.
Results
Leak pressures were similar (i-gel™ 25.9, LMA-S 27.1, LTS-D 24.0 cmH2O; the latter two at 60 cmH2O cuff pressure) as were insertion times (i-gel™ 10, LMA-S 11, LTS-D 14 sec). LP of the LMA-S was higher than that of the LTS-D at lower cuff pressures (p <0.05). Insertion success rates differed significantly: i-gel™ 95%, LMA-S 95%, LTS-D 70% (p <0.05). The fibreoptically assessed position was more frequently suboptimal with the LTS-D but this was not associated with impaired ventilation. Dynamic airway compliance was highest with the i-gel™ and lowest with the LTS-D (p <0.05). Airway morbidity was more pronounced with the LTS-D (p <0.01).
Conclusion
All devices were suitable for ventilating the patients’ lungs during elective surgery.
Trial registration
German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00000760
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-12-18
PMCID: PMC3434115  PMID: 22871204
Laryngeal mask airway; Leak pressure; Laryngeal Tube
2.  Impact of physical fitness and biometric data on the quality of external chest compression: a randomised, crossover trial 
Background
During circulatory arrest, effective external chest compression (ECC) is a key element for patient survival. In 2005, international emergency medical organisations changed their recommended compression-ventilation ratio (CVR) from 15:2 to 30:2 to acknowledge the vital importance of ECC. We hypothesised that physical fitness, biometric data and gender can influence the quality of ECC. Furthermore, we aimed to determine objective parameters of physical fitness that can reliably predict the quality of ECC.
Methods
The physical fitness of 30 male and 10 female healthcare professionals was assessed by cycling and rowing ergometry (focussing on lower and upper body, respectively). During ergometry, continuous breath-by-breath ergospirometric measurements and heart rate (HR) were recorded. All participants performed two nine-minute sequences of ECC on a manikin using CVRs of 30:2 and 15:2. We measured the compression and decompression depths, compression rates and assessed the participants' perception of exhaustion and comfort. The median body mass index (BMI; male 25.4 kg/m2 and female 20.4 kg/m2) was used as the threshold for subgroup analyses of participants with higher and lower BMI.
Results
HR during rowing ergometry at 75 watts (HR75) correlated best with the quality of ECC (r = -0.57, p < 0.05). Participants with a higher BMI and better physical fitness performed better and showed less fatigue during ECC. These results are valid for the entire cohort, as well as for the gender-based subgroups. The compressions of female participants were too shallow and more rapid (mean compression depth was 32 mm and rate was 117/min with a CVR of 30:2). For participants with a lower BMI and higher HR75, the compression depth decreased over time, beginning after four minutes for the 15:2 CVR and after three minutes for the 30:2 CVR. Although found to be more exhausting, a CVR of 30:2 was rated as being more comfortable.
Conclusion
The quality of the ECC and fatigue can both be predicted by BMI and physical fitness. An evaluation focussing on the upper body may be a more valid predictor of ECC quality than cycling based tests. Our data strongly support the recommendation to relieve ECC providers after two minutes.
doi:10.1186/1471-227X-11-20
PMCID: PMC3247179  PMID: 22053981
3.  Implementing the cross-disciplinary subject of palliative medicine (Q13) against the backdrop of recent changes of the legal framework using University Medical School Göttingen as an example 
Palliative care for patients with advanced and progressive diseases has recently become an integrated and compulsory part of undergraduate training in Germany. Up until now, undergraduate teaching in this cross-disciplinary medical field varied and therefore problems during the implementation process with regard to formal aspects and teaching content are to be expected.
This contribution summarizes the new legislative framework for palliative care as an independent specialty in undergraduate medical training and describes format, content and problems of the current implementation process at the University Medical School Göttingen, in order to provide advice and support for other faculties.
doi:10.3205/zma000704
PMCID: PMC3140373  PMID: 21818212
Palliative care; cross-disciplinary subject; cooperation; symptom control; attitude
4.  A prospective, blinded evaluation of a video-assisted ‘4-stage approach’ during undergraduate student practical skills training 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:104.
Background
The 4-stage approach (4-SA) is used as a didactic method for teaching practical skills in international courses on resuscitation and the structured care of trauma patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate objective and subjective learning success of a video-assisted 4-SA in teaching undergraduate medical students.
Methods
The participants were medical students learning the principles of the acute treatment of trauma patients in their multidiscipline course on emergency and intensive care medicine. The participants were quasi- randomly divided into two groups. The 4-SA was used in both groups. In the control group, all four steps were presented by an instructor. In the study group, the first two steps were presented as a video. At the end of the course a 5-minute objective, structured clinical examination (OSCE) of a simulated trauma patient was conducted. The test results were divided into objective results obtained through a checklist with 9 dichotomous items and the assessment of the global performance rated subjectively by the examiner on a Likert scale from 1 to 6.
Results
313 students were recruited; the results of 256 were suitable for analysis. The OSCE results were excellent in both groups and did not differ significantly (control group: median 9, interquantil range (IQR) 8–9, study group: median 9, IQR 8–9; p = 0.29). The global performance was rated significantly better for the study group (median 1, IQR 1–2 vs. median 2, IQR 1–3; p < 0.01). The relative knowledge increase, stated by the students in their evaluation after the course, was greater in the study group (85% vs. 80%).
Conclusion
It is possible to employ video assistance in the classical 4-SA with comparable objective test results in an OSCE. The global performance was significantly improved with use of video assistance.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-104
PMCID: PMC4040470  PMID: 24885140
Teaching methods; Medical students; Trauma care

Results 1-4 (4)