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1.  Combined association of maternal and paternal family history of diabetes with plasma leptin and adiponectin in overweight Hispanic children 
Diabetic Medicine  2008;25(9):1043-1048.
Aims
To investigate the importance of a maternal and paternal family history of Type 2 diabetes and their combined association with plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in overweight Latino children with a family history of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
Methods
This cross-sectional study investigated the combined association of a maternal and paternal family history of T2DM with leptin and adiponectin in 175 overweight Latino children (age 11.1 ± 1.7 years). All subjects had a family history of T2DM. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels, body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Tanner stage, age and insulin sensitivity were assessed.
Results
After adjustment for age, gestational diabetes, insulin sensitivity and body fat, a combined maternal and paternal family history of T2DM was associated with higher leptin concentrations (P = 0.004) compared with a maternal or paternal family history alone. This association was most pronounced at Tanner stage 1 (P for interaction family history × tanner stage = 0.022). The presence of a combined maternal and paternal family history of T2DM accounted for 4% (P = 0.003) of the variation in leptin concentrations. No such combined association was observed for adiponectin levels.
Conclusions
Maternal and paternal family history of T2DM may have an additive impact on leptin, but not on adiponectin levels independent of adiposity and insulin sensitivity in overweight Latino children. This may contribute to a further clinically relevant deterioration of metabolic health in this population.
Diabet. Med. 25, 1043–1048 (2008)
doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02537.x
PMCID: PMC2613241  PMID: 19183309
adiponectin; leptin; diabetes

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