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1.  Trends and Disparities in Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Virologic Suppression Among Newly Treatment-Eligible HIV-Infected Individuals in North America, 2001–2009 
Hanna, David B. | Buchacz, Kate | Gebo, Kelly A. | Hessol, Nancy A. | Horberg, Michael A. | Jacobson, Lisa P. | Kirk, Gregory D. | Kitahata, Mari M. | Korthuis, P. Todd | Moore, Richard D. | Napravnik, Sonia | Patel, Pragna | Silverberg, Michael J. | Sterling, Timothy R. | Willig, James H. | Lau, Bryan | Althoff, Keri N. | Crane, Heidi M. | Collier, Ann C. | Samji, Hasina | Thorne, Jennifer E. | Gill, M. John | Klein, Marina B. | Martin, Jeffrey N. | Rodriguez, Benigno | Rourke, Sean B. | Gange, Stephen J. | Benson, A. | Bosch, Ronald J. | Collier, Ann C. | Boswell, Stephen | Grasso, Chris | Mayer, Ken | Hogg, Robert S. | Harrigan, Richard | Montaner, Julio | Cescon, Angela | Brooks, John T. | Buchacz, Kate | Gebo, Kelly A. | Moore, Richard D. | Rodriguez, Benigno | Horberg, Michael A. | Silverberg, Michael J. | Thorne, Jennifer E. | Goedert, James J. | Jacobson, Lisa P. | Klein, Marina B. | Rourke, Sean B. | Burchell, Ann | Rachlis, Anita R. | Hunter-Mellado, Robert F. | Mayor, Angel M. | Gill, M. John | Deeks, Steven G. | Martin, Jeffrey N. | Saag, Michael S. | Mugavero, Michael J. | Willig, James | Eron, Joseph J. | Napravnik, Sonia | Kitahata, Mari M. | Crane, Heidi M. | Justice, Amy C. | Dubrow, Robert | Fiellin, David | Sterling, Timothy R. | Haas, David | Bebawy, Sally | Turner, Megan | Gange, Stephen J. | Anastos, Kathryn | Moore, Richard D. | Saag, Michael S. | Gange, Stephen J. | Kitahata, Mari M. | McKaig, Rosemary G. | Justice, Amy C. | Freeman, Aimee M. | Moore, Richard D. | Freeman, Aimee M. | Lent, Carol | Platt, Aaron | Kitahata, Mari M. | Van Rompaey, Stephen E. | Crane, Heidi M. | Webster, Eric | Morton, Liz | Simon, Brenda | Gange, Stephen J. | Abraham, Alison G. | Lau, Bryan | Althoff, Keri N. | Zhang, Jinbing | Jing, Jerry | Golub, Elizabeth | Modur, Shari | Hanna, David B. | Rebeiro, Peter | Wong, Cherise | Mendes, Adell
In the last decade, timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy and resulting virologic suppression have greatly improved in North America concurrent with the development of better tolerated and more potent regimens, but significant barriers to treatment uptake remain.
Background. Since the mid-1990s, effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have improved in potency, tolerability, ease of use, and class diversity. We sought to examine trends in treatment initiation and resulting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virologic suppression in North America between 2001 and 2009, and demographic and geographic disparities in these outcomes.
Methods. We analyzed data on HIV-infected individuals newly clinically eligible for ART (ie, first reported CD4+ count <350 cells/µL or AIDS-defining illness, based on treatment guidelines during the study period) from 17 North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design cohorts. Outcomes included timely ART initiation (within 6 months of eligibility) and virologic suppression (≤500 copies/mL, within 1 year). We examined time trends and considered differences by geographic location, age, sex, transmission risk, race/ethnicity, CD4+ count, and viral load, and documented psychosocial barriers to ART initiation, including non–injection drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and mental illness.
Results. Among 10 692 HIV-infected individuals, the cumulative incidence of 6-month ART initiation increased from 51% in 2001 to 72% in 2009 (Ptrend < .001). The cumulative incidence of 1-year virologic suppression increased from 55% to 81%, and among ART initiators, from 84% to 93% (both Ptrend < .001). A greater number of psychosocial barriers were associated with decreased ART initiation, but not virologic suppression once ART was initiated. We found significant heterogeneity by state or province of residence (P < .001).
Conclusions. In the last decade, timely ART initiation and virologic suppression have greatly improved in North America concurrent with the development of better-tolerated and more potent regimens, but significant barriers to treatment uptake remain, both at the individual level and systemwide.
doi:10.1093/cid/cit003
PMCID: PMC3657490  PMID: 23315317
antiretroviral therapy; healthcare disparities; HIV; time factors; viral load
2.  Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of Repeated Doses of DermaVir, a Candidate Therapeutic HIV Vaccine, in HIV Infected Patients Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. Results of the ACTG 5176 Trial 
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)  2013;64(4):10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182a99590.
Background
HIV-specific cellular immune responses are associated with control of viremia and delayed disease progression. An effective therapeutic vaccine could mimic these effects and reduce the need for continued antiretroviral therapy. DermaVir, a topically administered pDNA-nanomedicine expressing HIV (CladeB) virus-like particles consisting of 15 antigens, induces predominantly central memory T-cell responses.
Methods
Treated HIV-infected adults (HIV RNA<50, CD4>350) were randomized to placebo or escalating DermaVir doses (0.1 or 0.4 mg pDNA at weeks 1/7/13 in the low and intermediate-dose groups, 0.8 mg at weeks 0/1/6/7/12/13 in the high-dose group), n=5–6 evaluable subjects/group. Immunogenicity was assessed by a 12-day cultured IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, at baseline and at 9/17/37 weeks, using one Tat/Rev and three overlapping Gag peptide pools (p17/p24/p15).
Results
Groups were comparable at baseline. The study intervention was well tolerated, without dose-limiting toxicities. Most responses were highest at week 17 (4 weeks after last vaccination), when Gag p24 responses were significantly greater among intermediate-dose compared to control subjects (median [IQR]: 67,600 [5,633 – 74,368] vs. 1,194 [9 – 1,667] net spot-forming units/million cells, p = 0.032. In the intermediate-dose group, there was also a marginal Gag p15 response increase from baseline to week 17 (2859 [1867 – 56933], p=0.06), and this change was significantly greater than in the placebo group (0 [−713 – 297], p=0.016).
Conclusions
DermaVIr administration was associated with a trend toward greater HIV-specific, predominantly central memory T-cell responses. The intermediate DermaVir dose tended to show the greatest immunogenicity, consistent with previous studies in different HIV-infected patient populations.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182a99590
PMCID: PMC3858388  PMID: 24169120
DermaVir; CTL responses; HIV therapeutic vaccines; HIV-specific immune response
3.  Hepatitis C Viremia and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV-Infected Individuals 
Lucas, Gregory M. | Jing, Yuezhou | Sulkowski, Mark | Abraham, Alison G. | Estrella, Michelle M. | Atta, Mohamed G. | Fine, Derek M. | Klein, Marina B. | Silverberg, Michael J. | Gill, M. John | Moore, Richard D. | Gebo, Kelly A. | Sterling, Timothy R. | Butt, Adeel A. | Kirk, Gregory D. | Benson, Constance A. | Bosch, Ronald J. | Collier, Ann C. | Boswell, Stephen | Grasso, Chris | Mayer, Ken | Hogg, Robert S. | Harrigan, Richard | Montaner, Julio | Cescon, Angela | Brooks, John T. | Buchacz, Kate | Gebo, Kelly A. | Moore, Richard D. | Carey, John T. | Rodriguez, Benigno | Horberg, Michael A. | Silverberg, Michael J. | Horberg, Michael A. | Thorne, Jennifer E. | Goedert, James J. | Jacobson, Lisa P. | Klein, Marina B. | Rourke, Sean B. | Burchell, Ann | Rachlis, Anita R. | Rico, Puerto | Hunter-Mellado, Robert F. | Mayor, Angel M. | Gill, M. John | Deeks, Steven G. | Martin, Jeffrey N. | Patel, Pragna | Brooks, John T. | Saag, Michael S. | Mugavero, Michael J. | Willig, James | Eron, Joseph J. | Napravnik, Sonia | Kitahata, Mari M. | Crane, Heidi M. | Justice, Amy C. | Dubrow, Robert | Fiellin, David | Sterling, Timothy R. | Haas, David | Bebawy, Sally | Turner, Megan | Gange, Stephen J. | Anastos, Kathryn | Moore, Richard D. | Saag, Michael S. | Gange, Stephen J. | Kitahata, Mari M. | McKaig, Rosemary G. | Justice, Amy C. | Freeman, Aimee M. | Moore, Richard D. | Freeman, Aimee M. | Lent, Carol | Kitahata, Mari M. | Van Rompaey, Stephen E. | Crane, Heidi M. | Webster, Eric | Morton, Liz | Simon, Brenda | Gange, Stephen J. | Althoff, Keri N. | Abraham, Alison G. | Lau, Bryan | Zhang, Jinbing | Jing, Jerry | Golub, Elizabeth | Modur, Shari | Hanna, David B. | Rebeiro, Peter | Wong, Cherise | Mendes, Adell
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;208(8):1240-1249.
Background. The role of active hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk has not been clarified.
Methods. We compared CKD incidence in a large cohort of HIV-infected subjects who were HCV seronegative, HCV viremic (detectable HCV RNA), or HCV aviremic (HCV seropositive, undetectable HCV RNA). Stages 3 and 5 CKD were defined according to standard criteria. Progressive CKD was defined as a sustained 25% glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decrease from baseline to a GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We used Cox models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results. A total of 52 602 HCV seronegative, 9508 HCV viremic, and 913 HCV aviremic subjects were included. Compared with HCV seronegative subjects, HCV viremic subjects were at increased risk for stage 3 CKD (adjusted HR 1.36 [95% CI, 1.26, 1.46]), stage 5 CKD (1.95 [1.64, 2.31]), and progressive CKD (1.31 [1.19, 1.44]), while HCV aviremic subjects were also at increased risk for stage 3 CKD (1.19 [0.98, 1.45]), stage 5 CKD (1.69 [1.07, 2.65]), and progressive CKD (1.31 [1.02, 1.68]).
Conclusions. Compared with HIV-infected subjects who were HCV seronegative, both HCV viremic and HCV aviremic individuals were at increased risk for moderate and advanced CKD.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jit373
PMCID: PMC3778973  PMID: 23904290
HIV; hepatitis C virus; chronic kidney disease; hepatitis C RNA; cohort study; glomerular filtration rate; injection drug use
4.  Incidence and Timing of Cancer in HIV-Infected Individuals Following Initiation of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy 
Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma rates were highest immediately after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, particularly among patients with low CD4 cell counts, whereas other cancers increased with time on ART. Calendar year of ART initiation was not associated with subsequent cancer incidence.
Background
Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but patterns of cancer incidence after combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation remain poorly characterized.
Methods
We evaluated the incidence and timing of cancer diagnoses among patients initiating ART between 1996 and 2011 in a collaboration of 8 US clinical HIV cohorts. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rates. Cox regression was used to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with cancer incidence after ART initiation.
Results
At initiation of first combination ART among 11 485 patients, median year was 2004 (interquartile range [IQR], 2000–2007) and median CD4 count was 202 cells/mm3 (IQR, 61–338). Incidence rates for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and lymphomas were highest in the first 6 months after ART initiation (P < .001) and plateaued thereafter, while incidence rates for all other cancers combined increased from 416 to 615 cases per 100 000 person-years from 1 to 10 years after ART initiation (average 7% increase per year; 95% confidence interval, 2%–13%). Lower CD4 count at ART initiation was associated with greater risk of KS, lymphoma, and human papillomavirus–related cancer. Calendar year of ART initiation was not associated with cancer incidence.
Conclusions
KS and lymphoma rates were highest immediately following ART initiation, particularly among patients with low CD4 cell counts, whereas other cancers increased with time on ART, likely reflecting increased cancer risk with aging. Our results underscore recommendations for earlier HIV diagnosis followed by prompt ART initiation along with ongoing aggressive cancer screening and prevention efforts throughout the course of HIV care.
doi:10.1093/cid/cit369
PMCID: PMC3739467  PMID: 23735330
HIV-associated malignancies; AIDS-defining cancer; non-AIDS-defining cancer; combination antiretroviral therapy
5.  HIV Pathogenesis: The Host 
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis has proven to be quite complex and dynamic with most of the critical events (e.g., transmission, CD4+ T-cell destruction) occurring in mucosal tissues. In addition, although the resulting disease can progress over years, it is clear that many critical events happen within the first few weeks of infection when most patients are unaware that they are infected. These events occur predominantly in tissues other than the peripheral blood, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, where massive depletion of CD4+ T cells occurs long before adverse consequences of HIV infection are otherwise apparent. Profound insights into these early events have been gained through the use of nonhuman primate models, which offer the opportunity to examine the early stages of infection with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a close relative of HIV that induces an indistinguishable clinical picture from AIDS in Asian primate species, but importantly, fails to cause disease in its natural African hosts, such as sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys. This article draws from data derived from both human and nonhuman primate studies.
During the first few weeks of HIV infection, massive depletion of CD4+ T cells occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a leaky gut.
doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a007005
PMCID: PMC3426821  PMID: 22951442
6.  Temporal Trends in Presentation and Survival for HIV-Associated Lymphoma in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era 
Background
Lymphoma is the leading cause of cancer-related death among HIV-infected patients in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era.
Methods
We studied lymphoma patients in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems from 1996 until 2010. We examined differences stratified by histology and diagnosis year. Mortality and predictors of death were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards.
Results
Of 23 050 HIV-infected individuals, 476 (2.1%) developed lymphoma (79 [16.6%] Hodgkin lymphoma [HL]; 201 [42.2%] diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [DLBCL]; 56 [11.8%] Burkitt lymphoma [BL]; 54 [11.3%] primary central nervous system lymphoma [PCNSL]; and 86 [18.1%] other non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL]). At diagnosis, HL patients had higher CD4 counts and lower HIV RNA than NHL patients. PCNSL patients had the lowest and BL patients had the highest CD4 counts among NHL categories. During the study period, CD4 count at lymphoma diagnosis progressively increased and HIV RNA decreased. Five-year survival was 61.6% for HL, 50.0% for BL, 44.1% for DLBCL, 43.3% for other NHL, and 22.8% for PCNSL. Mortality was associated with age (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.28 per decade increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.54), lymphoma occurrence on ART (AHR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.53 to 3.20), CD4 count (AHR = 0.81 per 100 cell/µL increase, 95% CI = 0.72 to 0.90), HIV RNA (AHR = 1.13 per log10copies/mL, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.27), and histology but not earlier diagnosis year.
Conclusions
HIV-associated lymphoma is heterogeneous and changing, with less immunosuppression and greater HIV control at diagnosis. Stable survival and increased mortality for lymphoma occurring on ART call for greater biologic insights to improve outcomes.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djt158
PMCID: PMC3748003  PMID: 23892362
7.  Plasma proteome analysis reveals overlapping, yet distinct mechanisms of immune activation in chronic HCV and HIV infections 
Background
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributes to accelerated rates of progression of liver fibrosis during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and HCV liver disease contributes to mortality during HIV infection. Although mechanisms underlying these interactions are not well known, soluble and cellular markers of immune activation associate with disease progression during both infections.
Methods
We identified proteins varying in expression across the plasma proteomes of subjects with untreated HIV infection, untreated HCV infection with low AST/platelet ratio-index (APRI), untreated HCV infection with high APRI, HIV-HCV co-infection, and controls. We examined correlations between dysregulated proteins and markers of immune activation to uncover biomarkers specific to disease states.
Results
We observed the anticipated higher frequencies of HLADR+CD38+CD4 and CD8 T-cells, higher serum sCD14 levels, and higher serum IL-6 levels for HCV and HIV infected groups compared to controls. Plasma proteome analysis identified 2,297 peptides mapping to 227 proteins, and quantitative analysis of peptide intensity identified significant changes in 85 proteins across the five groups. Abundance for seven of these proteins was validated by ELISA. Forty-three of these proteins correlated with markers of immune activation, including at least two proteins that may directly drive T-cell activation. As a functional validation, we tested the enzymatic pathway product (lysophosphatidic acid, LPA) of one such protein, ENPP2, for ability to activate T-cells in vitro. LPA activated T-cells to express CD38 and HLA-DR.
Conclusions
These data indicate elevated levels of ENPP2 and LPA during advanced HCV disease may play a role in exacerbating immune activation during HCV-HIV co-infection.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182909847
PMCID: PMC3762939  PMID: 23507661
8.  Increased Levels of Human Beta-Defensins mRNA in Sexually HIV-1 Exposed But Uninfected Individuals 
Current HIV research  2008;6(6):531-538.
Protection against HIV-1 infection in exposed seronegative (ESN) individuals likely involves natural resistance mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Human beta defensins (HBD) are antimicrobial peptides found primarily in mucosae, the main ports of HIV entry. HBD-2 and 3 mRNA are induced by HIV-1 in human oral epithelial cells and exhibit strong anti-HIV-1 activity; in addition, polymorphisms in the DEFB1 gene, which encodes HBD-1, have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to different infections, including HIV-1. Here, we have assessed the association of HBD expression with the ESN phenotype. Peripheral blood and vaginal/endocervical and oral mucosal samples were taken from 47 ESN, 44 seropositive (SP) and 39 healthy controls (HC). HBD-1, 2 and 3 mRNA copy numbers were quantified by real time RT-PCR and A692G/G1654A/A1836G polymorphisms in the DEFB1 gene were detected by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. ESN expressed significantly greater mRNA copy numbers of HBD-2 and 3 in oral mucosa than HC; p=0.0002 and p=0.007, respectively. mRNA copy numbers of HBD-1, 2 and 3 in vaginal/endocervical mucosa from ESN and HC were similar. Homozygosity for the A692G polymorphism was significantly more frequent in ESN (0.39) than in SP (0.05) (p=0.0002). In summary, ESN exhibited enhanced mucosal expression of the innate defense genes HBD-2 and 3; however, additional studies are required to verify these results and the potential association of the A692G polymorphism to the relative resistance of ESN to HIV-1 infection.
PMCID: PMC4126611  PMID: 18991618
HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1); human beta defensins; natural resistance; HIV-1-exposed sero-negatives; polymorphism; mucosa
9.  Accessory cell dependent NK cell mediated PBMC IFN-γ production is defective in HIV infection 
Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.)  2009;131(2):288-297.
HCV and HIV infections impair dendritic cell function. We evaluated the impact of HCV, HIV, and HCV-HIV infection on MDC–NK interactions by analyzing CD3 depleted PBMC for NK cell IFN-γ in response to IL-12 or poly (I:C). Purified MDC and NK cells were analyzed for TLR ligand-dependent, MDC-dependent NK activity. In HIV infection, IFN-γ production by CD3 depleted PBMC was reduced in response to poly (I:C), while response to IL-12 was intact in HCV and HIV infections. Poly (I:C) induced activity was dependent on MDC and partially dependent on IL-12, consistent with accessory cell help. In purified MDC–NK co-cultures, MDC dependent NK IFN-γ and Granzyme B was intact in both HCV and HIV infections, while MDC numerical defects were observed in HIV infection. These data indicate that during viral infection with HIV, accessory cell dependent NK function in the periphery is impaired. This impairment may be related to the identified MDC numerical defect.
doi:10.1016/j.clim.2008.12.012
PMCID: PMC4126614  PMID: 19196551
Human; Natural killer cell; IL-12; Dendritic cell; IFN-gamma; HIV; HCV
10.  High Levels of Antiretroviral Use and Viral Suppression among Persons in HIV Care in the United States, 2010 
Background
Contemporary data on patterns of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in the U.S. are needed to inform efforts to improve the HIV care cascade.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort who were in HIV care in 2010 to assess ART use and outcomes, stratified by nadir CD4 count (≤350, 351-500, or >500 cells/mm3), demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, substance use, and engagement in continuous care (≥2 visits ≥3 months apart in 2010).
Results
Of 8633 patients at 7 sites who had ≥1 medical visit and ≥1 viral load (VL) in 2010, 94% had ever initiated ART, 89% were on ART, and 70% had an undetectable VL at the end of 2010. Fifty percent of ART-naïve patients had nadir CD4 counts >500 cells/mm3, but this group composed just 3% of the total population. Among patients who were ART-naïve at the time of cohort entry (N=4637), both ART initiation and viral suppression were strongly associated with nadir CD4 count. Comparing 2009 and 2010, the percentages of patients with viral suppression among those with nadir CD4 counts 351-500 and >500 cells/mm3 were 44% vs. 57% and 25% vs. 33%, respectively. Engagement in care was the only factor consistently associated with ART use and viral suppression across nadir CD4 count strata.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that ART use and viral suppression among persons in HIV care may be more common than estimated in some prior studies and increased from 2009 to 2010.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182945bc7
PMCID: PMC3691075  PMID: 23572013
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; HIV Infections/drug therapy; HIV Infections/prevention & control; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data; United States
11.  HIV Pathogenesis: The Host 
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis has proven to be quite complex and dynamic with most of the critical events (e.g., transmission, CD4+ T-cell destruction) occurring in mucosal tissues. In addition, although the resulting disease can progress over years, it is clear that many critical events happen within the first few weeks of infection when most patients are unaware that they are infected. These events occur predominantly in tissues other than the peripheral blood, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, where massive depletion of CD4+ T cells occurs long before adverse consequences of HIV infection are otherwise apparent. Profound insights into these early events have been gained through the use of nonhuman primate models, which offer the opportunity to examine the early stages of infection with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a close relative of HIV that induces an indistinguishable clinical picture from AIDS in Asian primate species, but importantly, fails to cause disease in its natural African hosts, such as sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys. This article draws from data derived from both human and nonhuman primate studies.
doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a007005
PMCID: PMC3426821  PMID: 22951442
12.  Dynamics of Immune Reconstitution and Activation Markers in HIV+ Treatment-Naïve Patients Treated with Raltegravir, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Emtricitabine 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83514.
Background
The dynamics of CD4+ T cell reconstitution and changes in immune activation and inflammation in HIV-1 disease following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are incompletely defined and their underlying mechanisms poorly understood.
Methods
Thirty-nine treatment-naïve patients were treated with raltegravir, tenofovir DF and emtricitabine. Immunologic and inflammatory indices were examined in persons with sustained virologic control during 48 weeks of therapy.
Results
Initiation of ART increased CD4+ T cell numbers and decreased activation and cell cycle entry among CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and attenuated markers of coagulation (D-dimer levels) and inflammation (IL-6 and TNFr1). These indices decayed at different rates and almost all remained elevated above levels measured in HIV-seronegatives through 48 weeks of viral control. Greater first and second phase CD4+ T cell restoration was related to lower T cell activation and cell cycling at baseline, to their decay with treatment, and to baseline levels of selected inflammatory indices, but less so to their changes on therapy.
Conclusions
ART initiation results in dynamic changes in viral replication, T cell restoration, and indices of immune activation, inflammation, and coagulation. These findings suggest that determinants of T cell activation/cycling and inflammation/coagulation may have distinguishable impact on immune homeostasis.
Trial Registration
Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00660972
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083514
PMCID: PMC3867440  PMID: 24367599
13.  Association between U.S. State AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) Features and HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation, 2001–2009 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78952.
Background
U.S. state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) are federally funded to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) as the payer of last resort to eligible persons with HIV infection. States differ regarding their financial contributions to and ways of implementing these programs, and it remains unclear how this interstate variability affects HIV treatment outcomes.
Methods
We analyzed data from HIV-infected individuals who were clinically-eligible for ART between 2001 and 2009 (i.e., a first reported CD4+ <350 cells/uL or AIDS-defining illness) from 14 U.S. cohorts of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Using propensity score matching and Cox regression, we assessed ART initiation (within 6 months following eligibility) and virologic suppression (within 1 year) based on differences in two state ADAP features: the amount of state funding in annual ADAP budgets and the implementation of waiting lists. We performed an a priori subgroup analysis in persons with a history of injection drug use (IDU).
Results
Among 8,874 persons, 56% initiated ART within six months following eligibility. Persons living in states with no additional state contribution to the ADAP budget initiated ART on a less timely basis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.88). Living in a state with an ADAP waiting list was not associated with less timely initiation (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.87–1.45). Neither additional state contributions nor waiting lists were significantly associated with virologic suppression. Persons with an IDU history initiated ART on a less timely basis (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.95).
Conclusions
We found that living in states that did not contribute additionally to the ADAP budget was associated with delayed ART initiation when treatment was clinically indicated. Given the changing healthcare environment, continued assessment of the role of ADAPs and their features that facilitate prompt treatment is needed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078952
PMCID: PMC3832515  PMID: 24260137
14.  Peripheral Blood B Cell Subset Skewing Is Associated with Altered Cell Cycling and Intrinsic Resistance to Apoptosis and Reflects a State of Immune Activation in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection 
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with B cell activation, although underlying mechanisms are unclear. To investigate B cell regulation during HCV infection, we measured bulk B cell CpG and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan-induced IgG Ab-secreting cell (ASC) frequency, HCV and tetanus-specific ASC frequency, BCR- and CD40L-dependent CD80/CD86 expression, and activation of memory CD4 cells. Immature transitional, naive, resting memory, mature activated, tissue-like memory, and plasma B cell subset frequencies, cell cycling, and intrinsic apoptosis were quantified. We observed intact or enhanced tetanus-specific and total IgG ASC frequency, serum IgG, BCR- and CD40L-dependent CD80/CD86 expression, and CD40L-dependent bulk B cell activation of memory CD4 cells in HCV infection. HCV-specific ASCs were observed in HCV-infected but not control subjects, although frequencies were lower compared with tetanus-specific cells. Immature transitional and mature activated B cell subset frequencies were increased in HCV-infected subjects, with immature transitional frequency associated with liver inflammation and serum B cell-activating factor. Mature activated B cells less commonly expressed Ki67, more commonly expressed Bcl2, and were more intrinsically resistant to apoptosis, whereas immature transitional B cells more commonly expressed Ki67, the latter associated with plasma HCV level. Taken together, these results indicate that in the setting of chronic HCV infection, a state of activation results in B cell subset skewing that is likely the result of alterations in homeostasis, cell cycling, and intrinsic resistance to apoptosis and that results in an overall intact or enhanced B cell response to BCR and CD40L.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000879
PMCID: PMC3805966  PMID: 20656924
15.  Characterizing HIV Transmission Networks Across the United States 
Genetic relatedness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequences was used to assess variables associated with transmission and characteristics of transmission networks in a large, diverse cohort. Such assessments may be useful in identifying risks for expanding epidemics and targeting effective public health responses.
Background. Clinically, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pol sequences are used to evaluate for drug resistance. These data can also be used to evaluate transmission networks and help describe factors associated with transmission risk.
Methods. HIV-1 pol sequences from participants at 5 sites in the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort from 2000–2009 were analyzed for genetic relatedness. Only the first available sequence per participant was included. Inferred transmission networks (“clusters”) were defined as ≥2 sequences with ≤1.5% genetic distance. Clusters including ≥3 patients (“networks”) were evaluated for clinical and demographic associations.
Results. Of 3697 sequences, 24% fell into inferred clusters: 155 clusters of 2 individuals (“dyads”), 54 clusters that included 3–14 individuals (“networks”), and 1 large cluster that included 336 individuals across all study sites. In multivariable analyses, factors associated with being in a cluster included not using antiretroviral (ARV) drugs at time of sampling (P < .001), sequence collected after 2004 (P < .001), CD4 cell count >350 cells/mL (P < .01), and viral load 10 000–100 000 copies/mL (P < .001) or >100 000 copies/mL (P < .001). In networks, women were more likely to cluster with other women (P < .001), and African Americans with other African Americans (P < .001).
Conclusions. Molecular epidemiology can be applied to study HIV transmission networks in geographically and demographically diverse cohorts. Clustering was associated with lack of ARV use and higher viral load, implying transmission may be interrupted by earlier diagnosis and treatment. Observed female and African American networks reinforce the importance of diagnosis and prevention efforts targeted by sex and race.
doi:10.1093/cid/cis612
PMCID: PMC3529609  PMID: 22784872
16.  Effect of Nadir CD4+ T Cell Count on Clinical Measures of Periodontal Disease in HIV+ Adults before and during Immune Reconstitution on HAART  
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76986.
Background
The contribution of HIV-infection to periodontal disease (PD) is poorly understood.  We proposed that immunological markers would be associated with improved clinical measures of PD.
Methods
We performed a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected adults who had started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) <2 years. PD was characterized clinically as the percent of teeth with ≥1 site with periodontal probing depth (PPD) ≥5.0mm, recession (REC) >0mm, clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥4.0mm, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at ≥4 sites/tooth and microbiologically as specific periodontopathogen concentration. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between immune function and PD.
Results
Forty (40) subjects with median 2.7 months on HAART and median nadir CD4+ T-cell count of 212 cells/μl completed a median 3 visits. Over 24 months, CD4+ T-cell count increased by a mean 173 cells/µl (p<0.001) and HIV RNA decreased by 0.5 log10 copies/ml (p<0.001); concurrently, PPD, CAL and BOP decreased by a mean 11.7%, 12.1%, and 14.7% respectively (all p<0.001). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with worse baseline REC (-6.72%; p=0.04) and CAL (9.06%; p<0.001). Further, lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with a greater relative longitudinal improvement in PPD in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p=0.027), and BOP in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola (p=0.001 and p=0.006 respectively). Longitudinal changes from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count and level of HIV RNA were not independently associated with longitudinal changes in any clinical markers of PD.
Conclusion
Degree of immunosuppression was associated with baseline gingival recession. After HAART initiation, measures of active PD improved most in those with lower nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and higher baseline levels of specific periodontopathogens. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count differentially influences periodontal disease both before and after HAART in HIV-infected adults.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076986
PMCID: PMC3795634  PMID: 24146949
17.  HIV-1 is not a major driver of increased plasma IL-6 levels in chronic HIV-1 disease 
Objective
Increased plasma IL-6 levels have been associated with HIV-1 disease progression risk, yet the drivers of IL-6 production in HIV-1 infection are not known. This study was designed to explore the relationship between HIV-1 replication and IL-6 induction.
Design
Correlations between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA were examined in two clinical studies. To more directly assess the induction of IL-6 by HIV-1, several cell and tissue types that support HIV-1 replication in vivo were infected with HIV-1 and expression of IL-6 was measured.
Methods
Spearman’s rank correlations were used to examine the relationship between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA. Macrophages, and colonic and lymph node histocultures were infected with HIV-1 or stimulated with bacterial products, LPS or flagellin, and IL-6 levels in supernatant were measured by ELISA or multiplex bead assay.
Results
In the clinical studies there was weak or no correlation between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA but IL-6 levels were correlated with plasma levels of the LPS coreceptor CD14. Macrophages stimulated with LPS or flagellin showed robust production of IL-6, but there was no increase in IL-6 production after HIV-1 infection. IL-6 expression was not increased in lymph node histocultures obtained from HIV-1 infected subjects nor after productive HIV-1 infection of colonic or lymph node histocultures ex vivo.
Conclusions
We find no evidence that HIV-1 replication is an important driver of IL-6 expression in vivo or in in vitro systems.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31825ddbbf
PMCID: PMC3458159  PMID: 22659649
IL-6; HIV-1 RNA; histocultures; macrophages; LPS; flagellin
18.  Association of early HIV viremia with mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma 
AIDS (London, England)  2013;27(15):2365-2373.
Objective
To examine the association between early HIV viremia and mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma.
Design
Multicenter observational cohort study.
Setting
Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort.
Subjects
HIV-infected patients with lymphoma diagnosed between 1996 and 2011, who were alive 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis and with ≥2 HIV RNA values during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis.
Exposure
Cumulative HIV viremia during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis, expressed as viremia copy-6-months.
Main outcome measure
All-cause mortality between 6 months and 5 years after lymphoma diagnosis.
Results
Of 224 included patients, 183 (82%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 41 (18%) had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). At lymphoma diagnosis, 105 (47%) patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), median CD4 count was 148 cells/µlL (IQR 54– 322), and 33% had suppressed HIV RNA (<400 copies/mL). In adjusted analyses, mortality was associated with older age [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.37 per decade increase, 95% CI 1.03–1.83], lymphoma occurrence on ART (AHR 1.63, 95% CI 1.02– 2.63), lower CD4 count (AHR 0.75 per 100 cell/µL increase, 95% CI 0.64–0.89), and higher early cumulative viremia (AHR 1.35 per log10copies × 6-months/mL, 95% CI 1.11–1.65). The detrimental effect of early cumulative viremia was consistent across patient groups defined by ART status, CD4 count, and histology.
Conclusions
Exposure to each additional 1-unit log10 in HIV RNA throughout the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis, was associated with a 35% increase in subsequent mortality. These results suggest that early and effective ART during chemotherapy may improve survival.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283635232
PMCID: PMC3773290  PMID: 23736149
AIDS; Burkitt lymphoma; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; HIV; Hodgkin lymphoma; lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma
19.  Baseline Levels of Soluble CD14 and CD16+56− Natural Killer Cells Are Negatively Associated With Response to Interferon/Ribavirin Therapy During HCV-HIV-1 Coinfection 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2012;206(6):969-973.
Disease progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is associated with immune activation. Activation indices are higher during coinfection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV. The effect of immune activation on interferon α (IFN-α) therapy response is unknown. We evaluated soluble CD14 (sCD14) and natural killer (NK)–cell subsets at baseline, and during pegIFN-α2a/ribavirin therapy in HCV-HIV coinfection. The sCD14 level increased during therapy. Baseline sCD14 positively correlated with baseline HCV level and CD16+56− NK-cell frequency, and both sCD14 and CD16+56− NK cells correlated negatively with magnitude of HCV decline. IL28B genotype was associated with therapy response but not sCD14 or CD16+56− NK frequency. Markers of innate immune activation predict poor host response to IFN-α–based HCV therapy during HCV-HIV coinfection.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jis434
PMCID: PMC3501153  PMID: 22782948
20.  Genetically Associated CD16+56− Natural Killer Cell Interferon (IFN)–αR Expression Regulates Signaling and Is Implicated in IFN-α–Induced Hepatitis C Virus Decline 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2012;205(7):1131-1141.
Background. Natural killer (NK) cells likely contribute to outcome of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon (IFN)–induced control of chronic HCV infection. We previously observed IFN-αR and NKp30 expression associated with IFN-α–dependent NK cell activity.
Methods. Here, we examined CD16+56−, CD16+56+, and CD16−56+ NK cell subset IFN-αR and NKp30 expression in relation to magnitude of HCV genotype 1 decrease during pegylated IFN-α plus ribavirin therapy.
Results. We observed greater baseline IFN-αR and NKp30 expression on CD16+56+ and CD16−56+ NK subsets in HCV-infected patients than in healthy control subjects. Baseline CD16+56− NK IFN-αR expression was associated with IFN-α–induced pSTAT1, and both were associated with magnitude of HCV decrease during pegylated IFN-α plus ribavirin therapy. Baseline CD16+56− NK IFN-αR expression was associated with race and interleukin 28B genotype, negatively associated with aspartate aminotransferase-to platelet ratio index, and positively associated with increase in NKp30 expression after in vivo IFN-α exposure. Finally, in vitro IFN-α2a–activated NK cytolysis of HCV-infected target cells was in part dependent on NKp30, and CD16+56− NK cell IFN-αR expression correlated with cytolytic activity.
Conclusions. IFN-αR expression on CD16+56− NK cells during chronic HCV infection may in part be genetically determined, and level of expression regulates IFN-α signaling, which in turn may contribute to control of HCV infection.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jis027
PMCID: PMC3295604  PMID: 22351942
21.  Risk of Anal Cancer in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals in North America 
In a large North American cohort study, anal cancer incidence rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected men who have sex with men, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. Rates increased from 1996–1999 to 2000–2003 but plateaued by 2004–2007.
Background. Anal cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), although few have evaluated rates separately for men who have sex with men (MSM), other men, and women. There are also conflicting data regarding calendar trends.
Methods. In a study involving 13 cohorts from North America with follow-up between 1996 and 2007, we compared anal cancer incidence rates among 34 189 HIV-infected (55% MSM, 19% other men, 26% women) and 114 260 HIV-uninfected individuals (90% men).
Results. Among men, the unadjusted anal cancer incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 131 for HIV-infected MSM, 46 for other HIV-infected men, and 2 for HIV-uninfected men, corresponding to demographically adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of 80.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.7–151.1) for HIV-infected MSM and 26.7 (95% CI, 11.5–61.7) for other HIV-infected men compared with HIV-uninfected men. HIV-infected women had an anal cancer rate of 30/100 000 person-years, and no cases were observed for HIV-uninfected women. In a multivariable Poisson regression model, among HIV-infected individuals, the risk was higher for MSM compared with other men (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8–6.0), but no difference was observed comparing women with other men (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5–2.2). In comparison with the period 2000–2003, HIV-infected individuals had an adjusted RR of 0.5 (95% CI, .3–.9) in 1996–1999 and 0.9 (95% CI, .6–1.2) in 2004–2007.
Conclusions. Anal cancer rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected MSM, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals, suggesting a need for universal prevention efforts. Rates increased after the early antiretroviral therapy era and then plateaued.
doi:10.1093/cid/cir1012
PMCID: PMC3297645  PMID: 22291097
22.  Increased platelet and microparticle activation in HIV infection: upregulation of Pselectin and tissue factor expression 
OBJECTIVE
HIV-1 infected patients have an increased risk for atherothrombosis and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism behind these risks is poorly understood. We have previously reported that expression of tissue factor (TF) on circulating monocytes is increased in persons with HIV infection and that TF expression is related to immune activation, to levels of HIV in plasma, and to indices of microbial translocation. In this study, we explore the activation state of platelets in HIV disease.
METHODS
Here, using flow cytometry-based assays, we measured platelet and platelet microparticle (PMP) activation in samples from HIV-1 infected donors and controls.
RESULTS
Platelets and PMPs from HIV-1 infected patients are activated (as reflected by expression of CD62 P-selectin) and also more frequently expressed the procoagulant tissue factor (TF) than did platelets and PMPs obtained from controls. Expression of these proteins was directly related to expression of TF on monocytes, to markers of T cell activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) and to plasma levels of soluble CD14, the coreceptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharride. Platelet and microparticle expression of TF was not related to plasma levels of HIV but expression of P-selectin was; neither TF nor P-selectin expression was related to CD4 T cell count.
CONCLUSIONS
Platelets and microparticles are activated in HIV infection and this activated phenotype may contribute to the increased risk for cardiovascular and thrombotic events in this population although a role for other confounding cardiovascular risks cannot be completely excluded.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182439355
PMCID: PMC3299881  PMID: 22156911
tissue factor; platelets; HIV-1; immune activation
23.  Interferon-α Is the Primary Plasma Type-I IFN in HIV-1 Infection and Correlates with Immune Activation and Disease Markers 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56527.
Type-I interferon (IFN-I) has been increasingly implicated in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Various studies have shown elevated IFN-I and an IFN-I-induced gene and protein expression signature in HIV-1 infection, yet the elevated IFN-I species has not been conclusively identified, its source remains obscure and its role in driving HIV-1 pathogenesis is controversial. We assessed IFN-I species in plasma by ELISAs and bioassay, and we investigated potential sources of IFN-I in blood and lymph node tissue by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we measured the effect of therapeutic administration of IFNα in HCV-infected subjects to model the effect of IFNα on chronic immune activation. IFN-I bioactivity was significantly increased in plasma of untreated HIV-1-infected subjects relative to uninfected subjects (p = 0.012), and IFNα was the predominant IFN-I subtype correlating with IFN-I bioactivity (r = 0.658, p<0.001). IFNα was not detectable in plasma of subjects receiving anti-retroviral therapy. Elevated expression of IFNα mRNA was limited to lymph node tissue cells, suggesting that peripheral blood leukocytes are not a major source of IFNα in untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Plasma IFN-I levels correlated inversely with CD4 T cell count (p = 0.003) and positively with levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD38 expression on CD8 T cells (p = 0.009). In hepatitis C virus-infected subjects, treatment with IFN-I and ribavirin increased expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells (p = 0.003). These studies identify IFNα derived from lymph nodes, rather than blood leukocytes, as a possible source of the IFN-I signature that contributes to immune activation in HIV-1 infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056527
PMCID: PMC3577907  PMID: 23437155
24.  Risk factors for chronic kidney disease in a large cohort of HIV-1 infected individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy in routine care 
AIDS (London, England)  2012;26(15):1907-1915.
Objective
To examine long-term effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on kidney function, we evaluated the incidence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) among ART-naive, HIV-infected adults and compared changes in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) before and after starting ART.
Methods
Multicenter observational cohort study of patients with at least one serum creatinine measurement before and after initiating ART. Cox proportional hazard models, and marginal structure models examined CKD risk factors; mixed-effects linear models examined eGFR slopes.
Results
Three thousand, three hundred and twenty-nine patients met entry criteria, contributing 10 099 person-years of observation on ART. ART was associated with a significantly slower rate of eGFR decline (from −2.18 to −1.37 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; P = 0.02). The incidence of CKD defined by eGFR thresholds of 60, 45 and 30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was 10.5, 3.4 and 1.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. In adjusted analyses black race, hepatitis C coinfection, lower time-varying CD4 cell count and higher time-varying viral load on ART were associated with higher CKD risk, and the magnitude of these risks increased with more severe CKD. Tenofovir and a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (rPI) was also associated with higher CKD risk [hazard odds ratio for an eGFR threshold <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2: 3.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.40–8.02)], which developed in 5.7% of patients after 4 years of exposure to this regimen-type.
Conclusion
ART was associated with reduced CKD risk in association with CD4 cell restoration and plasma viral load suppression, despite an increased CKD risk that was associated with initial regimens that included tenofovir and rPI.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328357f5ed
PMCID: PMC3531628  PMID: 22824630
antiretroviral therapy; chronic kidney disease; tenofovir
25.  A Prospective Cohort Study of Periodontal Disease Measures and Cardiovascular Disease Markers in HIV-Infected Adults 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses  2011;27(11):1157-1166.
Abstract
The determinants of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not well understood. Periodontal disease (PD) has been linked to CVD but this connection has not been examined in HIV infection. We followed a cohort of HIV-infected adults to ascertain whether PD was associated with carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). We performed a longitudinal observational study of HIV-infected adults on HAART for <2 years with no known heart disease. PD was characterized clinically and microbiologically. Cardiovascular disease was assessed by IMT/FMD. Linear mixed models assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PD and FMD/IMT. Forty three HIV+ adults completed a median of 24 (6–44) months on the study. Defining delta to be the change in a variable between baseline and a follow-up time, longitudinally, on average and after adjusting for change in time, CVD-specific and HIV-specific potential confounding covariates, a 1-log10 increase in delta Porphyromonas gingivalis was associated with a 0.013 mm increase in delta IMT (95% CI: 0.0006–0.0262; p=0.04). After adjusting for the same potential confounding covariates, a 10% increase in delta gingival recession was associated with a 2.3% increase in delta FMD (95% CI: 0.4–4.2; p=0.03). In a cohort of HIV-infected adults, an increase in subgingival Porphyromonas gingivalis, a known periodontal pathogen, was significantly associated with longitudinal increases in IMT, while increased gingival recession, which herein may represent PD resolution, was significantly associated with longitudinal improvement in FMD. In the context of HIV infection, PD may contribute to CVD risk. Intervention studies treating PD may help clarify this association.
doi:10.1089/aid.2010.0320
PMCID: PMC3206743  PMID: 21443451

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