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1.  Factors Predicting Adherence to Risk Management Behaviors of Women at Increased Risk for Developing Lymphedema 
Purpose
Lymphedema affects 20-30% of women following breast cancer treatment. However, even when women are informed, they do not necessarily adhere to recommended lymphedema self-management regimens. Utilizing the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework, we assessed cognitive and emotional factors influencing adherence to lymphedema risk management.
Methods
Women with breast cancer who had undergone breast and lymph node surgery were recruited through the Fox Chase Cancer Centre breast clinic. Participants (N=103) completed measures of lymphedema-related perceived risk, beliefs and expectancies, distress, self-regulatory ability to manage distress, knowledge, and adherence to risk management behaviors. They then received the American Cancer Society publication “Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know”. Cognitive and affective variables were reassessed at 6- and 12-months post-baseline.
Results
Maximum likelihood multilevel model analyses indicated that overall adherence increased over time, with significant differences between baseline and 6- and 12- month assessments. Adherence to wearing gloves was significantly lower than that for all other behaviors except electric razor use. Distress significantly decreased, and knowledge significantly increased, over time. Greater knowledge, higher self-efficacy to enact behaviors, lower distress, and higher self-regulatory ability to manage distress were associated with increased adherence.
Conclusions
Women who understand lymphedema risk management and feel confident in managing this risk are more likely to adhere to recommended strategies. These factors should be rigorously assessed as part of routine care to ensure that women have the self-efficacy to seek treatment and the self-regulatory skills to manage distress, which may undermine attempts to seek medical assistance.
doi:10.1007/s00520-014-2321-1
PMCID: PMC4270823  PMID: 24970542
breast cancer; lymphedema; cognitive; affective; adherence; self-care
2.  Monitoring Style of Coping with Cancer Related Threats: A Review of the Literature 
Journal of behavioral medicine  2014;37(5):931-954.
Building on the Cognitive-Social Health Information-Processing model, this paper provides a theoretically guided review of monitoring (i.e., attend to and amplify) cancer-related threats. Specifically, the goals of the review are to examine whether individuals high on monitoring are characterized by specific cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to cancer-related health threats than individuals low on monitoring and the implications of these cognitive-affective responses for patient-centered outcomes, including patient-physician communication, decision-making and the development of interventions to promote adherence and adjustment. A total of 74 reports were found, based on 63 studies, 13 of which were intervention studies. The results suggest that although individuals high on monitoring are more knowledgeable about health threats, they are less satisfied with the information provided. Further, they tend to be characterized by greater perceived risk, more negative beliefs, and greater value of health-related information and experience more negative affective outcomes. Finally, individuals high on monitoring tend to be more demanding of the health providers in terms of desire for more information and emotional support, are more assertive during decision-making discussions, and subsequently experience more decisional regret. Psychoeducational interventions improve outcomes when the level and type of information provided is consistent with the individual's monitoring style and the demands of the specific health threat. Implications for patient-centered outcomes, in terms of tailoring of interventions, patient-provider communication, and decision-making, are discussed.
doi:10.1007/s10865-014-9553-x
PMCID: PMC4136970  PMID: 24488543
monitoring; cancer; communication; decision-making; tailored interventions; adherence
3.  New Strategies in Ovarian Cancer: Uptake and experience of women at high risk of ovarian cancer who are considering risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy 
This paper reviews factors associated with uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy by women at increased hereditary risk for ovarian cancer, as well as quality of life issues following surgery. Forty one research studies identified through PubMed and PsychInfo met inclusion criteria. Older age, having had children, a family history of ovarian cancer, a personal history of breast cancer, prophylactic mastectomy, and BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status increase the likelihood of undergoing surgery. Psychosocial variables predictive of surgery uptake include greater perceived risk of ovarian cancer and cancer-related anxiety. Most women report satisfaction with their decision to undergo surgery and both lower perceived ovarian cancer risk and less cancer-related anxiety as benefits. Hormonal deprivation is the main disadvantage reported, particularly by premenopausal women who are not on hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). The evidence is mixed regarding satisfaction with the level of information provided prior to surgery, although generally women report receiving insufficient information regarding the pros and cons of HRT. These findings indicate that when designing decision aids, demographic, medical history, and psychosocial variables need to be addressed in order to facilitate quality decision making.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-2953
PMCID: PMC3107031  PMID: 20829330
ovarian risk; prophylactic oophorectomy; patient decision making; quality of life
4.  The Identification of Cognitive Profiles among Women Considering BRCA1/2 Testing through the Utilization of Cluster Analytic Techniques 
Psychology & health  2011;26(10):1327-1343.
Based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, we identified cognitive profiles of women at risk for breast and ovarian cancer. Prior to genetic counseling, participants (N = 171) completed a study questionnaire concerning their cognitive and affective responses to to being at genetic risk. Using cluster analysis, four cognitive profiles were generated: (a) high perceived risk/low coping; (b) low value of screening/high expectancy of cancer; (c) moderate perceived risk/moderate efficacy of prevention/low informativeness of test result; and (d) high efficacy of prevention/high coping. The majority of women in clusters one, two and three were unaffected, whereas cluster four consisted almost entirely of affected women. Women in cluster one had the highest number of affected relatives and experienced higher levels of distress than women in the other three clusters. These results highlight the need to consider the psychological profile of women undergoing genetic testing when designing counseling interventions and messages.
doi:10.1080/08870446.2010.521938
PMCID: PMC3197930  PMID: 21756124
breast and ovarian cancer risk; cluster analysis; cognitive profiles; genetic testing; psychological distress
5.  Enhanced Counseling for Women Undergoing BRCA1/2 Testing: Impact on Knowledge and Psychological Distress – Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial 
Psychology & health  2010;25(4):401-415.
This randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of an enhanced counseling intervention on knowledge about the heritability of breast and ovarian cancer and distress, as a function of BRCA test result, among high-risk women. Before deciding about whether or not to undergo genetic testing, participants were randomly assigned to the enhanced counseling intervention (N = 69), designed to promote cognitive and affective processing of cancer risk information (following the standard individualized counseling session), or to the control condition (N = 65), which involved standard individualized counseling followed by a general health information session to control for time and attention. Women in the enhanced counseling group exhibited greater knowledge than women in the control group one week after the intervention. Further, at the affective level, the intervention was found to be most beneficial for women testing positive: specifically one week after test result disclosure, women in the intervention group who tested positive experienced lower levels of distress than women in the control group who tested positive. The findings suggest that the design of counseling aids should include a component that explicitly activates the individual's cognitive-affective processing system.
doi:10.1080/08870440802660884
PMCID: PMC2866521  PMID: 20204945
Genetic testing; enhanced counseling; intrusive ideation; breast cancer; ovarian cancer

Results 1-5 (5)