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1.  Smoke-Free Bar Policies and Smokers’ Alcohol Consumption: Findings from the International Tobacco Control 4 Country Survey 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2012;126(0):240-245.
Background
Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are positively correlated, and the concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol exacerbates the health risks associated with the singular use of either product. Indoor smoke-free policies have been effective in reducing smoking, but little is known about any impact of these policies on drinking behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between the implementation of smoke-free bar policies and smokers’ alcohol consumption.
Methods
A prospective, multi-country cohort survey design was utilized. Participants were nationally representative samples of smokers from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States, who were interviewed as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4) in 2005, 2007, or 2008 (N = 11914). Changes in the frequency and amount of alcohol consumption were assessed as functions of change in the presence of smoke-free bar policies over time.
Results
Overall, changes in alcohol consumption were statistically indistinguishable between those whose bars became smoke-free and those whose bars continued to allow smoking. However, implementation of smoke-free policies was associated with small reductions in the amount of alcohol typically consumed by those who were classified as hazardous drinkers, along with small reductions in the frequency of alcohol consumption among heavy smokers.
Conclusions
Smoking bans in public places, which protect millions of non-smokers from the harmful effects of second-hand smoke, do not appear to be associated with sizable reductions in smokers’ alcohol consumption in general, but may be associated with small consumption reductions among subgroups.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.05.022
PMCID: PMC3660989  PMID: 22704125
Smoke-free policies; alcohol consumption; International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey
2.  Attitudes, Experiences, and Acceptance of Smoke-Free Policies Among US Multiunit Housing Residents 
American journal of public health  2012;102(10):1868-1871.
We assessed factors related to smoke-free policies among a cross-sectional, nationally representative, random-digit-dial sample (landline and cell phone) of US multiunit housing residents (n = 418). Overall, 29% reported living in smoke-free buildings, while 79% reported voluntary smoke-free home rules. Among those with smoke-free home rules, 44% reported secondhand smoke incursions in their unit. Among all respondents, 56% supported smoke-free building policy implementation. These findings suggest that smoke-free building policies are needed to protect multiunit housing residents from secondhand smoke in their homes.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300717
PMCID: PMC3490662  PMID: 22897557
3.  Five Years After the Hawai‘i Smoke-free Law: Tourism and Hospitality Economic Indicators Appear Unharmed 
Opponents of Hawai‘i's smoke-free law argued that such a law would lead to a decrease in tourism. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is evidence of an adverse impact of Hawai‘i's smoke-free law on tourism utilizing data obtained from Hawai‘i's Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism website for tourists from the United States. Descriptive statistics were reported before and after the law and linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the implementation of the law and changes in indicators of tourism while adjusting for underlying economic factors. The most pronounced fluctuations observed with all tourism indicators occurred around the time the US entered the recession (December 2007), with steady increases following the end of the US recession. While controlling for economic and seasonal trends, the presence of the smoke-free law was associated with an increase in arrivals (β= 42847.9; 95% CI: 16303.3, 69392.5), accommodation employees (β= 969.0; 95% CI: 351.1, 1586.8) and food services & beverage places employees (β=3390.8; 95% CI: 2326.9, 4454.7). Fluctuations in tourism indicators are likely to be associated with greater economic forces, such as decreasing GDP and consumer confidence in the United States and greater global economic trends, rather than the smoke-free law.
PMCID: PMC3796785  PMID: 24167770
Public Health; Policy; Tourism; Economics; Smoke-free law
4.  Alpha-5 and -3 nicotinic receptor gene variants predict nicotine dependence but not cessation: Findings from the COMMIT cohort 
American Journal of Medical Genetics  2012;159B(2):227-235.
Smoking many cigarettes per day (CPD) and short interval to first cigarette (TTF) after waking are two of the most heritable smoking phenotypes and comprise the Heavy Smoking Index (HSI). These phenotypes are often used as proxies for nicotine dependence (ND) and are associated with smoking cessation outcomes. Case-control and genome-wide association studies have reported links between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the alpha-5 and -3 nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRNA5 and CHRNA3) genes and CPD but few have examined TTF or cessation outcomes. In this study we longitudinally assessed 1301 European-American smokers at four time-points from 1988 to 2005. One CHRNA5 (rs16969968) and two CHRNA3 (rs1051703, rs6495308) SNPs were examined for their ability to predict smokers who ‘ever’ reported ND based on three phenotypic classifications: 1) 25+ CPD, 2) TTF < 10 minutes, and 3) HSI ≥ 4. In a subsample of 1157 quit attempters, we also examined each SNP’s ability to predict ‘ever’ quitting for a period of >6 months. Demographically adjusted logistic regressions showed significant allelic and genotypic associations between all three SNPs and CPD but not TTF, HSI, or smoking cessation. Carriers of both the rs16969968-AA and rs6495308-TT genotypes had approximately two-fold greater odds for ND defined using CPD or TTF. Results suggest nicotinic receptor variants are associated with greater odds of ND according to CPD and to a lesser extent TTF. Research examining the effect of nicotinic receptor genetic variation on ND phenotypes beyond CPD is warranted.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32019
PMCID: PMC3262775  PMID: 22223462
Cholinergic; Nicotinic; Allele; Dependence; Cessation
5.  Tobacco sales in pharmacies: a survey of attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of pharmacists employed in student experiential and other worksites in Western New York 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:413.
Background
Pharmacies are venues in which patients seek out products and professional advice in order to improve overall health. However, many pharmacies in the United States continue to sell tobacco products, which are widely known to cause detrimental health effects. This conflict presents a challenge to pharmacists, who are becoming increasingly more involved in patient health promotion activities. This study sought to assess Western New York (WNY) area pharmacists’ opinions about the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies, and pharmacists’ opinions on their role in patient smoking cessation.
Methods
Participants responded to two parallel surveys; a web-based survey was completed by 148 university-affiliated pharmacist preceptors via a list based sample, and a mail-based survey was completed by the supervising pharmacist in 120 area pharmacies via a list-based sample. The combined response rate for both surveys was 31%. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to determine any significant differences between the preceptor and supervising pharmacist survey groups.
Results
Over 75% of respondents support legislation banning the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. Over 86% of respondents would prefer to work in a pharmacy that does not sell tobacco products. Differences between preceptor and supervising pharmacist groups were observed. Action regarding counseling patients was uncommon among both groups.
Conclusions
Pharmacists support initiatives that increase their role in cessation counseling and initiatives that restrict the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. These data could have important implications for communities and pharmacy practice.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-413
PMCID: PMC3492148  PMID: 22867129
Tobacco sales; Pharmacists; Preceptors; Public health policy; Survey research; Pharmacies
6.  Usage Patterns of Stop Smoking Medications in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: Findings from the 2006–2008 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey 
Varenicline is a new prescription stop smoking medication (SSM) that has been available in the United States since August 1, 2006, in the United Kingdom and other European Union countries since December 5, 2006, in Canada since April 12, 2007, and in Australia since January 1, 2008. There are few population-based studies that have examined use rates of varenicline and other stop smoking medications. We report data from the ITC Four Country survey conducted with smokers in the US, UK, Canada, and Australia who reported an attempt to quit smoking in past year in the 2006 survey (n = 4,022 participants), 2007 (n = 3,790 participants), and 2008 surveys (n = 2,735 participants) Respondents reported use of various stop smoking medications to quit smoking at each survey wave, along with demographic and smoker characteristics. The self-reported use of any stop smoking medication has increased significantly over the 3 year period in all 4 countries, with the sharpest increase occurring in the United States. Varenicline has become the second most used stop smoking medication, behind NRT, in all 4 countries since being introduced. Between 2006 and 2008, varenicline use rates increased from 0.4% to 21.7% in the US, 0.0% to 14.8% in Canada, 0.0% to 14.5% in Australia, and 0.0% to 4.4% in the UK. In contrast, use of NRT and bupropion remained constant in each country. Males and non-whites were significantly less likely to report using any SSM, while more educated smokers were significantly more likely to use any SSM, including varenicline. Our findings suggest that the introduction of varenicline led to an increase in the number of smokers who used evidence-based treatment during their quit attempts, rather than simply gaining market share at the expense of other medications. From a public health perspective, messages regarding increased success rates among medication users and the relative safety of stop smoking medications should be disseminated widely so as to reach all smokers of all socioeconomic classifications equally.
doi:10.3390/ijerph8010222
PMCID: PMC3037071  PMID: 21318025
tobacco cessation; ITC Survey; varenicline

Results 1-6 (6)