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2.  Many Chromosomal Genes Modulate MarA-Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Escherichia coli▿  
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli can be associated with overexpression of marA, a transcription factor that upregulates multidrug efflux and downregulates membrane permeability. Using random transposome mutagenesis, we found that many chromosomal genes and environmental stimuli affected MarA-mediated antibiotic resistance. Seven genes affected resistance mediated by MarA in an antibiotic-specific way; these were mostly genes encoding unrelated enzymes, transporters, and unknown proteins. Other genes affected MarA-mediated resistance to all antibiotics tested. These genes were acrA, acrB, and tolC (which encode the major MarA-regulated multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC), crp, cyaA, hns, and pcnB (four genes involved in global regulation of gene expression), and the unknown gene damX. The last five genes affected MarA-mediated MDR by altering marA expression or MarA function specifically on acrA. These findings demonstrate that MarA-mediated MDR is regulated at multiple levels by different genes and stimuli, which makes it both complex and fine-tuned and interconnects it with global cell regulation and metabolism. Such a regulation could contribute to the adaptation and spread of MDR strains and may be targeted to treat antibiotic-resistant E. coli and related pathogens.
PMCID: PMC2863627  PMID: 20211899
3.  Role of the Multidrug Resistance Regulator MarA in Global Regulation of the hdeAB Acid Resistance Operon in Escherichia coli▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2007;190(4):1290-1297.
MarA, a transcriptional regulator in Escherichia coli, affects functions such as multiple-antibiotic resistance (Mar) and virulence. Usually an activator, MarA is a repressor of hdeAB and other acid resistance genes. We found that, in wild-type cells grown in LB medium at pH 7.0 or pH 5.5, repression of hdeAB by MarA occurred only in stationary phase and was reduced in the absence of H-NS and GadE, the main regulators of hdeAB. Moreover, repression of hdeAB by MarA was greater in the absence of GadX or Lrp in exponential phase at pH 7.0 and in the absence of GadW or RpoS in stationary phase at pH 5.5. In turn, MarA enhanced repression of hdeAB by H-NS and hindered activation by GadE in stationary phase and also reduced the activity of GadX, GadW, RpoS, and Lrp on hdeAB under some conditions. As a result of its direct and indirect effects, overexpression of MarA prevented most of the induction of hdeAB expression as cells entered stationary phase and made the cells sevenfold more sensitive to acid challenge at pH 2.5. These findings show that repression of hdeAB by MarA depends on pH, growth phase, and other regulators of hdeAB and is associated with reduced resistance to acid conditions.
PMCID: PMC2238188  PMID: 18083817
4.  Helicobacter pylori EstV: Identification, Cloning, and Characterization of the First Lipase Isolated from an Epsilon-Proteobacterium▿  
Bacterial lipases are attracting an enormous amount of attention due to their wide biotechnological applications and due to their roles as virulence factors in some bacteria. Helicobacter pylori is a significant and widespread pathogen which produces a lipase(s) and phospholipases that seem to play a role in mucus degradation and the release of proinflammatory and cytotoxic compounds. However, no H. pylori lipase(s) has been isolated and described previously. Therefore, a search for putative lipase-encoding genes was performed by comparing the amino acid sequences of 53 known lipolytic enzymes with the deduced proteome of H. pylori. As a result, we isolated, cloned, purified, and characterized EstV, a novel lipolytic enzyme encoded by open reading frame HP0739 of H. pylori 26695, and classified it in family V of the bacterial lipases. This enzyme has the properties of a small, cell-bound carboxylesterase (EC that is active mostly with short-chain substrates and does not exhibit interfacial activation. EstV is stable and does not require additional cofactors, and the maximum activity occurs at 50°C and pH 10. This unique enzyme is the first lipase isolated from H. pylori that has been described, and it might contribute to ulcer development, as inhibition by two antiulcer substances (β-aescin and glycyrrhizic acid) suggests. EstV is also the first lipase from an epsilon-proteobacterium to be described. Furthermore, this enzyme is a new member of family V, probably the least-known family of bacterial lipases, and the first lipase of this family for which kinetic behavior, inhibition by natural substances, and other key biochemical features are reported.
PMCID: PMC1855603  PMID: 17293528

Results 1-4 (4)