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1.  Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating a Program to Address the Oral Health Needs of Aboriginal Children in Port Augusta, Australia 
Aboriginal Australian children experience profound oral health disparities relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. In response to community concerns regarding Aboriginal child oral health in the regional town of Port Augusta, South Australia, a child dental health service was established within a Community Controlled Aboriginal Health Service. A partnership approach was employed with the key aims of (1) quantifying rates of dental service utilisation, (2) identifying factors influencing participation, and (3) planning and establishing a program for delivery of Aboriginal children's dental services that would increase participation and adapt to community needs. In planning the program, levels of participation were quantified and key issues identified through semistructured interviews. After 3.5 years, the participation rate for dental care among the target population increased from 53 to 70 percent. Key areas were identified to encourage further improvements and ensure sustainability in Aboriginal child oral health in this regional location.
doi:10.1155/2012/496236
PMCID: PMC3346980  PMID: 22577401
2.  Lymphocyte proliferative response and subset profiles during extended periods of chloroquine or primaquine prophylaxis. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1996;40(12):2737-2742.
Immune suppression and disturbances of normal leukocyte populations are side effects attributed to many antimalarial drugs and were concerns during a recent year-long placebo-controlled trial that compared daily primaquine (0.5 mg of base per kg of body weight per day) with weekly chloroquine (300 mg of base one time per week) for malaria prophylaxis. The study took place in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, from July 1994 to August 1995 and enrolled 129 Javanese men with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase function. Tests for lymphocyte function and subset composition were conducted blindly on a cross-section of subjects during weeks 10 (n = 42) and 48 (n = 72) of supervised prophylaxis. Lymphocyte function, measured as the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a panel of mitogens (pokeweed mitogen, phytohemagglutinin, and concanavalin A) and antigens (purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Clostridium tetani toxoid) and expressed as a stimulation index, allowed for statistical comparison between groups and sampling times. The lymphocyte subset composition for each group and time point was based on flow cytometry profiling, and the results were expressed as the mean percentages of CD3 (total T cells), CD19 (total B cells), CD4+ (T-helper and inducer cells), and CD8+ (T suppressor and cytotoxic cells), CD3/CD16+ CD56 (natural killer cells), CD3/anti-HLA-DR (activated T cells) cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratios. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were statistically comparable among the placebo, primaquine, and chloroquine groups at both time points, although the primaquine group was distinguished by having repeatedly greater proportions of subjects with high ( > 3.0) stimulation indices. The lymphocyte subset profiles of these groups at both time points were also similar and undistorted relative to those of healthy reference populations matched for age, sex, and ethnicity. The results provide quantitative support for the safety of daily primaquine prophylaxis.
PMCID: PMC163613  PMID: 9124832
3.  Modern atrial and ventricular leads for permanent cardiac pacing. 
British Heart Journal  1981;46(2):196-201.
Three hundred and fifteen transvenous pacing leads of various modern designs have been assessed over a period of three years. Of these, 103 were implanted in the atrium and 212 in the ventricle. Screw-in leads in the right atrial appendage and short tined leads in the ventricle have resulted in the virtual elimination of lead displacement, and a very low incidence of other lead related problems. In two lead systems it has been found advantageous to have both leads constructed of urethane.
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PMCID: PMC482628  PMID: 7272131
6.  Endothelial cell dysfunction and cytoskeletal changes associated with repression of p16INK4a during immortalization 
Oncogene  2012;31(46):4815-4827.
The immortalization process is a fundamental step in the development of most (if not all) human cancers, including the aggressive endothelial cell (EC)-derived malignancy angiosarcoma. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor p16INK4a and the development of multiple chromosomal abnormalities are features of angiosarcoma that are recapitulated during telomerase-mediated immortalization of human ECs in vitro. The present study used a panel of telomerase-immortalized bone marrow EC (BMEC) lines to define the consequences of inactivation of p16INK4a on EC function and to identify molecular changes associated with repression of p16INK4a. In a comparison of two immortalized BMEC mass cultures and six clones, the cell lines that repressed p16INK4a showed a higher rate of proliferation and an impaired ability to undergo morphogenic differentiation and form vessel-like structures in vitro. Proteomic comparison of a p16INK4a-negative and a p16INK4a-positive BMEC mass culture at early- and late-passage time points following transduction with telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) revealed altered expression of cytoskeletal proteins, including vimentin and α-tropomyosin (αTm), in the immortal cells. Immunoblot analyses of a panel of 11 immortal clones showed that cells that lacked p16INK4a expression tended to accumulate more dramatic changes in these cytoskeletal proteins than cells that retained p16INK4a expression. This corresponded with aberrant cytoskeletal architectures among p16INK4a-negative clones, which featured thicker actin stress fibers and less fluid membrane ruffles than p16INK4a-positive cells. A direct link between p16INK4a repression and defective EC function was confirmed by analysis of normal cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting p16INK4a. siRNA-mediated repression of p16INK4a significantly impaired random motility and vessel formation in vitro. This report is the first to demonstrate that ECs that repress the expression of p16INK4a are prone to defects in motility, morphogenesis and cytoskeletal organization. These defects are likely to reflect alterations that occur during the development of EC-derived malignancies.
doi:10.1038/onc.2011.645
PMCID: PMC3500701  PMID: 22310292
endothelial cell; p16INK4a; TERT; immortalization; cytoskeleton; morphogenesis
7.  Evidence that duplications of 22q11.2 protect against schizophrenia 
Molecular Psychiatry  2013;19(1):37-40.
A number of large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) are deleterious for neurodevelopmental disorders, but large, rare, protective CNVs have not been reported for such phenotypes. Here we show in a CNV analysis of 47 005 individuals, the largest CNV analysis of schizophrenia to date, that large duplications (1.5–3.0 Mb) at 22q11.2—the reciprocal of the well-known, risk-inducing deletion of this locus—are substantially less common in schizophrenia cases than in the general population (0.014% vs 0.085%, OR=0.17, P=0.00086). 22q11.2 duplications represent the first putative protective mutation for schizophrenia.
doi:10.1038/mp.2013.156
PMCID: PMC3873028  PMID: 24217254
22q11.2; CNV; duplication; protective; schizophrenia

Results 1-8 (8)