Dysregulation of Akt, PTEN, Drg-1, Cx-26, and L-plastin expression appear to be important in the progression of various cancers. Their expression in bladder cancer has not been well characterized. To assess the expression of these genes and their relationship to the outcome of bladder cancer, we used a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) of 251 transitional cell carcinomas. We quantitated immunohistochemical staining of each protein using both automated and manual methods and correlated the expression levels with the clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumor and patient survival. Overall, the results from both automated and manual analyses were similar. We found a significant correlation between the expression of PTEN, Cx-26 and L-plastin with known clinically important pathologic features of bladder cancer (tumor grade, stage, and growth pattern). Aberrant localization patterns of Cx-26 and Drg-1 were observed in bladder tumors. There was also a significant correlation in expression among pAkt, PTEN, and L-plastin. Although the expression of these genes correlated with factors known to be associated with patient outcome, none of them was an independent predictor of progression-free or overall survival.
bladder neoplasms; tumor markers; tissue microarray analysis
We surveyed a random sample of 852 students at a large university in 2010–2011 to clarify associations between waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), ethnicity, and religion. Current (30-day) WTS was reported by 116 students (14%), and 331 (39%) reported ever use. Middle Eastern ethnicity was associated with current WTS (OR=2.37, 95% CI=1.06, 5.34) and ever WTS (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.22, 5.47). South Asian ethnicity was associated with lower odds for ever WTS (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.21, 0.86), but there was no significant association between South Asian ethnicity and current WTS. Being an Atheist and having lower religiosity were associated with both WTS outcomes.
Hookah; Tobacco; Smoking; Race; Ethnicity; Arab-American; Asian; South Asian; Eastern Mediterranean; Religion
Non-palpable thyroid nodules can be difficult to access by conventional ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration, particularly when they are intrathoracic. Many of these patients are subject to multiple follow up scans or invasive diagnostic procedures such as mediastinoscopy or surgical resection. We aim to describe the feasibility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
All EBUS-TBNA performed at our institutions from February 2010 to February 2013 were screened, and those in which a thyroid biopsy was performed were reviewed.
We identified 12 cases of EBUS-TBNA thyroid biopsy. Nine patients had an indication for EBUS in addition to their thyroid lesions. The median age was 64 years (range 44 to 84 years), and 10 patients were male. Median lesion size was 22.5 mm (range, 10 to 43 mm). Five lesions were strictly intrathoracic. All cases were sampled with a 22G needle and rapid on-site cytologic examination. Adequate samples were obtained in all 12 cases. Malignancy was identified in 3 of the 12 patients (metastatic breast adenocarcinoma, large B-cell lymphoma, and metastatic lung adenocarcinoma). The remaining 9 samples were deemed to be benign nodules. Seven of these were confirmed by clinical follow-up (n = 3), biopsies (n = 3), or surgery (n = 1).
There were no EBUS-related complications.
EBUS-TBNA might be a safe and effective alternative for sampling thyroid lesions, particularly useful for those located below the thoracic inlet. Further prospective studies are required to compare its diagnostic yield and safety profile with standard techniques.
EBUS-TBNA; Thyroid; Intrathoracic goiter
This study examines how communication patterns vary across racial and ethnic patient-clinician dyads in mental health intake sessions and its relation to continuance in treatment, defined as attending the next scheduled appointment.
Observational study of communication patterns among ethnically/racially concordant and discordant patient-clinician dyads. Primary analysis included 93 patients with 38 clinicians in race/ethnic concordant and discordant dyads. Communication was coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) and the Working Alliance Inventory Observer (WAI-O) bond scale; continuance in care was derived from chart reviews.
Latino concordant dyad patients were more verbally dominant (p<.05), engaged in more patient-centered communication (p<.05) and scored higher on the (WAI-O) bond scale (all p<.05) than other groups. Latino patients had higher continuance rates than other patients in models that adjusted for non-communication variables. When communication, global affect, and therapeutic process variables were adjusted for, differences were reversed and white dyad patients had higher continuance in care rates than other dyad patients.
Communication patterns seem to explain the role of ethnic concordance for continuance in care.
Improve intercultural communication in cross cultural encounters appears significant for retaining minorities in care.
Concordance; Patient-Clinician Communication; RIAS; Therapeutic Alliance
This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.
Older adults; substance-related disorders; alcohol-related disorders; bibliometric analysis; prescription drug abuse; addiction
The majority of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer achieved a complete clinical remission with normal CA-125 will still relapse and die from their disease. The present study was to determine whether CA-125 levels before, during and after primary treatment provided prognostic information for both Type I and Type II ovarian cancer.
In this retrospective study, we identified 410 epithelial ovarian cancer patients who had achieved a CCR between 1984 and 2011. A Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank test were used to assess associations between the nadir CA-125, histotype, and prognosis.
The baseline serum CA-125 concentration was higher in patients with type II ovarian cancer than in those with type I (p < 0.001). The nadir CA-125 was an independent predictor of PFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p = 0.035) duration. The PFS and OS durations were 21.7 and 79.4 months in patients with CA-125 ≤ 10 U/ml and 13.6 and 64.6 months in those with 11-35 U/ml (p = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). Histotype was an independent predictor of PFS (p = 0.041): the PFS and OS durations of type I patients were longer than those in type II (p < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively).
The nadir CA-125 and the histotype are predictive of PFS and OS duration in ovarian cancers experienced a CCR. PFS and OS durations were shorter in patients with CA-125 levels of 11-35 U/ml and type II disease than in those with ≤ 10 U/ml and type I.
ovarian cancer; CA-125; prognosis factors; tumor marker; pathological type
DNA damage has been thought to be directly associated with the neoplastic progression by enabling mutations in tumor suppressor genes and activating/and amplifying oncogenes ultimately resulting in genomic instability. DNA damage causes activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) that is an important cellular mechanism for maintaining genomic integrity in the face of genotoxic stress. While the cellular response to genotoxic stress has been extensively studied in cancer models, less is known about the cellular response to oncogenic stress in the premalignant context. In the present study, by using breast tissues samples from women at different risk levels for invasive breast cancer (normal, proliferative breast disease and ductal carcinoma in situ) we found that DNA damage is inversely correlated with risk of invasive breast cancer. Similarly, in MCF10A based in vitro model system where we recapitulated high DNA damage conditions as seen in patient samples by stably cloning in cyclin E, we found that high levels of oncogene induced DNA damage, by triggering inhibition of a major proliferative pathway (AKT), inhibits cell growth and causes cells to die through autophagy. These data suggest that AKT-mTOR pathway is a novel component of oncogene induced DNA damage response in immortalized ‘normal-like’ breast cells and its suppression may contribute to growth arrest and arrest of the breast tumorigenesis.
Associations between the emerging trend of waterpipe tobacco smoking and mental health among college students have not been sufficiently explored. This study analyzed data collected from 152 academic institutions that participated in the National College Health Assessment during the 2008–2009 academic year to examine associations between mental health and waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students (N=100,891). For comparison, cigarette smoking was also examined. Associations with mental health variables were very strong for cigarette smoking but only moderate for waterpipe smoking. Study implications and limitations are noted. Funding was provided by NCI Grant [removed for blind version].
Cigarette smoking; College students; Tobacco use; Waterpipe smoking
As a putative marker for cancer stem cells in human malignant tumors, including ovarian cancer, CD133 expression may define a tumor-initiating subpopulation of cells and is associated with the clinical outcome of patients. However, at this time its clinical significance in ovarian cancer remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical role of CD133 expression in human ovarian cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of CD133 expression was performed in 400 ovarian carcinoma samples using tissue microarray. The associations among CD133 expression and clinical factors (diagnosis, tumor grade, cancer stage, and clinical response to chemotherapy), overall survival and disease-free survival time were analyzed. CD133 expression was found in 31% of ovarian carcinoma samples. Fisher’s exact test and one-way analysis of variance suggested that CD133 expression was associated with high-grade serous carcinoma (P = 0.035), late-stage disease (P < 0.001), ascites level (P = 0.010), and non-response to chemotherapy (P = 0.023). CD133 expression was also associated with shorter overall survival time (P = 0.007) and shorter disease-free survival time (P < 0.001) by log-rank test. Moreover, CD133 expression was an independent predictor of shorter disease-free survival time in an unconditional logistic regression analysis with multiple covariates (P = 0.024). Our results thus show that CD133 expression is a predictor of poor clinical outcome for patients with ovarian cancer, supporting the proposed link between CD133 and cancer stem cells.
CD133; immunohistochemistry; ovarian cancer; prognosis
We hypothesized that cells present in normal tissue that bear cancer stem cell markers may represent a cancer cell of origin or a microenvironment primed for tumor development, and that their presence may correlate with the clinically defined subtypes of breast cancer that show increased tumorigenicity and stem cell features.
Normal tissues sampled at least 5 cm from primary tumors (normal adjacent tissue) were obtained from 61 chemotherapy-naive patients with breast cancer treated with mastectomy. Samples were stained simultaneously with immunofluorescence for CD44/CD49f/CD133/2 stem cell markers. We assessed the association between CD44+CD49f+CD133/2+ staining in normal adjacent tissue and breast cancer receptor subtype (defined by the expression of the estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), or human epidermal growth factor-2 (Her2) receptors). We also examined the correlation between CD44+CD49f+CD133/2+ immunofluorescence and each of two previously published gene signatures, one derived from stem-cell enriched tissue and one from BRCA mutated tissue expected to have defective DNA repair.
Patients with triple negative breast cancer (ER–/PR–/HER2–) expressed CD44+CD49f+CD133/2+ in 9 of 9 normal adjacent tissue samples compared with 7 of 52 ER+ and/or Her2+ tumors (P < 0.001). Further, expression of CD44+CD49f+CD133/2+ by normal adjacent tissue correlated positively with a stem cell-derived tumorigenic signature (P <0.001) and inversely with a defective DNA-repair signature (P <0.001).
Normal cells bearing cancer stem cell markers are associated with the triple negative receptor subtype of breast cancer. This study suggests stem cell staining and gene expression signatures from normal breast tissues represent novel tissue-based risk biomarkers for triple negative breast cancer. Validation of these results in additional studies of normal tissue from cancer-free women could lay the foundation for future targeted triple negative breast cancer prevention strategies.
Recent studies have suggested that some ovarian and pelvic serous carcinomas could originate from the fimbriated end of the distal fallopian tube. To test this hypothesis, we immortalized a normal human fallopian tube epithelial (FTE) cell line by using retrovirus-mediated overexpression of the early region of the SV40 T/t antigens and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (hTERT). These immortalized FTEs were then transformed by ectopic expression of oncogenic human HRASV12. Tumorigenicity of the immortalized and/or transformed cells was subsequently tested by anchorage-independence growth assay and inoculation into nude mice via subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection. As expected, the HRASV12-transformed FTEs produced tumors through both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injections, whereas no tumor growth was observed in immortalized FTEs. Unexpectedly, histopathological examination of tumors resulting from subcutaneous as well as intraperitoneal injections revealed largely poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma mixed with undifferentiated carcinoma. The tumor implants invaded extensively to the liver, colon, spleen, omentum, adrenal gland and renal capsule. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells showed positive staining for the epithelial cell markers cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and Müllerian lineage marker PAX8. Our study demonstrates that FTEs can generate poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma mixed with undifferentiated carcinoma through genetic modifications. Thus, we provide the first experimental evidence that fimbrial epithelial cells of the fallopian tube could be a potential source of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma.
fallopian tube epithelial cells; mucinous adenocarcinoma; oncogene; retrovirus; transformation
Purpose. The aim of this study is to examine the changing service profile of older adults receiving substance abuse services over the past decade and the increased costs of treating this population. Design and Methods. Medicaid claims for mental health and substance abuse services data from a medium sized county in an eastern state were analyzed for individuals aged 50 years and older in calendar year 2000 or 2009. Univariate statistics are presented to describe the substance abuse and mental health services used by older adults in these two years. Results. The number of low-income older adults who accessed services for treatment and who had a substance-related diagnosis grew from 545 individuals in 2000 to 1,653 individuals in 2009. Costs for services utilized by older adults with a substance-related diagnosis rose by 358% from $2.1 million in 2000 to $9.5 million in 2009. Implications. The increase in the number of low-income older adults with a substance-related disorder and the concomitant rise in total spending for Medicaid reimbursed services indicate that local and state social service providers need to prepare for an older adult population who will need appropriate substance abuse prevention and treatment programs.
NF-κB is a transcription factor known to promote tumorigenesis. However, NF-κB is also known to be proapoptotic and may potentially function as a tumor suppressor, although such a functional role has not been extensively investigated in human cancer.
A dominant-negative mutant of IκBα with mutations at S32A and S36A was used to inhibit the function of NF-κB in ovarian cancer cell lines. The transcription ability, tumorigenesis, apoptosis, and drug sensitivity were examined in derivative cell lines in comparison with parental cells. We also analyzed the association of nuclear expression of NF-κB p65 with patient survival in an ovarian cancer tissue array.
We show that NF-κB functions as a tumor suppressor in four ovarian cancer cell lines, but it functions as an oncogene in their aggressive chemoresistant isogenic variants. NF-κB can exert its proapoptotic or antiapoptotic effect by activating or repressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in parental or aggressive chemoresistant variant cell lines. We also show that the nuclear accumulation of p65 in epithelial cancer tissue is associated with a good response to chemotherapy and can predict longer overall survival for patients with ovarian cancer.
Our data provide strong evidence that NF-κB can function as a biphasic regulator, either suppressing or enhancing ovarian cancer growth through the regulation of MAPK and cellular apoptosis.
This review reports on the results of a comprehensive literature search of studies examining the physical and mental health characteristics of older adults in the United States who use heroin. Multiple databases were searched for papers meeting the inclusion criteria of heroin users who were age 50 years or older. A total of 14 articles covering 9 different studies met the review inclusion criteria. All of the studies were convenience samples, and seven of the nine studies (77.8%) were entirely drawn from substance abuse treatment programs, primarily methadone maintenance programs. Findings from the qualitative studies suggest that the marginalization of older heroin users was a predominant experience that impacted intent to seek treatment as well as treatment retention. While articles reported high levels of physical and psychological/psychiatric comorbidities with substance misuse, research on heroin use and methadone treatment among older adults is scant and the quantitative findings are inconsistent. The articles reviewed in this study demonstrate that the needs of this population will be significant, yet the development of appropriate interventions and treatment for older adult heroin users will be contingent on empirical research that adequately describes mental and physical health problems.
Heroin; methadone maintenance treatment; mental health disorders; physical health problems
Aurora kinase A (AURKA), a serine/threonine kinase, has been shown to regulate the cell cycle checkpoint and maintain genomic integrity. AURKA is overexpressed in various carcinomas. Breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) has an important role in maintaining genomic stability and acts as a tumor suppressor. Our recent study suggested that AURKA regulates genomic instability and tumorigenesis through cell cycle dysregulation and suppression of BRCA2 expression. However, the expression of AURKA, BRCA2 and their clinical significance is unknown in endometrioid ovarian cancer. In this study, we determined AURKA and BRCA2 expression in endometrioid ovarian carcinoma and correlated them with clinicopathologic characteristics and patient survival. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in 51 primary endometrioid ovarian carcinoma tumor samples, using tissue microarray. We then analyzed the associations between AURKA and BRCA2 expression and clinical factors (tumor grade, disease stage, surgical type, clinical response, and relapse) and overall and disease-free survival durations. AURKA and BRCA2 expression were found in 48 and 29% of the samples, respectively. The results of Fisher’s exact test suggested that AURKA expression was significantly associated with no family history of ovarian cancer (P=0.03) and that BRCA2 expression was associated with early-stage disease (P=0.03), low ascites incidence (P=0.03), younger age (<60) at diagnosis (P=0.03), and low-grade tumors (P<0.01). The nuclear BRCA2 score was negatively correlated with AURKA score (P=0.019, two-tailed Pearson correlation). A log-rank test demonstrated that AURKA expression was associated with shorter overall (P=0.001) and disease-free (P=0.009) survival durations, and that BRCA2 expression was associated with longer overall (P=0.000) and disease-free (P=0.002) durations. Patients with BRCA2-positive and AURKA-negative tumors had higher overall (P=0.001) and disease-free (P=0.001) survival rates than did patients with AURKA-positive and BRCA2-negative tumors. Our results demonstrate that a negative regulatory loop exists between AURKA and BRCA2 expression in the ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. AURKA expression is an unfavorable prognostic factor in patients with endometrioid ovarian cancer and BRCA2 is favorable, combination of these two markers may better predict the prognosis of patients with endometrioid ovarian carcinoma than individual marker alone.
AURKA; BRCA2; endometrioid ovarian carcinoma; prognostic factors
Chemokine receptor CXCR2 is associated with malignancy in several cancer models; however, the mechanisms involved in CXCR2-mediated tumor growth remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of CXCR2 in human ovarian cancer.
CXCR2 expression was silenced by stable small hairpin RNA in ovarian cancer cell lines T29Gro-1, T29H, and SKOV3. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and mouse assay were used to detect CXCR2, interleukin-8, Gro-1, cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA binding of NF-κB, and tumor growth. Immunohistochemical staining of CXCR2 was done in 240 high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma samples.
Knockdown of CXCR2 expression by small hairpin RNA reduced tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer cells in nude mice. CXCR2 promoted cell cycle progression by modulating cell cycle regulatory proteins, including p21 (waf1/cip1), cyclin D1, CDK6, CDK4, cyclin A, and cyclin B1. CXCR2 inhibited cellular apoptosis by suppressing phosphorylated p53, Puma, and Bcl-xS; suppressing poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage; and activating Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. CXCR2 stimulated angiogenesis by increasing levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and decreasing levels of thrombospondin-1, a process likely involving mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-κB. Overexpression of CXCR2 in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas was an independent prognostic factor of poor overall survival (P < 0.001) and of early relapse (P = 0.003) in the univariate analysis.
Our data provide strong evidence that CXCR2 regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis through multiple signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB, in ovarian cancer. CXCR2 thus has potential as a therapeutic target and for use in ovarian cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Late life depression is prevalent in older adults who are dependent on opiates. Depressive disorders among opiate abusers have detrimental effects on their well-being and ability to refrain from illegal drugs. There are numerous barriers to the provision of appropriate mental health care to older adults receiving methadone maintenance treatment. This article focuses on problem solving therapy (PST) and presents evidence that PST may be a promising non-pharmacological treatment for older methadone clients with comorbid depressive disorders that can be applied within the staffing and resource limits of methadone maintenance treatment facilities. The advantages of PST relative to other behavioral therapies for this population are based on evidence that PST is less cognitively demanding for an older adult population with mood and substance use disorders. A properly modified PST for an older adult substance dependent population with subsyndromal or diagnosed depression may be a viable option for methadone maintenance programs with limited resources.
Stigma associated with mental illness continues to be a significant barrier to help seeking, leading to negative attitudes about mental health treatment and deterring individuals who need services from seeking care. This study examined the impact of public stigma (negative attitudes held by the public) and internalized stigma (negative attitudes held by stigmatized individuals about themselves) on racial differences in treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors among older adults with depression.
Random digit dialing was utilized to identify a representative sample of 248 African American and White adults older adults (over the age of 60) with depression (symptoms assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9). Telephone based surveys were conducted to assess their treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors, and the factors that impacted these behaviors.
Depressed older adult participants endorsed a high level of public stigma and were not likely to be currently engaged in, nor did they intend to seek mental health treatment. Results also suggested that African American older adults were more likely to internalize stigma and endorsed less positive attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment than their White counterparts. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma partially mediated the relationship between race and attitudes toward treatment.
Stigma associated with having a mental illness has a negative influence on attitudes and intentions toward seeking mental health services among older adults with depression, particularly African American elders. Interventions to target internalized stigma are needed to help engage this population in psychosocial mental health treatments.
Stigma; Depression; Treatment; Aging
This study examines how underrepresented older urban and rural-dwelling individuals conceptualize participation in cognitive impairment studies. Nine focus groups were held with urban and rural-dwelling older adults who had participated in a community-based memory screening study. Expected and experienced benefits of research participation were motivators for study participation in all focus groups. Results indicate that participation in memory research was believed to lead to an understanding of memory function. Focus group participants expressed an active interest in research on dementia, and viewed research participation as a way to address memory concerns and provide a benefit to society.
underrepresented older adults; research participation; dementia; mild cognitive impairment; focus groups
F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans are positive in any condition which increases metabolism in a mass or tissue and are therefore not specific for neoplastic conditions. The use of an SUV cutoff value of 2.5 may not always help discriminate between benign and malignant cases. For a practicing cytopathologist doing adequacy checks during an image-guided procedure, it may be of value to be aware that elevated SUV values are not always indicative of a malignant process, and vice versa.
Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the effects of depression, however, they are less likely to seek and engage in mental health treatment. African-American older adults are even less likely than their White counterparts to seek and engage in mental health treatment. This qualitative study examined the experience of being depressed among African-American elders and their perceptions of barriers confronted when contemplating seeking mental health services. In addition, we examined how coping strategies are utilized by African-American elders who choose not to seek professional mental health services.
A total of 37 interviews were conducted with African-American elders endorsing at least mild symptoms of depression. Interviews were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Content analysis was utilized to analyze the qualitative data.
Thematic analysis of the interviews with African-American older adults is presented within three areas: (1) Beliefs about Depression Among Older African-Americans: (2) Barriers to Seeking Treatment for Older African-Americans: and (3) Cultural Coping Strategies for Depressed African-American Older Adults.
Older African-Americans in this study identified a number of experiences living in the Black community that impacted their treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors. which led to identification and utilization of more culturally endorsed coping strategies to deal with their depression. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of the stigma associated with having a mental illness and its influence on attitudes toward mental health services.
depression; beliefs/attitudes; health service use; stigma; aging
The epidemiology of malaria in urban environments is poorly characterized, yet increasingly problematic. We conducted an unmatched case–control study of risk factors for malarial anemia with high parasitemia in urban Kisumu, Kenya, from June 2002 through February 2003. Cases (n = 80) were hospital patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 8 g/dL and a Plasmodium parasite density ≥ 10,000/μL. Controls (n = 826) were healthy respondents to a concurrent citywide knowledge, attitude, and practice survey. Children who reported spending at least one night per month in a rural area were especially at risk (35% of cases; odds ratio = 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4–19.7, P < 0.0001), and use of mosquito coils, bed net ownership, and house construction were non-significant, potentially indicating that malaria exposure during rural travel comprises an important element of risk. Control of severe malaria in an urban setting may be complicated by Plasmodium infections acquired elsewhere. Epidemiologic studies of urban malaria in low transmission settings should take travel history into account.
Papillary differentiation is one of the most common histological features of ovarian cancer, although the underlying mechanism that leads to such differentiation is not known. We hypothesized that human ovarian surface epithelial cells can be transformed into carcinoma with papillary differentiation by overexpressing HER2/neu in these cells. Mice were injected either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with two immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial cell lines after enforced expression of HER-2/neu. Mice subcutaneously injected with tumor cells from either the T29Nt or T80Nt developed undifferentiated carcinomas. In contrast, mice injected intraperitoneally with T29Nt cells developed papillary carcinoma, and those injected intraperitoneally with T80Nt cells developed undifferentiated carcinoma. Our results demonstrate that ovarian surface epithelial cells can develop into papillary carcinoma in mice, and that the induction of papillary differentiation depends not only on specific genetic modifications but also on the tumor microenvironment and epithelial cell type from ovary from different patients.
high grade serous carcinoma; HER2/neu; human ovarian surface epithelial cells; transformation
Serous carcinoma is the most common type of epithelial ovarian cancer. In this review, we provide a comprehensive picture of ovarian serous cancers from multiple aspects: the first part of this review summarizes the morphological, histological, and immunological signatures of ovarian serous carcinoma; subsequently, we review the history of the evolvement of different grading systems used in ovarian serous cancer; in the end, we focus on characterizing the genetics that underlie the 2-tiered pathways through which ovarian serous cancers are believed to arise: the low-grade and the high-grade pathways.
ovarian carcinoma; grading; morphology; molecular genetics; tumorigenesis