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1.  Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance and Serotype Composition of Carriage and Invasive Pneumococci among Bangladeshi Children: Implications for Treatment Policy and Vaccine Formulation 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(12):5582-5587.
The nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is thought to pose a risk for invasive pneumococcal diseases, and the evaluation of carriage strains is thus often used to inform antibiotic treatment and vaccination strategies for these diseases. In this study, the age-specific prevalences, resistance to antibiotics, and serotype distributions of 1,340 carriage strains were analyzed and compared to 71 pneumococcal strains isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of children under 5 years old with meningitis. Overall, the nasal carriage rate was 47%. One-fourth (26%) of the infants under 1 month of age and one-half (48%) of the infants under 12 months of age were colonized with S. pneumoniae. Rural children were colonized earlier than those from urban areas. Approximately one-fourth and one-half of the cases of pneumococcal meningitis occurred in the first 3 and 6 months of life, respectively. The respective rates of resistance for carriage and meningitis strains to penicillin (7 and 3%), cotrimoxazole (77 and 69%), and erythromycin (2 and 1%) were similar, whereas chloramphenicol resistance was lower among carriage strains (3%) than among meningitis strains (15.5%). The predominant serogroups of carriage and invasive isolates were variable and widely divergent. Thus, hypothetical 7-, 9-, and 11-valent vaccines, based on the predominant carriage strains of the present study, would cover only 23, 26, and 30%, respectively, of the serotypes causing meningitis. Further, currently available 7-, 9-, and 11-valent vaccines would protect against only 26, 43, and 48%, respectively, of these meningitis cases. In conclusion, while the surveillance of carriage strains for resistance to antibiotics appears useful in the design of empirical treatment guidelines for invasive pneumococcal disease, data on the serotypes of carriage strains have limited value in vaccine formulation strategies, particularly for meningitis cases.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.12.5582-5587.2003
PMCID: PMC308982  PMID: 14662944
2.  Rapid Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolated from Blood: Implications for Therapy 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2001;39(10):3583-3585.
The turnaround time (TAT) for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi identification and reporting of the antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined for 391 cases of typhoid fever, using the lysis direct plating or lysis centrifugation method of blood culture along with rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The TAT was more rapid (TAT for 90% of the patients [TAT90] = 30 h; TAT100 ≤ 67 h) than was possible with conventional methodologies and was equivalent to that reported previously using more advanced, costly technologies that are largely unavailable in developing countries. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles, determined by the rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing method, of randomly selected 60 S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates were identical to those determined by overnight conventional testing. Preliminary assessment of the impact of the reduced TAT on physician practices revealed that initial empirical therapy was prescribed at the time of presentation in most cases (87 of 108 [81%]) despite awareness that the final report would be available on the following day. Patients treated empirically with first-line antibiotics and shown subsequently to be infected with a multidrug-resistant strain benefited most (8 cases), since therapy was changed appropriately on the following day. In an additional 21 cases, therapy with an appropriate antibiotic was initiated after culture results were available. Thus, in approximately one-fourth (29 of 108 [27%]) of the cases, a change in management to an agent active for treatment of the isolate was made after receipt of the test results. However, in no case was therapy changed from a second-line to a first-line agent, even if the isolate was reported on the day after presentation to be sensitive to first-line therapy (33 cases). Ways in which to utilize rapid-TAT result reporting in order to positively influence physicians' prescribing in Bangladesh are the subject of ongoing research.
doi:10.1128/JCM.39.10.3583-3585.2001
PMCID: PMC88392  PMID: 11574576
3.  Antimicrobial Resistance and Serotype Distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Causing Childhood Infections in Bangladesh, 1993 to 1997 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(3):798-800.
Three hundred sixty-two Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from children under 5 years of age at Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital from 1993 to 1997. The strains were isolated from blood (n = 105), CSF (n = 164), ear swab (n = 61), eye swab (n = 20), and pus (n = 12). Of the 362 isolates, 42 (11.6%) showed intermediate resistance (MIC, <0.1 μg/ml) and only 4 (1.1%) showed complete resistance (MIC, >2.0 μg/ml) to penicillin. Penicillin resistance exhibited a strong relationship with serotype 14; 47.8% of the penicillin-resistant strains belonged to this type. A remarkably high (64.1%) resistance to co-trimoxazole was observed, along with a significant increase during the time period studied; there was no relationship to capsular type. By way of contrast, penicillin resistance did not show any significant change during the study period. Resistance to chloramphenicol (2.2%) and erythromycin (1.1%) was rare. The high resistance to co-trimoxazole and its increasing trend demand elucidation of the clinical impact of pneumonia treatment by this antimicrobial and reconsideration of the World Health Organization recommendation for co-trimoxazole administration to children with community-acquired pneumonia at the health care worker level in Bangladesh.
PMCID: PMC84560  PMID: 9986858
4.  Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive childhood infections in Bangladesh, 1992 to 1995. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1997;35(3):785-787.
One hundred sixty-five invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from children under five at Dhaka Shishu (Children's) Hospital during the period 1992 to 1995. Ninety-four strains were from cerebrospinal fluid, and 71 were from blood. More than 91% of the strains were isolated from patients aged 24 months or less. Predominant serotypes were, in descending order 7F, 12F, 14, 15B, 18, 5, and 22A. These comprised 70% of all isolates. The marked differences in serotype distribution in different countries indicate the need for a sentinel surveillance study for the countries of South Asia, particularly Bangladesh, China, India, and Pakistan.
PMCID: PMC229675  PMID: 9041437

Results 1-4 (4)