The ubiquitin system regulates virtually all aspects of cellular function. We report a method to target the myriad enzymes that govern ubiquitination of protein substrates. We used massively diverse combinatorial libraries of ubiquitin variants to develop inhibitors of four deubiquitinases (DUBs) and analyzed the DUB-inhibitor complexes with crystallography. We extended the selection strategy to the ubiquitin conjugating (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes and found that ubiquitin variants can also enhance enzyme activity. Last, we showed that ubiquitin variants can bind selectively to ubiquitin-binding domains. Ubiquitin variants exhibit selective function in cells and thus enable orthogonal modulation of specific enzymatic steps in the ubiquitin system.
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a consequence of muscle inactivity resulting from denervation, unloading and immobility. It accompanies many chronic disease states and also occurs as a pathophysiologic consequence of normal aging. In all these conditions, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is a key regulator of the loss of muscle mass, and ubiquitin ligases confer specificity to this process by interacting with, and linking ubiquitin moieties to target substrates through protein∶protein interaction domains. Our previous work suggested that the ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd4-1 is a potential mediator of skeletal muscle atrophy associated with inactivity (denervation, unloading and immobility). Here we generated a novel tool, the Nedd4-1 skeletal muscle-specific knockout mouse (myoCre;Nedd4-1flox/flox) and subjected it to a well validated model of denervation induced skeletal muscle atrophy. The absence of Nedd4-1 resulted in increased weights and cross-sectional area of type II fast twitch fibres of denervated gastrocnemius muscle compared with wild type littermates controls, at seven and fourteen days following tibial nerve transection. These effects are not mediated by the Nedd4-1 substrates MTMR4, FGFR1 and Notch-1. These results demonstrate that Nedd4-1 plays an important role in mediating denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in vivo.
Nedd4-2 is a ubiquitin ligase previously demonstrated to regulate endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and other ion channels and transporters. Recent studies using Nedd4-2 knockout mice specifically in kidney or lung epithelia has revealed a critical role for this E3 ubiquitin ligase in regulating salt and fluid transport in these tissues/organs and in maintaining homeostasis of body blood pressure. Interestingly, the primary targets for Nedd4-2 may differ in these two organs: in the lung Nedd4-2 targets ENaC, and loss of Nedd4-2 leads to excessive ENaC function and to cystic fibrosis – like lung disease, whereas in the kidney, Nedd4-2 targets the Na+/Cl− cotransporter (NCC) in addition to targeting ENaC. In accord, loss of Nedd4-2 in the distal nephron leads to increased NCC abundance and function. The aldosterone-responsive kinase, Sgk1, appears to be involved in the regulation of NCC by Nedd4-2 in the kidney, similar to its regulation of ENaC. Collectively, these new findings underscore the physiological importance of Nedd4-2 in regulating epithelial salt and fluid transport and balance.
ubiquitin; Nedd4; ENaC; NCC; Sgk1; WNK; hypertension; cystic fibrosis
Neuromuscular (NM) synaptogenesis is a tightly regulated process. We previously showed that in flies, Drosophila Nedd4 (dNedd4/dNedd4S) is required for proper NM synaptogenesis by promoting endocytosis of commissureless from the muscle surface, a pre-requisite step for muscle innervation. DNedd4 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase comprised of a C2-WW(x3)-Hect domain architecture, which includes several splice isoforms, the most prominent ones are dNedd4-short (dNedd4S) and dNedd4-long (dNedd4Lo).
We show here that while dNedd4S is essential for NM synaptogenesis, the dNedd4Lo isoform inhibits this process and causes lethality. Our results reveal that unlike dNedd4S, dNedd4Lo cannot rescue the lethality of dNedd4 null (DNedd4T121FS) flies. Moreover, overexpression of UAS-dNedd4Lo specifically in wildtype muscles leads to NM synaptogenesis defects, impaired locomotion and larval lethality. These negative effects of dNedd4Lo are ameliorated by deletion of two regions (N-terminus and Middle region) unique to this isoform, and by inactivating the catalytic activity of dNedd4Lo, suggesting that these unique regions, as well as catalytic activity, are responsible for the inhibitory effects of dNedd4Lo on synaptogenesis. In accord with these findings, we demonstrate by sqRT-PCR an increase in dNedd4S expression relative to the expression of dNedd4Lo during embryonic stages when synaptogenesis takes place.
Our studies demonstrate that splice isoforms of the same dNedd4 gene can lead to opposite effects on NM synaptogenesis.
The Lysosome associated protein transmembrane (LAPTM) family is comprised of three members: LAPTM5, LAPTM4a and LAPTM4b, with the latter previously shown to be overexpressed in numerous cancers. While we had demonstrated earlier the requirement of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 for LAPTM5 sorting to lysosomes, the regulation of sorting of LAPTM4 proteins is less clear.
Here we show that LAPTM4a and LAPTM4b are localized to the lysosome, but unique to LAPTM4b, a fraction of it is present at the plasma membrane and its overexpression induces the formation of actin-based membrane protrusions. We demonstrate that LAPTM4s, like LAPTM5, are able to co-immunoprecipitate with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, an interaction that is dependent on LAPTM4 PY motifs and plays a role in membrane sorting. Accordingly, in Nedd4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), LAPTM4a and LAPTM4b show reduced lysosomal localization. Moreover, lack of PY motifs leads to enhanced missorting of LAPTM4b to the plasma membrane instead of the lysosome.
These results suggest that while some requisites of LAPTM5 lysosomal sorting are conserved among LAPTM4 proteins, LAPTM4a and LAPTM4b have also developed distinct sorting requirements.
Mutation of the protein spartin is a cause of one form of spastic paraplegia. Spartin interacts with ubiquitin ligases of the Nedd4 family, and a recent report in BMC Biology now shows that it acts as an adaptor to recruit and activate the ubiquitin ligase AIP4 onto lipid droplets, leading to the ubiquitination and degradation of droplet-associated proteins. A deficiency of spartin apparently causes lipid droplets to accumulate.
See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/72/
Target recognition by the ubiquitin system is mediated by E3 ubiquitin ligases. Nedd4 family members are E3 ligases comprised of a C2 domain, 2–4 WW domains that bind PY motifs (L/PPxY) and a ubiquitin ligase HECT domain. The nine Nedd4 family proteins in mammals include two close relatives: Nedd4 (Nedd4-1) and Nedd4L (Nedd4-2), but their global substrate recognition or differences in substrate specificity are unknown. We performed in vitro ubiquitylation and binding assays of human Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2, and rat-Nedd4-1, using protein microarrays spotted with ∼8200 human proteins. Top hits (substrates) for the ubiquitylation and binding assays mostly contain PY motifs. Although several substrates were recognized by both Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2, others were specific to only one, with several Tyr kinases preferred by Nedd4-1 and some ion channels by Nedd4-2; this was subsequently validated in vivo. Accordingly, Nedd4-1 knockdown or knockout in cells led to sustained signalling via some of its substrate Tyr kinases (e.g. FGFR), suggesting Nedd4-1 suppresses their signalling. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying substrates and deciphering substrate specificity of mammalian E3 ligases.
E3 ubiquitin ligase; HECT domain; Nedd4; proteome array; ubiquitin
Hypertension is a serious medical problem affecting a large population worldwide. Liddle syndrome is a hereditary form of early onset hypertension caused by mutations in the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). The mutated region, called the PY (Pro-Pro-x-Tyr) motif, serves as a binding site for Nedd4-2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase from the HECT family. Nedd4-2 binds the ENaC PY motif via its WW domains, normally leading to ENaC ubiquitylation and endocytosis, reducing the number of active channels at the plasma membrane. In Liddle syndrome, this endocytosis is impaired due to the inability of the mutated PY motif in ENaC to properly bind Nedd4-2. This leads to accumulation of active channels at the cell surface and increased Na+ (and fluid) absorption in the distal nephron, resulting in elevated blood volume and blood pressure. Small molecules/compounds that destabilize cell surface ENaC, or enhance Nedd4-2 activity in the kidney, could potentially serve to alleviate hypertension.
Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; ).
Ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) are responsible for target recognition and regulate stability, localization or function of their substrates. However, the substrates of most E3 enzymes remain unknown. Here, we describe the development of a novel proteomic in vitro ubiquitination screen using a protein microarray platform that can be utilized for the discovery of substrates for E3 ligases on a global scale. Using the yeast E3 Rsp5 as a test system to identify its substrates on a yeast protein microarray that covers most of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) proteome, we identified numerous known and novel ubiquitinated substrates of this E3 ligase. Our enzymatic approach was complemented by a parallel protein microarray protein interaction study. Examination of the substrates identified in the analysis combined with phage display screening allowed exploration of binding mechanisms and substrate specificity of Rsp5. The development of a platform for global discovery of E3 substrates is invaluable for understanding the cellular pathways in which they participate, and could be utilized for the identification of drug targets.
endocytosis; Nedd4; post-translational modification; proteomics; ubiquitin ligase
LAPTM5 is a lysosomal transmembrane protein expressed in immune cells. We show that LAPTM5 binds the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4 and GGA3 to promote LAPTM5 sorting from the Golgi to the lysosome, an event that is independent of LAPTM5 ubiquitination. LAPTM5 contains three PY motifs (L/PPxY), which bind Nedd4-WW domains, and a ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM) motif. The Nedd4–LAPTM5 complex recruits ubiquitinated GGA3, which binds the LAPTM5-UIM; this interaction does not require the GGA3-GAT domain. LAPTM5 mutated in its Nedd4-binding sites (PY motifs) or its UIM is retained in the Golgi, as is LAPTM5 expressed in cells in which Nedd4 or GGA3 is knocked-down with RNAi. However, ubiquitination-impaired LAPTM5 can still traffic to the lysosome, suggesting that Nedd4 binding to LAPTM5, not LAPTM5 ubiquitination, is required for targeting. Interestingly, Nedd4 is also able to ubiquitinate GGA3. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4, via interactions with GGA3 and cargo (LAPTM5), regulates cargo trafficking to the lysosome without requiring cargo ubiquitination.
Muscle synaptogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster requires endocytosis of Commissureless (Comm), a binding partner for the ubiquitin ligase dNedd4. We investigated whether dNedd4 and ubiquitination mediate this process. Here we show that Comm is expressed in intracellular vesicles in the muscle, whereas Comm bearing mutations in the two PY motifs (L/PPXY) responsible for dNedd4 binding [Comm(2PY→AY)], or bearing Lys→Arg mutations in all Lys residues that serve as ubiquitin acceptor sites [Comm(10K→R)], localize to the muscle surface, suggesting they cannot endocytose. Accordingly, aberrant muscle innervation is observed in the Comm(2PY→AY) and Comm(10K→R) mutants expressed early in muscle development. Similar muscle surface accumulation of Comm and innervation defects are observed when dNedd4 is knocked down by double-stranded RNA interference in the muscle, in dNedd4 heterozygote larvae, or in muscles overexpressing catalytically inactive dNedd4. Expression of the Comm mutants fused to a single ubiquitin that cannot be polyubiquitinated and mimics monoubiquitination [Comm(2PY→AY)-monoUb or Comm(10K→R)-monoUb] prevents the defects in both Comm endocytosis and synaptogenesis, suggesting that monoubiquitination is sufficient for Comm endocytosis in muscles. Expression of the Comm mutants later in muscle development, after synaptic innervation, has no effect. These results demonstrate that dNedd4 and ubiquitination are required for Commissureless endocytosis and proper neuromuscular synaptogenesis.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTPσ) belongs to the LAR family of receptor tyrosine phosphatases and was previously shown to negatively regulate axon growth. The substrate for PTPσ and the effector(s) mediating this inhibitory effect were unknown. Here we report the identification of N-cadherin as an in vivo substrate for PTPσ. Using brain lysates from PTPσ knockout mice, in combination with substrate trapping, we identified a hyper-tyrosine-phosphorylated protein of ∼120 kDa in the knockout animals (relative to sibling controls), which was identified by mass spectrometry and immunoblotting as N-cadherin. β-Catenin also precipitated in the complex and was also a substrate for PTPσ. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which highly express endogenous N-cadherin and PTPσ, exhibited a faster growth rate in the knockout mice than in the sibling controls when grown on laminin or N-cadherin substrata. However, when N-cadherin function was disrupted by an inhibitory peptide or lowering calcium concentrations, the differential growth rate between the knockout and sibling control mice was greatly diminished. These results suggest that the elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of N-cadherin in the PTPσ−/− mice likely disrupted N-cadherin function, resulting in accelerated DRG nerve growth. We conclude that N-cadherin is a physiological substrate for PTPσ and that N-cadherin (and likely β-catenin) participates in PTPσ-mediated inhibition of axon growth.
The LAR family Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase sigma (PTPσ) has been implicated in neuroendocrine and neuronal development, and shows strong expression in specific regions within the CNS, including the subventricular zone (SVZ). We established neural stem cell cultures, grown as neurospheres, from the SVZ of PTPσ knockout mice and sibling controls to determine if PTPσ influences the generation and the phenotype of the neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte cell lineages.
The neurospheres from the knockout mice acquired heterogeneous developmental characteristics and they showed similar morphological characteristics to the age matched siblings. Although Ptprs expression decreases as a function of developmental age in vivo, it remains high with the continual renewal and passage of the neurospheres. Stem cells, progenitors and differentiated neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes all express the gene. While no apparent differences were observed in developing neurospheres or in the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes from the PTPσ knockout mice, the neuronal migration patterns and neurites were altered when studied in culture. In particular, neurons migrated farther from the neurosphere centers and the neurite outgrowth exceeded the length of the neuronal processes from age matched sibling controls.
Our results imply a specific role for PTPσ in the neuronal lineage, particularly in the form of inhibitory influences on neurite outgrowth, and demonstrate a role for tyrosine phosphatases in neuronal stem cell differentiation.
The adapter protein Grb10 belongs to a superfamily of related proteins, including Grb7, -10, and -14 and Caenorhabditis elegans Mig10. Grb10 is an interacting partner of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) and the insulin receptor (IR). Previous work showed an inhibitory effect of mouse Grb10 (mGrb10α) on IGF-I-mediated mitogenesis (A. Morrione et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272:26382-26387, 1997). With mGrb10α as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, mouse Nedd4 (mNedd4-1), a ubiquitin protein ligase, was previously isolated as an interacting protein of Grb10 (A. Morrione et al., J. Biol. Chem. 274:24094-24099, 1999). However, Grb10 is not ubiquitinated by Nedd4 in cells. Here we show that in mouse embryo fibroblasts overexpressing Grb10 and the IGF-IR (p6/Grb10), there is a strong ligand-dependent increase in ubiquitination of the IGF-IR compared with that in parental cells (p6). This increased ubiquitination is associated with a shorter half-life and increased internalization of the IGF-IR. The IGF-IR is stabilized following treatment with both MG132 and chloroquine, indicating that both the proteasome and lysosomal pathways mediate degradation of the receptor. Ubiquitination of the IGF-IR likely occurs at the plasma membrane, prior to the formation of endocytic vesicles, as it is insensitive to dansylcadaverine, an inhibitor of early endosome formation in IGF-IR endocytosis. Grb10 coimmunoprecipitates with the IGF-IR and endogenous Nedd4 in p6/Grb10 cells, suggesting the presence of a Grb10/Nedd4/IGF-IR complex. Ubiquitination of the IGF-IR in p6/Grb10 cells is severely impaired by overexpression of a catalytically inactive Nedd4 mutant (Nedd4-CS), which also stabilizes the receptor. Likewise, overexpression of a Grb10 mutant lacking the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain impaired ubiquitination of the IGF-IR in parental p6 and p6/Grb10 cells, indicating that Grb10 binding to Nedd4 is critical for ubiquitination of the receptor. These results suggest a role for the Grb10/Nedd4 complex in regulating ubiquitination and stability of the IGF-IR, and they suggest that Grb10 serves as an adapter to form a bridge between Nedd4 and the IGF-IR. This is the first demonstration of regulation of stability of a tyrosine kinase receptor by the Nedd4 (HECT) family of E3 ligases.
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can indirectly activate Ras primarily through the βγ subunits of G proteins, which recruit c-Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Grb2-SOS. However, a direct interaction between a Ras activator (guanine nucleotide exchange factor [GEF]) and GPCRs that leads to Ras activation has never been demonstrated. We report here a novel mechanism for a direct GPCR-mediated Ras activation. The β1 adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) binds to the PDZ domain of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent Ras exchange factor, CNrasGEF, via its C-terminal SkV motif. In cells heterologously expressing β1-AR and CNrasGEF, Ras is activated by the β1-AR agonist isoproterenol, and this activation is abolished in β1-AR mutants that cannot bind CNrasGEF or in CNrasGEF mutants lacking the catalytic CDC25 domain or cAMP-binding domain. Moreover, the activation is transduced via Gsα and not via Gβγ. In contrast to β1-AR, the β2-AR neither binds CNrasGEF nor activates Ras via CNrasGEF after agonist stimulation. These results suggest a model whereby the physical interaction between the β1-AR and CNrasGEF facilitates the transduction of Gsα-induced cAMP signal into the activation of Ras. The present study provides the first demonstration of direct physical association between a Ras activator and a GPCR, leading to agonist-induced Ras activation
Nedd4 is a ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) containing a C2 domain, three or four WW domains, and a ubiquitin ligase HECT domain. We have shown previously that the C2 domain of Nedd4 is responsible for its Ca2+-dependent targeting to the plasma membrane, particularly the apical region of epithelial MDCK cells. To investigate this apical preference, we searched for Nedd4-C2 domain-interacting proteins that might be involved in targeting Nedd4 to the apical surface. Using immobilized Nedd4-C2 domain to trap interacting proteins from MDCK cell lysate, we isolated, in the presence of Ca2+, a ∼35–40-kD protein that we identified as annexin XIII using mass spectrometry. Annexin XIII has two known isoforms, a and b, that are apically localized, although XIIIa is also found in the basolateral compartment. In vitro binding and coprecipitation experiments showed that the Nedd4-C2 domain interacts with both annexin XIIIa and b in the presence of Ca2+, and the interaction is direct and optimal at 1 μM Ca2+. Immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy revealed colocalization of Nedd4 and annexin XIIIb in apical carriers and at the apical plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that Nedd4 associates with raft lipid microdomains in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as determined by detergent extraction and floatation assays. These results suggest that the apical membrane localization of Nedd4 is mediated by an association of its C2 domain with the apically targeted annexin XIIIb.
apical rafts; polarized epithelia; protein trafficking; ubiquitin protein ligase
The latent membrane protein (LMP) 2A of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the maintenance of viral latency and appears to function in part by inhibiting B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. The N-terminal cytoplasmic region of LMP2A has multiple tyrosine residues that upon phosphorylation bind the SH2 domains of the Syk tyrosine kinase and the Src family kinase Lyn. The LMP2A N-terminal region also has two conserved PPPPY motifs. Here we show that the PPPPY motifs of LMP2A bind multiple WW domains of E3 protein-ubiquitin ligases of the Nedd4 family, including AIP4 and KIAA0439, and demonstrate that AIP4 and KIAA0439 form physiological complexes with LMP2A in EBV-positive B cells. In addition to a C2 domain and four WW domains, these proteins have a C-terminal Hect catalytic domain implicated in the ubiquitination of target proteins. LMP2A enhances Lyn and Syk ubiquitination in vivo in a fashion that depends on the activity of Nedd4 family members and correlates with destabilization of the Lyn tyrosine kinase. These results suggest that LMP2A serves as a molecular scaffold to recruit both B-cell tyrosine kinases and C2/WW/Hect domain E3 protein-ubiquitin ligases. This may promote Lyn and Syk ubiquitination in a fashion that contributes to a block in B-cell signaling. LMP2A may potentiate a normal mechanism by which Nedd4 family E3 enzymes regulate B-cell signaling.
Liddle's syndrome is an inherited form of hypertension linked to mutations in the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). ENaC is composed of three subunits (α, β, γ), each containing a COOH-terminal PY motif (xPPxY). Mutations causing Liddle's syndrome alter or delete the PY motifs of β- or γ-ENaC. We recently demonstrated that the ubiquitin–protein ligase Nedd4 binds these PY motifs and that ENaC is regulated by ubiquitination. Here, we investigate, using the Xenopus oocyte system, whether Nedd4 affects ENaC function. Overexpression of wild-type Nedd4, together with ENaC, inhibited channel activity, whereas a catalytically inactive Nedd4 stimulated it, likely by acting as a competitive antagonist to endogenous Nedd4. These effects were dependant on the PY motifs, because no Nedd4-mediated changes in channel activity were observed in ENaC lacking them. The effect of Nedd4 on ENaC missing only one PY motif (of β-ENaC), as originally described in patients with Liddle's syndrome, was intermediate. Changes were due entirely to alterations in ENaC numbers at the plasma membrane, as determined by surface binding and immunofluorescence. Our results demonstrate that Nedd4 is a negative regulator of ENaC and suggest that the loss of Nedd4 binding sites in ENaC observed in Liddle's syndrome may explain the increase in channel number at the cell surface, increased Na+ reabsorption by the distal nephron, and hence the hypertension.
J. Clin. Invest. 103:667–673 (1999)
The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), composed of three subunits (α, β, and γ), is expressed in several epithelia and plays a critical role in salt and water balance and in the regulation of blood pressure. Little is known, however, about the electrophysiological properties of this cloned channel when expressed in epithelial cells. Using whole-cell and single channel current recording techniques, we have now characterized the rat αβγENaC (rENaC) stably transfected and expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Under whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, the αβγrENaC-expressing MDCK cells exhibited greater whole cell Na+ current at −143 mV (−1,466.2 ± 297.5 pA) than did untransfected cells (−47.6 ± 10.7 pA). This conductance was completely and reversibly inhibited by 10 μM amiloride, with a Ki of 20 nM at a membrane potential of −103 mV; the amiloride inhibition was slightly voltage dependent. Amiloride-sensitive whole-cell current of MDCK cells expressing αβ or αγ subunits alone was −115.2 ± 41.4 pA and −52.1 ± 24.5 pA at −143 mV, respectively, similar to the whole-cell Na+ current of untransfected cells. Relaxation analysis of the amiloride-sensitive current after voltage steps suggested that the channels were activated by membrane hyperpolarization. Ion selectivity sequence of the Na+ conductance was Li+ > Na+ >> K+ = N-methyl-d-glucamine+ (NMDG+). Using excised outside-out patches, amiloride-sensitive single channel conductance, likely responsible for the macroscopic Na+ channel current, was found to be ∼5 and 8 pS when Na+ and Li+ were used as a charge carrier, respectively. K+ conductance through the channel was undetectable. The channel activity, defined as a product of the number of active channel (n) and open probability (Po), was increased by membrane hyperpolarization. Both whole-cell Na+ current and conductance were saturated with increased extracellular Na+ concentrations, which likely resulted from saturation of the single channel conductance. The channel activity (nPo) was significantly decreased when cytosolic Na+ concentration was increased from 0 to 50 mM in inside-out patches. Whole-cell Na+ conductance (with Li+ as a charge carrier) was inhibited by the addition of ionomycin (1 μM) and Ca2+ (1 mM) to the bath. Dialysis of the cells with a pipette solution containing 1 μM Ca2+ caused a biphasic inhibition, with time constants of 1.7 ± 0.3 min (n = 3) and 128.4 ± 33.4 min (n = 3). An increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration from <1 nM to 1 μM was accompanied by a decrease in channel activity. Increasing cytosolic Ca2+ to 10 μM exhibited a pronounced inhibitory effect. Single channel conductance, however, was unchanged by increasing free Ca2+ concentrations from <1 nM to 10 μM. Collectively, these results provide the first characterization of rENaC heterologously expressed in a mammalian epithelial cell line, and provide evidence for channel regulation by cytosolic Na+ and Ca2+.
epithelial Na+ channel; patch-clamp; Madin-Darby canine kidney cells; Na+; Ca2+
The LAR family protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), including LAR, PTPδ, and PTPς, are transmembrane proteins composed of a cell adhesion molecule-like ectodomain and two cytoplasmic catalytic domains: active D1 and inactive D2. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the first catalytic domain of PTPς (PTPς-D1) as bait to identify interacting regulatory proteins. Using this screen, we identified the second catalytic domain of PTPδ (PTPδ-D2) as an interactor of PTPς-D1. Both yeast two-hybrid binding assays and coprecipitation from mammalian cells revealed strong binding between PTPς-D1 and PTPδ-D2, an association which required the presence of the wedge sequence in PTPς-D1, a sequence recently shown to mediate D1-D1 homodimerization in the phosphatase RPTPα. This interaction was not reciprocal, as PTPδ-D1 did not bind PTPς-D2. Addition of a glutathione S-transferase (GST)–PTPδ-D2 fusion protein (but not GST alone) to GST–PTPς-D1 led to ∼50% inhibition of the catalytic activity of PTPς-D1, as determined by an in vitro phosphatase assay against p-nitrophenylphosphate. A similar inhibition of PTPς-D1 activity was obtained with coimmunoprecipitated PTPδ-D2. Interestingly, the second catalytic domains of LAR (LAR-D2) and PTPς (PTPς-D2), very similar in sequence to PTPδ-D2, bound poorly to PTPς-D1. PTPδ-D1 and LAR-D1 were also able to bind PTPδ-D2, but more weakly than PTPς-D1, with a binding hierarchy of PTPς-D1>>PTPδ-D1>LAR-D1. These results suggest that association between PTPς-D1 and PTPδ-D2, possibly via receptor heterodimerization, provides a negative regulatory function and that the second catalytic domains of this and likely other receptor PTPs, which are often inactive, may function instead to regulate the activity of the first catalytic domains.