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1.  Development of Laser Ruler in Rigid Laryngoscope 
Objectives
The objective of this study was to develop a new device that provides a simple, noninvasive method of measuring accurate lesion size while using an endoscope.
Methods
We developed a rigid laryngoscope with a built-in laser-ruler using a one-light emitting diode and an acrylic plate. The invention incorporates a built-in laser diode that projects an auto-parallel beam into the optical path of the rigid laryngoscope to form two spots in the field of view.
Results
While the interspot distance remains consistent despite changes in focal plane, magnification, or viewing angle of the laryngoscope, projection to an uneven surface introduces certain variations in the shape, and size of the spots, and the distance between the two spots.
Conclusion
The device enables a laryngologist to easily measure the distance between landmarks, as well as the change in real size, and the progressive change of vocal fold lesions in an outpatient setting.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2011.4.4.199
PMCID: PMC3250585  PMID: 22232716
Laser; Ruler; Laryngoscope
2.  Evaluation of an Experimentally Designed Stereotactic Guidance System for Determining Needle Entry Point during Uniplanar Fluoroscopy-guided Intervention 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2012;25(2):81-88.
Background
In discography performed during percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) via the posterolateral approach, it is difficult to create a fluoroscopic tunnel view because a long needle is required for discography and the guide-wire used for consecutive PELD interrupts rotation of fluoroscope. A stereotactic system was designed to facilitate the determination of the needle entry point, and the feasibility of this system was evaluated during interventional spine procedures.
Methods
A newly designed stereotactic guidance system underwent a field test application for PELD. Sixty patients who underwent single-level PELD at L4-L5 were randomly divided into conventional or stereotactic groups. PELD was performed via the posterolateral approach using the entry point on the skin determined by premeasured distance from the midline and angles according to preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Needle entry accuracy provided by the two groups was determined by comparing the distance and angle measured by postoperative computed tomography with those measured by preoperative MRI. The duration and radiation exposure for determining the entry point were measured in the groups.
Results
The new stereotactic guidance system and the conventional method provided similarly accurate entry points for discography and consecutive PELD. However, the new stereotactic guidance system lowered the duration and radiation exposure for determining the entry point.
Conclusions
The new stereotactic guidance system under fluoroscopy provided a reliable needle entry point for discography and consecutive PELD. Furthermore, it reduced the duration and radiation exposure associated with determining needle entry.
doi:10.3344/kjp.2012.25.2.81
PMCID: PMC3324745  PMID: 22514774
equipment design; fluoroscopy; needle; percutaneous discectomy; stereotactic technique
3.  Expression of VEGF, HGF, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-9, Telomerase in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma 
Objectives
This study investigated the telomerase expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the relationship between the serum level of several soluble factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 and the clinicopathological features of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
Methods
Peripheral blood samples were collected from 50 HNSCC patients and 15 normal controls. The telomerase activity in the PBMCs was measured by Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocols. The serum levels of the soluble factors were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
The expression of telomerase in the PBMCs of HNSCC patients was significantly correlated with the N and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages. The serum VEGF level was significantly higher in the patients with an advanced T stage, N stage and AJCC stage. Serum VEGF was significantly related with the expression of telomerase in the PBMCs. The telomerase expression and the VEGF expression were shown to be independent factors associated with poor survival.
Conclusion
The telomerase expression in the PBMCs and the serum VEGF level of HNSCC patients were significantly correlated with the N stage, the AJCC stage and the prognosis.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2009.2.4.186
PMCID: PMC2804094  PMID: 20072693
Telomerase; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Vascular endothelial growth factors; Prognosis; Prognostic markers

Results 1-3 (3)