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1.  Quantitative Analysis of Membrane Trafficking in Regulation of Cdc42 Polarity 
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)  2014;15(12):1330-1343.
Vesicle delivery of Cdc42 has been proposed as an important mechanism for generating and maintaining Cdc42 polarity at the plasma membrane. This mechanism requires the density of Cdc42 on secretory vesicles to be equal to or higher than the plasma membrane polarity cap. Using a novel method to estimate Cdc42 levels on post-Golgi secretory vesicles in intact yeast cells, we: 1) determined that endocytosis plays an important role in Cdc42’s association with secretory vesicles 2) found that a GFP-tag placed on the N-terminus of Cdc42 negatively impacts this vesicle association and 3) quantified the surface densities of Cdc42 on post-Golgi vesicles which revealed that the vesicle density of Cdc42 is three times more dilute than that at the polarity cap. This work suggests that the immediate consequence of secretory vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane polarity cap is to dilute the local Cdc42 surface density. This provides strong support for the model in which vesicle trafficking acts to negatively regulate Cdc42 polarity on the cell surface while also providing a means to recycle Cdc42 between the cell surface and internal membrane locations.
PMCID: PMC4260267  PMID: 25158298
2.  Quantitative Proteomics of Yeast Post-Golgi Vesicles Reveals a Discriminating Role for Sro7p in Protein Secretion 
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)  2011;12(6):740-753.
We here report the first comparative proteomics of purified yeast post-Golgi vesicles (PGVs). Vesicle samples isolated from PGV-accumulating sec6-4 mutants were treated with isobaric tags (iTRAQ) for subsequent quantitative tandem mass spectrometric analysis of protein content. After background subtraction, a total of 66 vesicle-associated proteins were identified, including known or assumed vesicle residents as well as a fraction not previously known to be PGV associated. Vesicles isolated from cells lacking the polarity protein Sro7p contained essentially the same catalogue of proteins but showed a reduced content of a subset of cargo proteins, in agreement with a previously shown selective role for Sro7p in cargo sorting.
PMCID: PMC3926324  PMID: 21477180
exocytosis; Golgi; membrane trafficking; proteomics; vesicles; iTRAQ
3.  Yeast homologues of lethal giant larvae and type V myosin cooperate in the regulation of Rab-dependent vesicle clustering and polarized exocytosis 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2011;22(6):842-857.
The yeast type V myosin, Myo2, and the lethal giant larvae homologue, Sro7, are important players in polarized exocytosis. This paper article characterizes the role of Myo2 both in recruiting Sro7 to sites of polarized growth and in negatively regulating a Sec4-dependent vesicle-clustering activity of Sro7.
Lgl family members play an important role in the regulation of cell polarity in eukaryotic cells. The yeast homologues Sro7 and Sro77 are thought to act downstream of the Rab GTPase Sec4 to promote soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) function in post-Golgi transport. In this article, we characterize the interaction between Sro7 and the type V myosin Myo2 and show that this interaction is important for two distinct aspects of Sro7 function. First, we show that this interaction plays a positive role in promoting the polarized localization of Sro7 to sites of active growth. Second, we find evidence that Myo2 negatively regulates Sro7 function in vesicle clustering. Mutants in either Myo2 or Sro7 that are defective for this interaction show hypersensitivity to Sro7 overexpression, which results in Sec4-dependent accumulation of large groups of vesicles in the cytoplasm. This suggests that Myo2 serves a dual function, to both recruit Sro7 to secretory vesicles and inhibit its Rab-dependent tethering activity until vesicles reach the plasma membrane. Thus Sro7 appears to coordinate the spatial and temporal nature of both Rab-dependent tethering and SNARE-dependent membrane fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane.
PMCID: PMC3057708  PMID: 21248204
4.  Regulation of RhoGTPase crosstalk, degradation and activity by RhoGDI1 
Nature cell biology  2010;12(5):477-483.
At steady state, most Rho GTPases are bound in the cytosol to Rho Guanine nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors (RhoGDI) 1. RhoGDIs have generally been considered to passively hold Rho proteins in an inactive state within the cytoplasm. Here we describe an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which RhoGDI1 controls the homeostasis of Rho proteins in eukaryotic cells. We found that depletion of RhoGDI1 promotes misfolding and degradation of the cytosolic geranylgeranylated pool of Rho GTPases while unexpectedly activating the remaining membrane-bound fraction. Since RhoGDI1 levels are limiting, and Rho proteins compete for binding to RhoGDI1, overexpression of an exogenous Rho GTPase displaces endogenous Rho proteins bound to RhoGDI1, inducing their degradation and inactivation. These results raise important questions about the conclusions drawn from studies that manipulate Rho protein levels. In many cases the response observed may arise not simply from the overexpression per se, but from additional effects on the levels and activity of other Rho GTPases due to competition for binding to RhoGDI1, and may require a re-evaluation of previously published studies that rely exclusively on these techniques.
PMCID: PMC2866742  PMID: 20400958
5.  Spatial Regulation of Exocytosis and Cell Polarity: Yeast as a Model for Animal Cells 
FEBS letters  2007;581(11):2119-2124.
Exocytosis is the major mechanism by which new membrane components are delivered to the cell surface. In most, if not all, eukaryotic cells this is also a highly spatially regulated process that is tightly coordinated with the overall polarity of a cell. The Rho/Cdc42 family of GTPases and the lethal giant larvae/Sro7 family are two highly conserved families of proteins which appear to have dual functions both in cell polarity and exocytosis. Analysis of their functions has begun to unravel the coordination between these processes and propose a model for polarized vesicle docking and fusion at the site of asymmetric cell growth.
PMCID: PMC2408755  PMID: 17418146
Rho GTPases; Lgl; exocytosis; cell polarity
6.  The Yeast Tumor Suppressor Homologue Sro7p Is Required for Targeting of the Sodium Pumping ATPase to the Cell Surface 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2006;17(12):4988-5003.
The SRO7/SOP1 encoded tumor suppressor homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for maintenance of ion homeostasis in cells exposed to NaCl stress. Here we show that the NaCl sensitivity of the sro7Δ mutant is due to defective sorting of Ena1p, the main sodium pump in yeast. On exposure of sro7Δ mutants to NaCl stress, Ena1p fails to be targeted to the cell surface, but is instead routed to the vacuole for degradation via the multivesicular endosome pathway. SRO7-deficient mutants accumulate post-Golgi vesicles at high salinity, in agreement with a previously described role for Sro7p in late exocytosis. However, Ena1p is not sorted into these post-Golgi vesicles, in contrast to what is observed for the vesicles that accumulate when exocytosis is blocked in sec6-4 mutants at high salinity. These observations imply that Sro7p has a previously unrecognized role for sorting of specific proteins into the exocytic pathway. Screening for multicopy suppressors identified RSN1, encoding a transmembrane protein of unknown function. Overexpression of RSN1 restores NaCl tolerance of sro7Δ mutants by retargeting Ena1p to the plasma membrane. We propose a model in which blocked exocytic sorting in sro7Δ mutants, gives rise to quality control-mediated routing of Ena1p to the vacuole.
PMCID: PMC1679668  PMID: 17005914
7.  Rho GTPase regulation of exocytosis in yeast is independent of GTP hydrolysis and polarization of the exocyst complex 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2005;170(4):583-594.
Rho GTPases are important regulators of polarity in eukaryotic cells. In yeast they are involved in regulating the docking and fusion of secretory vesicles with the cell surface. Our analysis of a Rho3 mutant that is unable to interact with the Exo70 subunit of the exocyst reveals a normal polarization of the exocyst complex as well as other polarity markers. We also find that there is no redundancy between the Rho3–Exo70 and Rho1–Sec3 pathways in the localization of the exocyst. This suggests that Rho3 and Cdc42 act to polarize exocytosis by activating the exocytic machinery at the membrane without the need to first recruit it to sites of polarized growth. Consistent with this model, we find that the ability of Rho3 and Cdc42 to hydrolyze GTP is not required for their role in secretion. Moreover, our analysis of the Sec3 subunit of the exocyst suggests that polarization of the exocyst may be a consequence rather than a cause of polarized exocytosis.
PMCID: PMC2171504  PMID: 16103227
8.  The Yeast Par-1 Homologs Kin1 and Kin2 Show Genetic and Physical Interactions with Components of the Exocytic Machinery 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2005;16(2):532-549.
Kin1 and Kin2 are Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterparts of Par-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans kinase essential for the establishment of polarity in the one cell embryo. Here, we present evidence for a novel link between Kin1, Kin2, and the secretory machinery of the budding yeast. We isolated KIN1 and KIN2 as suppressors of a mutant form of Rho3, a Rho-GTPase acting in polarized trafficking. Genetic analysis suggests that KIN1 and KIN2 act downstream of the Rab-GTPase Sec4, its exchange factor Sec2, and several components of the vesicle tethering complex, the Exocyst. We show that Kin1 and Kin2 physically interact with the t-SNARE Sec9 and the Lgl homologue Sro7, proteins acting at the final stage of exocytosis. Structural analysis of Kin2 reveals that its catalytic activity is essential for its function in the secretory pathway and implicates the conserved 42-amino acid tail at the carboxy terminal of the kinase in autoinhibition. Finally, we find that Kin1 and Kin2 induce phosphorylation of t-SNARE Sec9 in vivo and stimulate its release from the plasma membrane. In summary, we report the finding that yeast Par-1 counterparts are associated with and regulate the function of the exocytic apparatus via phosphorylation of Sec9.
PMCID: PMC545889  PMID: 15563607
9.  Yeast Homologues of Tomosyn and lethal giant larvae Function in Exocytosis and Are Associated with the Plasma Membrane Snare, Sec9 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1999;146(1):125-140.
We have identified a pair of related yeast proteins, Sro7p and Sro77p, based on their ability to bind to the plasma membrane SNARE (SNARE) protein, Sec9p. These proteins show significant similarity to the Drosophila tumor suppressor, lethal giant larvae and to the neuronal syntaxin–binding protein, tomosyn. SRO7 and SRO77 have redundant functions as loss of both gene products leads to a severe cold-sensitive growth defect that correlates with a severe defect in exocytosis. We show that similar to Sec9, Sro7/77 functions in the docking and fusion of post-Golgi vesicles with the plasma membrane. In contrast to a previous report, we see no defect in actin polarity under conditions where we see a dramatic effect on secretion. This demonstrates that the primary function of Sro7/77, and likely all members of the lethal giant larvae family, is in exocytosis rather than in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Analysis of the association of Sro7p and Sec9p demonstrates that Sro7p directly interacts with Sec9p both in the cytosol and in the plasma membrane and can associate with Sec9p in the context of a SNAP receptor complex. Genetic analysis suggests that Sro7 and Sec9 function together in a pathway downstream of the Rho3 GTPase. Taken together, our studies suggest that members of the lethal giant larvae/tomosyn/Sro7 family play an important role in polarized exocytosis by regulating SNARE function on the plasma membrane.
PMCID: PMC2199738  PMID: 10402465
exocytosis; SNARE complex; cell polarity; tumor suppressor; tomosyn
10.  The Rho GTPase Rho3 Has a Direct Role in Exocytosis That Is Distinct from Its Role in Actin Polarity 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1999;10(12):4121-4133.
Budding yeast grow asymmetrically by the polarized delivery of proteins and lipids to specific sites on the plasma membrane. This requires the coordinated polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and the secretory apparatus. We identified Rho3 on the basis of its genetic interactions with several late-acting secretory genes. Mutational analysis of the Rho3 effector domain reveals three distinct functions in cell polarity: regulation of actin polarity, transport of exocytic vesicles from the mother cell to the bud, and docking and fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane. We provide evidence that the vesicle delivery function of Rho3 is mediated by the unconventional myosin Myo2 and that the docking and fusion function is mediated by the exocyst component Exo70. These data suggest that Rho3 acts as a key regulator of cell polarity and exocytosis, coordinating several distinct events for delivery of proteins to specific sites on the cell surface.
PMCID: PMC25747  PMID: 10588647

Results 1-10 (10)