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author:("riet, Cory A.")
1.  A dynamic causal modeling analysis of the effective connectivities underlying top-down letter processing 
Neuropsychologia  2011;49(5):10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.01.011.
The present study employed Dynamic Causal Modeling to investigate the effective functional connectivity between regions of the neural network involved in top-down letter processing. We used an illusory letter detection paradigm in which participants detected letters while viewing pure noise images. When participants detected letters, the response of the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) in the visual cortex was enhanced by increased feed-backward connectivity from the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In addition, illusory letter detection increased feed-forward connectivity from the right MOG to the left inferior parietal lobules. Originating in the left IFG, this top-down letter processing network may facilitate the detection of letters by activating letter processing areas within the visual cortex. This activation in turns may highlight the visual features of letters and send letter information to activate the associated phonological representations in the identified parietal region.
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.01.011
PMCID: PMC3817006  PMID: 21237182
letter processing; word processing; top-down processing; fMRI; dynamic causal modeling
2.  Effective connectivities of cortical regions for top-down face processing: A Dynamic Causal Modeling study 
Brain research  2010;1340:40-51.
To study top-down face processing, the present study used an experimental paradigm in which participants detected non-existent faces in pure noise images. Conventional BOLD signal analysis identified three regions involved in this illusory face detection. These regions included the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in addition to the right fusiform face area (FFA) and right occipital face area (OFA), both of which were previously known to be involved in both top-down and bottom-up processing of faces. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and Bayesian model selection to further analyze the data, revealing both intrinsic and modulatory effective connectivities among these three cortical regions. Specifically, our results support the claim that the orbitofrontal cortex plays a crucial role in the top-down processing of faces by regulating the activities of the occipital face area, and the occipital face area in turn detects the illusory face features in the visual stimuli and then provides this information to the fusiform face area for further analysis.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.044
PMCID: PMC3724518  PMID: 20423709
Face processing; Top-down processing; Bottom-up processing; Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM); Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
3.  The role of sleep and practice in implicit and explicit motor learning 
Behavioural brain research  2010;214(2):470-474.
Sleep is hypothesized to play a functional role in the consolidation of memory, with more robust findings for implicit, than explicit memory. Previous studies have observed improvements on an explicit motor task after a sleep period. We examined the role of massed practice and sleep on implicit and explicit learning within a motor task. Controlling for non-sleep factors (e.g. massed practice, circadian confounds) eliminated both explicit and implicit learning effects that have been attributed to sleep.
doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2010.05.052
PMCID: PMC2921792  PMID: 20553972
SLEEP; NAPPING; FATIGUE; CONSOLIDATION; MOTOR MEMORY; PURSUIT MOTOR LEARNING
4.  Neural Correlates of Top-Down Letter Processing 
Neuropsychologia  2009;48(2):636.
This fMRI study investigated top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. Participants responded whether one of a number of different possible letters was present in a very noisy image. After initial training that became increasingly difficult, they continued to detect letters even though the images consisted of pure noise, which eliminated contamination from strong bottom-up input. For illusory letter detection, greater fMRI activation was observed in several cortical regions. These regions included the precuneus, an area generally involved in top-down processing of objects, and the left superior parietal lobule, an area previously identified with the processing of valid letter and word stimuli. In addition, top-down letter detection also activated the left inferior frontal gyrus, an area that may be involved in the integration of general top-down processing and letter-specific bottom-up processing. These findings suggest that these regions may play a significant role in top-down as well as bottom up processing of letters and words, and are likely to have reciprocal functional connections to more posterior regions in the word and letter processing network.
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.10.024
PMCID: PMC2814001  PMID: 19883666
word processing; letter processing; top-down processing; fMRI
5.  Faces in the mist: illusory face and letter detection 
i-Perception  2011;2(5):458-476.
We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480) during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2) occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus.
doi:10.1068/i0421
PMCID: PMC3485785  PMID: 23145238
vision; face perception; reverse correlation; letter perception; top down; false detection
6.  A distributed neural system for top-down face processing 
Neuroscience letters  2008;451(1):6-10.
Evidence suggests that the neural system associated with face processing is a distributed cortical network containing both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms. While bottom-up face processing has been the focus of many studies, the neural areas involved in the top-down face processing have not been extensively investigated due to difficulty in isolating top-down influences from the bottom-up response engendered by presentation of a face. In the present study, we used a novel experimental method to induce illusory face detection. This method allowed for directly examining the neural systems involved in top-down face processing while minimizing the influence of bottom-up perceptual input. A distributed cortical network of top-down face processing was identified by analyzing the functional connectivity patterns of the right fusiform face area (FFA). This distributed cortical network model for face processing includes both “core” and “extended” face processing areas. It also includes left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left premotor cortex, and left inferior parietal cortex. These findings suggest that top-down face processing contains not only regions for analyzing the visual appearance of faces, but also those involved in processing low spatial frequency (LSF) information, decision making, and working memory.
doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.12.039
PMCID: PMC2634849  PMID: 19121364
top-down processing; psychophysiological interaction (PPI); distributed cortical network; fMRI; face processing

Results 1-6 (6)