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1.  Anticipating Explanations in Relative Clause Processing 
Cognition  2011;118(3):339-358.
We show that comprehenders’ expectations about upcoming discourse coherence relations influence the resolution of local structural ambiguity. We employ cases in which two clauses share both a syntactic relationship and a discourse relationship, and hence in which syntactic and discourse processing might be expected to interact. An off-line sentence-completion study and an on-line self-paced reading study examined readers’ expectations for high/low relative clause attachments following implicit-causality and non-implicit-causality verbs (John detests/babysits the children of the musician who…). In the off-line study, the widely reported low-attachment preference for English is observed in the non-implicit causality condition, but this preference gives way to more high attachments in the implicit causality condition in cases in which (i) the verb’s causally implicated referent occupies the high-attachment position and (ii) the relative clause provides an explanation for the event described by the matrix clause (e.g., …who are arrogant and rude). In the on-line study, a similar preference for high attachment emerges in the implicit causality context—crucially, before the occurrence of any linguistic evidence that the RC does in fact provide an explanation—whereas the low-attachment preference is consistent elsewhere. These findings constitute the first demonstration that expectations about ensuing discourse coherence relationships can elicit full reversals in syntactic attachment preferences, and that these discourse-level expectations can affect on-line disambiguation as rapidly as lexical and morphosyntactic cues.
PMCID: PMC3117981  PMID: 21216396
Discourse Processing; Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguity; Implicit Causality; Coherence Relations
2.  ramR Mutations in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae with Reduced Susceptibility to Tigecycline▿  
Five Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline (MIC, 2 μg/ml) were analyzed. A gene homologous to ramR of Salmonella enterica was identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sequencing of ramR in the nonsusceptible Klebsiella strains revealed deletions, insertions, and point mutations. Transformation of mutants with wild-type ramR genes, but not with mutant ramR genes, restored susceptibility to tigecycline and repressed overexpression of ramA and acrB. Thus, this study reveals a molecular mechanism for tigecycline resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC2876394  PMID: 20350947
3.  Combined ramR Mutation and Presence of a Tn1721-Associated tet(A) Variant in a Clinical Isolate of Salmonella enterica Serovar Hadar Resistant to Tigecycline ▿  
A Salmonella enterica serovar Hadar strain resistant to tigecycline (MIC, 16 μg/ml) was isolated. Molecular characterization revealed the presence of a plasmid-borne tet(A) variant associated with Tn1721 mediating a rise of the MIC for tigecycline when transferred to Escherichia coli. Additionally, a truncating mutation in ramR was detected. Transformation with wild-type ramR but not with the mutated ramR lowered the MIC for tigecycline. Characterization of this Salmonella isolate implicates ramR in resistance to tigecycline.
PMCID: PMC2826014  PMID: 20028818
4.  Sample taking problems in measuring actual histamine levels of human gastroduodenal mucosa: specific and general relevance in clinical trials on peptic ulcer pathogenesis and selective proximal vagotomy. 
Gut  1985;26(11):1165-1178.
Changes in histamine storage in the oxyntic mucosa of duodenal ulcer patients and their reversal by vagotomy and the histamine H2-antagonist cimetidine supported the hypothesis that histamine could be a causal factor in peptic ulcer pathogenesis. The specificity of these findings was impaired by problems in biopsy taking, however, and in the preparative steps before measuring the actual histamine contents in all parts of the gastric mucosa and in the duodenum. A prospective trial was carried out in 190 patients to identify these sources of bias and to overcome them by appropriate study designs. Usually a direct correlation was found between weight of biopsy and mucosal histamine content. This problem was solved by selecting a biopsy forceps producing smaller variations in sample size, by limiting the time of cold ischaemia to four to five minutes only and by taking three biopsy specimens for each single histamine value. The actual histamine content of mucosal biopsies remained constant for about four to five minutes only. The 'disappearance' rate was faster in control subjects than in duodenal ulcer patients. Hence by variation of the cold ischaemia time any artefacts of differences between mucosal histamine levels in controls and duodenal ulcer patients could be produced. Using the optimised sample taking procedure mucosal histamine contents of several gastric regions and the duodenal bulb were measured in 24 patients with duodenal ulcer, after selective proximal vagotomy without drainage and in control subjects without any stomach disease (randomised controlled trial). The histamine content was lower in all parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract in duodenal ulcer patients than in controls and was raised again in all regions after selective proximal vagotomy. As the most likely hypothesis it is suggested that vagal reflexes with afferent fibres coming from the oxyntic mucosa stimulate histamine release in duodenal ulcer patients by efferent peptidergic neurones to all parts of the stomach and the duodenum where the ulcer lesion is situated.
PMCID: PMC1432911  PMID: 3905529
5.  Alterations of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities in the immature quail oviduct in response to estrogen stimulation. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1975;2(11):2101-2109.
Administration of diethylstilbestrol, an estrogen analogue, to immature female quails causes an increase of extractable DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities from the oviduct. At least two forms of polymerases have been determined, a high molecular weight polymerase (210,000 daltons) and a low molecular weight polymerase (34,000 daltons) calculated from column chromatography Sephadex G-200. During the primary hormone stimulation the amount of extractable enzyme reaches a maximum on the fifth day after daily injections of the hormone. In the period of withdrawal the activities decrease and reach values similar to those determined in the unstimulated oviducts. During secondary stimulation the polymerase activities increase again the first day; subsequently the values decrease drastically. The alterations in enzyme activity correlate with the DNA synthesis in the oviduct, as measured by analytical determination of the DNA content.
PMCID: PMC343576  PMID: 1052532

Results 1-5 (5)