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1.  Paravertebral Arteriovenous Malformation Supplied by Branches of the Iliac Arteries 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2004;9(4):379-381.
Summary
Arteriovenous malformations of the spine and spinal cord can be classified into spinal cord arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and fistulas (AVFs) and dural AVM and AVF occurring outside the dura but draining into the epidural veins called paravertebral AVM and AVF1. Paravertebral malformations are rare arteriovenous communications outside the dura but draining into the epidural veins. These malformations produce symptoms from either venous congestion of the cord or cord compression from dilated epidural veins resulting in a myelopathy. We present a case of a patient with a lumbar paravertebral malformation treated successfully by endovascular occlusion of the feeders.
PMCID: PMC3547380  PMID: 20591318
AVM, iliac arteries
2.  Failure of aerosolised 99mTc DTPA clearance to predict outcome in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. 
Thorax  1987;42(7):494-499.
The rate of clearance of technetium-99m labelled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (99mTc DTPA) was measured in 32 patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome to determine if a more rapid clearance rate, possibly reflecting a more severe abnormality of pulmonary function, was associated with a reduced likelihood of recovery from pulmonary failure. Although the mean rate of clearance from lung to blood (T1/2LB) of 99mTc DTPA was more rapid in the patients (T1/2LB = 29 (SEM 3.2) min than in 42 normal subjects (T1/2LB = 59 (1.8)min), there was no difference between the clearance rate in the 18 patients who recovered from respiratory failure (T1/2LB = 31 (5) min) and the 14 who died (T1/2LB = 27 (4) min). Additionally, not all patients studied had abnormally rapid clearance rates. In 12 of the 32 patients the T1/2 fell within the range for normal individuals; this was found more commonly in patients who were predisposed to develop adult respiratory distress syndrome by pancreatitis or massive blood transfusion. These data suggest that a single measurement of 99mTc DTPA clearance in patients with established respiratory failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome is of no value in assessing the likelihood of recovery from this condition.
PMCID: PMC460806  PMID: 3326212
4.  Propofol infusion for sedation in the intensive care unit: preliminary report. 
Propofol (2,6,di-isopropylphenol) was given by continuous intravenous infusion to provide sedation after cardiac surgery in 30 patients and its effects compared with those of midazolam given to a further 30 patients. Propofol infusion allowed rapid and accurate control of the level of sedation, which was satisfactory for longer than with midazolam. Patients given propofol recovered significantly more rapidly from their sedation once they had fulfilled the criteria for weaning from artificial ventilation and as a result spent a significantly shorter time attached to a ventilator. There were no serious complications in either group. Both medical and nursing staff considered the propofol infusion to be superior to midazolam in these patients. These findings suggest that propofol is a suitable replacement for etomidate and alphaxalone-alphadolone for sedating patients receiving intensive care.
PMCID: PMC1245409  PMID: 3101895
5.  Changes in permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier in firefighters. 
The effect on alveolar-capillary barrier permeability of chronic exposure to a smoke produced by the partial combusion of diesel oil, paraffin, and wood was examined. An index of permeability was determined from the rate of transfer from the lung into the blood of the hydrophilic, labelled chelate 99mTc diethylene triamine penta-acetate (MW 492 dalton). The results of this test were expressed as the half time clearance of the tracer from the lung into the blood (T1/2 LB). The study was carried out at the Royal Naval Firefighting School, HMS Excellent. Permeability index was measured on seven non-smoking naval firefighting instructors who had worked at the school for periods of longer than two and a half months. Tests of airway function and carbon monoxide transfer factor were performed on four of these seven instructors. The results of the permeability index showed a T1/2 LB of 26 min +/- 5 (SEM) which differed significantly from that of normal non-smokers. By contrast all other lung function tests had values within the predicted normal range.
PMCID: PMC1007546  PMID: 3899161
7.  Disseminated arterial calcification associated with acardius acephalus. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1983;58(8):641-643.
Widespread arterial calcification was shown at necropsy in an infant who died at age 5 days and whose twin was acardiac. The changes resembled closely those described in idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy and the possible importance of haemodynamic factors in the production of these changes is discussed.
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PMCID: PMC1628306  PMID: 6684415
8.  Carboxyhaemoglobin and pulmonary epithelial permeability in man. 
Thorax  1983;38(2):129-133.
The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary epithelial permeability was studied in 45 smokers and 22 non-smokers. An index of cigarette smoke exposure was obtained from the carboxyhaemoglobin concentration (HbCO%). Pulmonary epithelial permeability was proportional to the half-time clearance rate of technetium-99m-labelled diethylene triamine pentacetate (99mTc DTPA) from lung to blood (T1/2LB). The relationship between T1/2LB and HbCO% was hyperbolic in form and the data could be fitted to the quadratic formula (formula; see text) where the parameters a0, a1, and a2 represent respectively the asymptotic T1/2LB value at large carboxyhaemoglobin values and the slope and shape of the curve. The values of these parameters were a0 4.4 (2.6), a1 = 77.8 (15.5), and a2 -25.5 (9.7) (SE). This is the first demonstration of a dose-response relationship between carboxyhaemoglobin and an increased permeability of the lungs in man and provides a technique for identifying the roles of carbon monoxide and other cigarette smoke constituents in causing increased pulmonary epithelial permeability.
PMCID: PMC459501  PMID: 6344310
9.  Pulmonary epithelial permeability is immediately increased after embolisation with oleic acid but not with neutral fat. 
Thorax  1982;37(3):169-174.
Pulmonary fat embolism occurs frequently after trauma but its functional significance is often unclear. To obtain direct evidence of lung damage caused by fat embolism we have measured changes in permeability of the alveolar-capillary interface. A permeability index was derived from the half time clearance from lung to blood (T1/2LB) of 99mTcDTPA introduced into the lung in a 1 ml bolus. Three groups of rabbits were studied. Baseline T1/2LB. did not differ significantly between groups. After intravenous injection of saline placebo in one group and of 300 mg/kg triolein in another group there was no change in permeability index. After intravenous injection of 100 mg/kg oleic acid in the third group there was an immediate change in T1/2LB from a monoexponential baseline 280 +/- 20 min (SEM) to a multiexponential curve which was resolved into two components, one with a T1/2LB of 3.2 +/- 0.6 min (SEM) and the other 39.5 +/- 7.6 min (SEM). Statistically significant changes in alveolar-arterial PO2 difference, dynamic compliance, chest radiography, and postmortem lung water accompanied the changes in T1/2LB in this group. There were no significant changes in these variables in the placebo or triolein group. Histological studies of the lung tissue of these animals using the osmic acid stain for fat showed no fat in the placebo group, extensive fat embolisation which was densely stained in the triolein group and much less densely stained fat in the oleic acid group. Measurement of the permeability of the alveolar-capillary interface provides direct evidence of lung damage after oleic acid embolisation. There were no functional changes in animals with extensive embolisation with triolein.
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PMCID: PMC459276  PMID: 7101221

Results 1-9 (9)