PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-12 (12)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Reduction of Cellular Stress by TolC-Dependent Efflux Pumps in Escherichia coli Indicated by BaeSR and CpxARP Activation of spy in Efflux Mutants 
Journal of Bacteriology  2013;195(5):1042-1050.
Escherichia coli has nine inner membrane efflux pumps which complex with the outer membrane protein TolC and cognate membrane fusion proteins to form tripartite transperiplasmic pumps with diverse functions, including the expulsion of antibiotics. We recently observed that tolC mutants have elevated activities for three stress response regulators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, and we suggested that TolC-dependent efflux is required to prevent the accumulation of stressful cellular metabolites. Here, we used spy::lacZ fusions to show that two systems for sensing/repairing extracytoplasmic stress, BaeRS and CpxARP, are activated in the absence of TolC-dependent efflux. In either tolC mutants or bacteria with mutations in the genes for four TolC-dependent efflux pumps, spy expression was increased 6- to 8-fold. spy encodes a periplasmic chaperone regulated by the BaeRS and CpxARP stress response systems. The overexpression of spy in tolC or multiple efflux pump mutants also depended on these systems. spy overexpression was not due to acetate, ethanol, or indole accumulation, since external acetate had only a minor effect on wild-type cells, ethanol had a large effect that was not CpxA dependent, and a tolC tnaA mutant which cannot accumulate internal indole overexpressed spy. We propose that, unless TolC-dependent pumps excrete certain metabolites, the metabolites accumulate and activate at least five different stress response systems.
doi:10.1128/JB.01996-12
PMCID: PMC3571319  PMID: 23264577
2.  Promoter Discrimination at Class I MarA Regulon Promoters Mediated by Glutamic Acid 89 of the MarA Transcriptional Activator of Escherichia coli▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2010;193(2):506-515.
Three paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob, activate >40 Escherichia coli promoters. To understand why MarA does not activate certain promoters as strongly as SoxS, we compared MarA, MarA mutants, and SoxS for their abilities to activate 16 promoters and to bind their cognate marbox binding sites. Replacement of the MarA glutamic acid residue 89 with alanine greatly increased the marbox binding and activation of many class I promoters. Like cells constitutive for SoxS, cells expressing the MarA with the E89A mutation were more resistant to superoxides than those harboring WT MarA. The activities of several other E89 substitutions ranked as follows: E89A > E89G > E89V > WT > E89D. Increased binding and activation occurred only at class I promoters when the 12th base of the promoter's marbox (a position at which there is no known interaction between the marbox and MarA) was not a T residue. Furthermore, WT MarA binding to a synthetic marbox in vitro was enhanced when the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13 was eliminated on one strand. The results demonstrate that relatively minor changes in a single amino acid side chain (e.g., alanine to valine or glutamic acid to aspartic acid) can strongly influence activity despite any evidence that the side chain is involved in positive interactions with either DNA or RNA polymerase. We present a model which attributes the differences in binding and activation to the interference between the β- and γ-carbons of the amino acid at position 89 and the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13.
doi:10.1128/JB.00360-10
PMCID: PMC3019838  PMID: 21097628
3.  A Requirement of TolC and MDR Efflux Pumps for Acid Adaptation and GadAB Induction in Escherichia coli 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(4):e18960.
Background
The TolC outer membrane channel is a key component of several multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps driven by H+ transport in Escherichia coli. While tolC expression is under the regulation of the EvgA-Gad acid resistance regulon, the role of TolC in growth at low pH and extreme-acid survival is unknown.
Methods and Principal Findings
TolC was required for extreme-acid survival (pH 2) of strain W3110 grown aerobically to stationary phase. A tolC deletion decreased extreme-acid survival (acid resistance) of aerated pH 7.0-grown cells by 105-fold and of pH 5.5-grown cells by 10-fold. The requirement was specific for acid resistance since a tolC defect had no effect on aerobic survival in extreme base (pH 10). TolC was required for expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GadA, GadB), a key component of glutamate-dependent acid resistance (Gad). TolC was also required for maximal exponential growth of E. coli K-12 W3110, in LBK medium buffered at pH 4.5–6.0, but not at pH 6.5–8.5. The TolC growth requirement in moderate acid was independent of Gad. TolC-associated pump components EmrB and MdtB contributed to survival in extreme acid (pH 2), but were not required for growth at pH 5. A mutant lacking the known TolC-associated efflux pumps (acrB, acrD, emrB, emrY, macB, mdtC, mdtF, acrEF) showed no growth defect at acidic pH and a relatively small decrease in extreme-acid survival when pre-grown at pH 5.5.
Conclusions
TolC and proton-driven MDR efflux pump components EmrB and MdtB contribute to E. coli survival in extreme acid and TolC is required for maximal growth rates below pH 6.5. The TolC enhancement of extreme-acid survival includes Gad induction, but TolC-dependent growth rates below pH 6.5 do not involve Gad. That MDR resistance can enhance growth and survival in acid is an important consideration for enteric organisms passing through the acidic stomach.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018960
PMCID: PMC3082540  PMID: 21541325
4.  Constitutive SoxS Expression in a Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Strain with a Truncated SoxR Protein and Identification of a New Member of the marA-soxS-rob Regulon, mdtG▿  
Elevated levels of fluoroquinolone resistance are frequently found among Escherichia coli clinical isolates. This study investigated the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of strain NorE5, derived in vitro by exposing an E. coli clinical isolate, PS5, to two selection steps with increasing concentrations of norfloxacin. In addition to the amino acid substitution in GyrA (S83L) present in PS5, NorE5 has an amino acid change in ParC (S80R). Furthermore, we now find by Western blotting that NorE5 has a multidrug resistance phenotype resulting from the overexpression of the antibiotic resistance efflux pump AcrAB-TolC. Microarray and gene fusion analyses revealed significantly increased expression in NorE5 of soxS, a transcriptional activator of acrAB and tolC. The high soxS activity is attributable to a frameshift mutation that truncates SoxR, rendering it a constitutive transcriptional activator of soxS. Furthermore, microarray and reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that mdtG (yceE), encoding a putative efflux pump, is overexpressed in the resistant strain. SoxS, MarA, and Rob activated an mdtG::lacZ fusion, and SoxS was shown to bind to the mdtG promoter, showing that mdtG is a member of the marA-soxS-rob regulon. The mdtG marbox sequence is in the backward or class I orientation within the promoter, and its disruption resulted in a loss of inducibility by MarA, SoxS, and Rob. Thus, chromosomal mutations in parC and soxR are responsible for the increased antibiotic resistance of NorE5.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00944-09
PMCID: PMC2825980  PMID: 20008776
5.  An Excretory Function for the Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Pore TolC: Upregulation of marA and soxS Transcription and Rob Activity Due to Metabolites Accumulated in tolC Mutants ▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2009;191(16):5283-5292.
Efflux pumps function to rid bacteria of xenobiotics, including antibiotics, bile salts, and organic solvents. TolC, which forms an outer membrane channel, is an essential component of several efflux pumps in Escherichia coli. We asked whether TolC has a role during growth in the absence of xenobiotics. Because tolC transcription is activated by three paralogous activators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, we examined the regulation of these activators in tolC mutants. Using transcriptional fusions, we detected significant upregulation of marRAB and soxS transcription and Rob protein activity in tolC mutants. Three mechanisms could be distinguished: (i) activation of marRAB transcription was independent of marRAB, soxR, and rob functions; (ii) activation of soxS transcription required SoxR, a sensor of oxidants; and (iii) Rob protein was activated posttranscriptionally. This mechanism is similar to the mechanisms of upregulation of marRAB, soxS, and Rob by treatment with certain phenolics, superoxides, and bile salts, respectively. The transcription of other marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters, including tolC itself, was also elevated in tolC mutants. We propose that TolC is involved in the efflux of certain cellular metabolites, not only xenobiotics. As these metabolites accumulate during growth, they trigger the upregulation of MarA, SoxS, and Rob, which in turn upregulate tolC and help rid the bacteria of these metabolites, thereby restoring homeostasis.
doi:10.1128/JB.00507-09
PMCID: PMC2725600  PMID: 19502391
6.  Model of Transcriptional Activation by MarA in Escherichia coli 
PLoS Computational Biology  2009;5(12):e1000614.
The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates ∼40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.
Author Summary
When environmental conditions change, cell survival can depend on sudden production of proteins that are normally in low demand. Protein production is controlled by transcription factors which bind to DNA near genes and either increase or decrease RNA production. Many puzzles remain concerning the ways transcription factors do this. Recently we collected data relating the intracellular level of a single transcription factor, MarA, to the increase in expression of several genes related to antibiotic and superoxide resistance in Escherichia coli. These data indicated that target genes are turned on in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA, enabling cells to mount a response that is commensurate to the level of threat detected in the environment. Here we develop a computational model to yield insight into how MarA turns on its target genes. The modeling suggests that MarA can increase the frequency with which a transcript is made while decreasing the overall presence of the transcription machinery at the start of a gene. This mechanism is opposite to the textbook model of transcriptional activation; nevertheless it enables cells to respond quickly to environmental challenges and is likely of general importance for gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000614
PMCID: PMC2787020  PMID: 20019803
7.  Transcriptional activation by MarA, SoxS and Rob of two tolC promoters using one binding site: a complex promoter configuration for tolC in Escherichia coli 
Molecular microbiology  2008;69(6):1450-1455.
Summary
The Escherichia coli tolC encodes a major outer membrane protein with multiple functions in export (e. g., diverse xenobiotics, hemolysin) and as an attachment site for phage and colicins. tolC is regulated in part by MarA, SoxS and Rob, three paralogous transcriptional activators which bind a sequence called the marbox and which activate multiple antibiotic and superoxide resistance functions. Two previously identified tolC promoters, p1 and p2, are not regulated by MarA, SoxS or Rob but p2 is activated by EvgAS and PhoPQ which also regulate other functions. Using transcriptional fusions and primer extension assays, we show here that tolC has two additional strong overlapping promoters, p3 and p4, which are downstream of p1, p2 and the marbox and are activated by MarA, SoxS and Rob. p3 and p4 are configured so that a single marbox suffices to activate transcription from both promoters. At the p3 promoter, the marbox is separated by 20 bp from the −10 hexamer for RNA polymerase but at the p4 promoter, the same marbox is separated by 30 bp from the −10 hexamer. The multiple tolC promoters may allow the cell to respond to diverse environments by coordinating tolC transcription with other appropriate functions.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06371.x
PMCID: PMC2574956  PMID: 18673442
gene regulation; outer membrane protein; transcriptional start sites; efflux pumps; antibiotic resistance
8.  Activation of the E. coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration 
Journal of molecular biology  2008;380(2):278-284.
Summary
The paralogous transcriptional activators, MarA, SoxS and Rob, activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter. The extent of activation varies from one promoter to another and is only poorly correlated with the in vitro affinity of the activator for the specific marbox. Here, we examine the dependence of promoter activation on the level of activator in vivo by manipulating the steady-state concentrations of MarA and SoxS in Lon protease mutants and measuring promoter activation using lacZ transcriptional fusions. We found that: (i) the MarA concentrations needed for half-maximal stimulation varied by at least 19-fold among the 10 promoters tested; (ii) most marboxes were not saturated when there were 24,000 molecules of MarA per cell; (iii) the correlation between MarA concentration needed for half-maximal promoter activity in vivo with marbox binding affinity in vitro was poor and (iv) the two activators differed in their promoter activation profiles. The marRAB and sodA promoters could both be saturated by MarA and SoxS in vivo. However, saturation by MarA resulted in greater marRAB and lesser sodA transcription than did saturation by SoxS implying that the two activators interact with RNAP in different ways at the different promoters. Thus, the concentration and nature of activator determines which regulon promoters are activated and the extent of their activation.
doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.05.015
PMCID: PMC2614912  PMID: 18514222
gene regulation; AraC protein family; stress response
9.  Detection of low-level promoter activity within open reading frame sequences of Escherichia coli 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;33(19):6268-6276.
The search for promoters has largely been confined to sequences upstream of open reading frames (ORFs) or stable RNA genes. Here we used a cloning approach to discover other potential promoters in Escherichia coli. Chromosomal fragments of ∼160 bp were fused to a promoterless lacZ reporter gene on a multi-copy plasmid. Eight clones were deliberately selected for high activity and 105 clones were selected at random. All eight of the high-activity clones carried promoters that were located upstream of an ORF. Among the randomly-selected clones, 56 had significantly elevated activity. Of these, 7 had inserts which also mapped upstream of an ORF, while 49 mapped within or downstream of ORFs. Surprisingly, the eight promoters selected for high activity matched the canonical σ70 −35 and −10 sequences no better than sequences from the randomly-selected clones. For six of the nine most active sequences with orientations opposite to that of the ORF, chromosomal expression was detected by RT–PCR, but defined transcripts were not detected by northern analysis. Our results indicate that the E.coli chromosome carries numerous −35 and −10 sequences with weak promoter activity but that most are not productively expressed because other features needed to enhance promoter activity and transcript stability are absent.
doi:10.1093/nar/gki928
PMCID: PMC1275588  PMID: 16260475
10.  Identification of the Escherichia coli K-12 ybhE Gene as pgl, Encoding 6-Phosphogluconolactonase 
Journal of Bacteriology  2004;186(24):8248-8253.
We report identification of the Escherichia coli ybhE gene as the pgl gene that encodes 6-phosphogluconolactonase. A tentative identification was first made based on the known approximate location of the pgl gene and the similarity of the presumptive ybhE-encoded protein sequence to a known Pgl enzyme. To test this notion, the ybhE gene was deleted and replaced with a drug marker. Like previously characterized pgl mutants, the ybhE deletion mutant had a Blu− phenotype (dark-blue staining with iodine due to accumulation of starch after growth on minimal maltose) and demonstrated impaired growth on minimal glucose medium when combined with a pgi mutation. Biochemical assay of crude extracts for 6-phosphogluconolactonase enzymatic activity showed that ybhE encodes this activity. The ybhE gene was transferred from the E. coli chromosome to an expression vector. This ybhE clone complemented both the precise deletion of the ybhE gene and a larger deletion, pglΔ8, for the Blu− phenotype and for phosphogluconolactonase activity, confirming that ybhE is the pgl gene. A newly observed phenotype of pgl strains is a lowered frequency of appearance of Bgl+ mutants that can utilize the β-glucoside salicin. This is likely due to poor growth of Bgl+ pgl strains on salicin due to the accumulation of 6-phosphogluconolactone.
doi:10.1128/JB.186.24.8248-8253.2004
PMCID: PMC532434  PMID: 15576773
11.  Posttranscriptional Activation of the Transcriptional Activator Rob by Dipyridyl in Escherichia coli 
Journal of Bacteriology  2002;184(5):1407-1416.
The transcriptional activator Rob consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD) of 120 amino acids responsible for DNA binding and promoter activation and a C-terminal domain (CTD) of 169 amino acids of unknown function. Although several thousand molecules of Rob are normally present per Escherichia coli cell, they activate promoters of the rob regulon poorly. We report here that in cells treated with either 2,2"- or 4,4"-dipyridyl (the latter is not a metal chelator), Rob-mediated transcription of various rob regulon promoters was increased substantially. A small, growth-phase-dependent effect of dipyridyl on the rob promoter was observed. However, dipyridyl enhanced Rob's activity even when rob was regulated by a heterologous (lac) promoter showing that the action of dipyridyl is mainly posttranscriptional. Mutants lacking from 30 to 166 of the C-terminal amino acids of Rob had basal levels of activity similar to that of wild-type cells, but dipyridyl treatment did not enhance this activity. Thus, the CTD is not an inhibitor of Rob but is required for activation of Rob by dipyridyl. In contrast to its relatively low activity in vivo, Rob binding to cognate DNA and activation of transcription in vitro is similar to that of MarA, which has a homologous NTD but no CTD. In vitro nuclear magnetic resonance studies demonstrated that 2,2"-dipyridyl binds to Rob but not to the CTD-truncated Rob or to MarA, suggesting that the effect of dipyridyl on Rob is direct. Thus, it appears that Rob can be converted from a low activity state to a high-activity state by a CTD-mediated mechanism in vivo or by purification in vitro.
doi:10.1128/JB.184.5.1407-1416.2002
PMCID: PMC134866  PMID: 11844771
12.  Identification of Two New Proteins in Spermidine Nucleoids Isolated from Escherichia coli 
Journal of Bacteriology  1999;181(12):3842-3844.
The Escherichia coli nucleoid contains DNA in a condensed but functional form. Analysis of proteins released from isolated spermidine nucleoids after treatment with DNase I reveals significant amounts of two proteins not previously detected in wild-type E. coli. Partial amino-terminal sequencing has identified them as the products of rdgC and yejK. These proteins are strongly conserved in gram-negative bacteria, suggesting that they have important cellular roles.
PMCID: PMC93866  PMID: 10368163

Results 1-12 (12)