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1.  Intranasal sufentanil/midazolam versus ketamine/midazolam for analgesia/sedation in the pediatric population prior to undergoing multiple dental extractions under general anesthesia: a prospective, double-blind, randomized comparison. 
Anesthesia Progress  2004;51(4):114-121.
This article details a double-blind, randomized study evaluating the efficacy and safety of intranasal sufentanil and intranasal midazolam (S/M) when compared with intranasal ketamine and intranasal midazolam (K/M) for sedation and analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing dental surgery. Fifty healthy ASA status 1 children aged 5-7 years, weighing 15-20 kg, and having 6 or more teeth extracted, were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 25 patients each (n = 50). In the S/M group, 25 children received intranasal sufentanil 20 microg, and intranasal midazolam 0.3 mg/kg 20 minutes before the induction of anesthesia. In the K/M group, 25 children received intranasal ketamine 5 mg/kg and intranasal midazolam 0.3 mg/kg 20 minutes before the induction of anesthesia. Sevoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. This study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of both methods with ease of administration, combined with a rapid onset of action. Both groups were equally sedated. A smooth mask induction of anesthesia was experienced in the majority of children. Effective postoperative analgesia for multiple dental extractions was provided. The intranasal administration of drugs for sedation and analgesia has some promising features in preschool children undergoing multiple dental extractions.
PMCID: PMC2007493  PMID: 15675259
2.  An evaluation of analgesic efficacy and clinical acceptability of intravenous tramadol as an adjunct to propofol sedation for third molar surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  2003;50(3):121-128.
This article details a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluating the analgesic efficacy and clinical acceptability of intravenous tramadol in patients undergoing surgical removal of an impacted third molar tooth under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation with propofol. Forty-five ASA status 1 dental outpatients were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 22 (group A) and 23 (group B) patients each (n = 45). Group A (T/P) received intravenous tramadol 1.5 mg/kg injected over 2 minutes, followed by a bolus dose of intravenous propofol 0.4 mg/ kg. Maintenance consisted of a continuous infusion of propofol 3 mg/kg/h, with an additional bolus dose of 0.4 mg/kg intravenously 2-3 minutes prior to the infiltration of the local anesthetic solution. Group B (P/P) patients received no tramadol but instead a saline placebo solution and an identical amount of propofol. Overall, in this study, postoperative pain was much better controlled in the group receiving tramadol 1.5 mg/kg intravenously despite there being no significant difference in the dose of propofol administered in both groups. Intravenous tramadol, when given with propofol, did not affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, and sedative effects of propofol. Following tramadol, despite being an opioid, no nausea and vomiting were reported in the early postoperative period, indicating the value of using tramadol with propofol. Thus, this pilot study demonstrated the potential use of intravenous tramadol with propofol in day-case dento-alveolar surgery.
PMCID: PMC2007436  PMID: 14558587
3.  Pharmacokinetics of oral tramadol drops for postoperative pain relief in children aged 4 to 7 years--a pilot study. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(4):109-112.
Tramadol hydrochloride is an analgesic with mu receptor activity suitable for administration to children as oral drops. As the serum concentration profile and pharmacokinetic parameters in young children are not known via this route, we studied 24 healthy ASA 1 children to determine those parameters. The children's mean age was 5.3 +/- 1.1 years and their mean weight was 17.8 +/- 3.1 kg. They underwent general anesthesia with sevoflurane for dental surgery. The mean duration of anesthesia was 27.9 +/- 10.1 minutes. Tramadol 1.5 mg/kg (this dose was chosen because we have previously shown it to be effective in providing analgesia following pediatric dental surgery) was administered as oral drops 30 minutes before anesthesia. Venous blood samples were taken following the tramadol at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours, every 2 hours for 6 hours, and every 4 hours for 12 hours. The samples were centrifuged and the serum stored at -20 degrees C, and nonstereoselective gas chromatography was used to determine the concentration of (+) and (-) tramadol enantiomers plus their o-demethyltramadol (M1) metabolite concentrations. The tramadol absorption was rapid, the maximum measured serum concentration present occurring before the first sample at 30 minutes. That first sample had a concentration of 352 +/- 83.4 ng/mL. The concentration remained above the 100 ng/mL analgesic level until 6.8 +/- 0.9 hours. The elimination half-life was 3.6 +/- 1.1 hours, the serum clearance 5.6 +/- 2.7 mL/kg/min, and the volume of distribution 4.1 +/- 1.2 L/kg. The (+) enantiomer concentration was 14.2 +/- 4.9% greater than that of the (-) enantiomer. The M1 metabolites had a (-) enantiomer concentration 92.3 +/- 75.1% greater than the (+) enantiomer. From the peak concentration at 4.5 +/- 1.5 hours, the concentration of the metabolite was approximately one third that of the parent drug. The M1 elimination half-life was 5.8 +/- 1.7 hours. Apart from the rapid rise in the serum concentration, these kinetic parameters are similar to those seen in healthy young adults. The concentration profile supports an effective clinical duration in the region of 7 hours.
PMCID: PMC2007413  PMID: 12779111
4.  Tramadol drops in children: analgesic efficacy, lack of respiratory effects, and normal recovery times. 
Anesthesia Progress  1999;46(3):91-96.
Tramadol hydrochloride is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers. It has analgesic activity suitable for mild to moderate pain, part of its analgesic activity being modulated via mu receptors. Adult studies have raised the question of increased electroencephalographic activity. The study examined the analgesic efficacy, respiratory effects, and behavior plus recovery-influencing properties of tramadol in the pediatric patient. Day-case dental extraction children, aged 4-7 years having 6 or more extractions, were studied. Tramadol drops, 3 mg/kg, plus oral midazolam, 0.5 mg/kg, were administered 30 minutes prior to a sevoflurane in N2O and O2 anesthetic. Forty children received this premedication treatment (T) and 10 entered a placebo control group (P), where no tramadol was administered. Entry was random, double blind, and parallel. Analgesic efficacy was measured using the Oucher face pain scale (OFPS), with responders scoring three or less. Respiration was measured by rate and oxygen saturation. Behavior and ease of mask induction were assessed on a 4-point scale. Recovery was measured with the Aldrete scale. Parameters were measured from 30 minute preanesthetic to 120 minute postanesthetic. Analgesic efficacy was shown, with an OFPS score of 11.42 (SD 18.66) (T) and 29.80 (SD 25.14) (P) (P < .05). Responders on tramadol were 77.5% versus 0% on placebo (P < .05). No respiratory depression was seen; rates and oxygen saturations were the same preanesthetic and postanesthetic. Similarly, the two groups had no cardiovascular differences. Preanesthetic behavior patterns were the same (P > .05), with 85% of the tramadol group being drowsy but awake versus 90% in the placebo group. Similarly satisfactory induction behavior was seen in 95% of the tramadol group and 90% of the placebo group. Recovery times were 48.6 minutes (SD 32.3) (T) and 43.1 minutes (SD 32.5) (P) (P > .05). It is concluded that tramadol at 3 mg/kg has no clinical respiratory depressant effect and that behavior and recovery times are unaffected. Analgesic efficacy is demonstrated.
PMCID: PMC2148993  PMID: 11692348
5.  A double blind randomized comparison of oral trimeprazine-methadone and ketamine-midazolam for sedation of pediatric dental patients for oral surgical procedures. 
Anesthesia Progress  1998;45(1):3-11.
The safety and efficacy of an oral sedation technique for children having minor oral surgical procedures under local anesthesia were studied. One hundred healthy children between the ages of 2 and 7 yr received either a combination of midazolam (0.35 mg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg) (Group A), or a combination of trimeprazine (3 mg/kg) and methadone (0.2 mg/kg) (Group B) 30 min preoperatively. Hemodynamic parameters, adverse reactions, postoperative recovery, and behavior were evaluated. More children were asleep, but rousable to verbal commands, 30 min after drug administration in Group A (40%) than in Group B (8%). Immediately before the dental procedure, 46% of children in Group A were asleep in contrast to 8% of children in group B. Significantly more children in Group A were awake, coughing, crying, and moving purposefully 30 and 60 min after admission to the recovery room. Two children (4%) in Group A vomited. Ten (20%) children in Group A hallucinated compared to none in Group B. The surgeon rated the procedure as good or very good in 94% of children in Group A compared to 78% in Group B. Our results show that the combination of midazolam and ketamine, administered orally, is a safe, effective, and practical approach to managing children for minor oral surgical procedures under local anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC2148942  PMID: 9790003
6.  Oxygen desaturation in a child receiving a combination of ketamine and midazolam for dental extractions. 
Anesthesia Progress  1997;44(2):68-70.
A combination of 0.35 mg/kg midazolam and 5 mg/kg ketamine, administered orally for pediatric sedation, resulted in a severe decreases in blood oxygen saturation postoperatively. The patient, a 2-yr-old child, did not respond to command or mild physical stimulation in the recovery room 60 min after receiving the drugs. The benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (0.01 mg/kg), was administered intravenously to reverse the action of midazolam. No adverse effects were observed thereafter, and the postoperative recovery was uneventful. Combining different classes of drugs may result in less variability in patients response, but there is a greater potential for drug-induced side effects and drug interactions.
PMCID: PMC2148828  PMID: 9481964
7.  Anesthetic management of a patient with Bartter's syndrome undergoing orthognathic surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  1997;44(2):71-75.
Bartter's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by severe hypokalemic alkalosis, marked elevation in plasma renin activity, pressor insensitivity to angiotensin II, and normal or low values of plasma sodium, plasma chloride, and blood pressure. Many of the clinical features and biochemical abnormalities appear to be secondary to chronic hypokalemia. We managed a 22-yr-old man requiring orthognathic surgery for correction of facial asymmetry under general anesthesia.
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PMCID: PMC2148826  PMID: 9481965
8.  Analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of tenoxicam and diclofenac sodium after third molar surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  1996;43(4):103-107.
Tenoxicam and diclofenac sodium were compared with each other for analgesic efficacy following removal of third molars under general anesthesia. Thirty-five healthy patients between the ages of 18 and 28 yr were randomly allocated to two groups to participate in this study. Patients in Group A (n = 17) received a single intravenous injection of tenoxicam 40 mg at induction of anesthesia, followed by a 20-mg tablet given in the evening of the day of the operation and thereafter, one 20-mg tablet daily from days 2 to 7. Group B (n = 18) received a single intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium 75 mg at induction of anesthesia, followed by a 50-mg tablet 4 to 6 hr after the operation and again, between 2100 hr and 2200 hr the same day. Thereafter, a 50-mg tablet was taken 3 times daily for the next 6 days. Pain was measured hourly for the first 4 hr postoperatively, then at 21 hr, and thereafter in the morning and the evenings on days 2 to 7. The highest pain scores were obtained 1 hr postoperatively for both trial groups. At 1 and 2 hr postoperatively, no statistical significant differences in pain scores could be shown for both groups. However, at 3 and 4 hr postoperatively, patients in the tenoxicam group experienced significantly (P < or = 0.05) less pain than those in the diclofenac sodium group. On the evening of the third postoperative day, the tenoxicam group of patients experienced significantly less pain (P < or = 0.05) than those in the diclofenac sodium group. This was again the case on the morning of the fourth postoperative day. On the fifth, sixth, and seventh postoperative days, the average pain scores for patients in the tenoxicam group were statistically significantly lower, both mornings and evenings, than those in the diclofenac sodium group of patients (P = 0.05).
PMCID: PMC2148775  PMID: 10323115
9.  Propofol for sedation in a mentally retarded dental patient. 
Anesthesia Progress  1994;41(3):81-82.
A 21-yr-old mentally retarded and cardiovascularly compromised woman who required dental restorative work and extractions was admitted to our clinic. We had previously successfully sedated her with propofol and midazolam. In this case she was sedated with a 1% propofol solution administered initially at a rate of 8 mg/kg-hr. After 5 min, the infusion rate was lowered to 5 mg/kg-hr, and after the local anesthetic injection, was adjusted to 3 mg/kg-hr. After 15 min, the patient became restless, and the propofol infusion rate was again increased to 5 mg/kg-hr. The patient's airway was well maintained during the entire procedure; she remained well sedated, and no adverse effects were experienced.
PMCID: PMC2148817  PMID: 8934965
11.  Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol for thymectomy in a patient with myasthenia gravis. 
Anesthesia Progress  1993;40(4):127-129.
Experience with the use of propofol for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in patients with myasthenia gravis is limited. This case report documents the safe use of propofol in a patient with myasthenia gravis. Because of its unique pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile, propofol may be an ideal agent for safe use in the young patient with myasthenia gravis.
PMCID: PMC2148581  PMID: 7943922
12.  Serum potassium after enflurane-succinylcholine induction of anesthesia in children receiving rectal midazolam as premedication. 
Anesthesia Progress  1992;39(3):69-72.
The administration of succinylcholine causes an increase in serum potassium (K+) concentrations in healthy patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate serum K+ changes following intravenous succinylcholine in children and to evaluate the effect of rectal midazolam pretreatment on these changes. Forty healthy children between the ages of 2 and 7 yr, and who were to undergo oral surgical procedures under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (saline) or 0.25, 0.35, or 0.45 mg/kg midazolam administered rectally as premedication 30 min before induction of inhalational anesthesia. Blood was drawn after induction with enflurane and at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min after administration of 1 mg/kg succinylcholine to determine changes in serum K+. Although the results indicate a significant increase in serum K+ after succinylcholine in all groups, midazolam pretreatment failed to cause any observable attenuation in the hyperkalemic response.
PMCID: PMC2148751  PMID: 1308375
13.  Propofol and midazolam for conscious sedation in a mentally retarded dental patient. 
Anesthesia Progress  1992;39(1-2):36-37.
Conscious sedation was provided for a 21-yr-old mentally retarded and cardiovascularly compromised women who required dental extractions, by initially infusing propofol (3 mg/kg/hr), augmented with a bolus dose of intravenous midazolam (1 mg). After 45 min the propofol infusion rate was reduced to 1 mg/kg/hr. The patient remained well-sedated during the entire procedure and no adverse effects were experienced.
PMCID: PMC2148717  PMID: 8507022
14.  An anaphylactic reaction to protamine sulfate. 
Anesthesia Progress  1991;38(3):99-100.
Presented is a case in which protamine sulfate administration caused an immediate allergic-like reaction. The patient, a 50-year-old woman, had received protamine previously to reverse the anticoagulant effect of heparin after open heart surgery. In a similar operation 7 years later, protamine was used again for the same reason. Immediately following intravenous infusion of 3 mg/kg protamine sulfate, a sudden drop of the mean arterial blood pressure to 40 mm Hg occurred, and the heart rate increased from 100 to 130 beats/min. Severe angioneurotic edema of the face and trunk also developed. The reaction was successfully treated with vasopressors, steroids, and volume expansion. Subsequent skin testing revealed a positive reaction to protamine sulfate.
PMCID: PMC2161974  PMID: 1814251
16.  Arterial oxygen saturation in children receiving rectal midazolam as premedication for oral surgical procedures. 
Anesthesia Progress  1990;37(6):286-289.
Eighty healthy children, between the ages of 2 and 7 years, undergoing dental procedures were monitored with a pulse oximeter for changes in arterial oxygen saturation. The children were randomly allocated into 4 groups in this double-blind study. Three groups received rectal midazolam, and the other group a placebo (saline) as premedication 30 min prior to induction of anesthesia. Group A children received midazolam 0.25 mg/kg, Group B 0.35 mg/kg and Group C 0.45 mg/kg. The results from this trial show no statistical significant difference between the treatment groups as to the effect on either systolic or diastolic blood pressure, respiration, or pulse rates at either pre- or post-sedation levels. However, the oxygen saturation levels for groups B and C differed significantly from those of the placebo groups 30 minutes after premedication (P = 0.0259).
PMCID: PMC2162544  PMID: 2097908

Results 1-16 (16)