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author:("rhu, In-Chul")
1.  Evaluation of the correlation between insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants using a block bone test 
Purpose
Implant stability at the time of surgery is crucial for the long-term success of dental implants. Primary stability is considered of paramount importance to achieve osseointegration. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants using artificial bone blocks with different bone densities and compositions to mimic different circumstances that are encountered in routine daily clinical settings.
Methods
In order to validate the objectives, various sized holes were made in bone blocks with different bone densities (#10, #20, #30, #40, and #50) using a surgical drill and insertion torque together with implant stability quotient (ISQ) values that were measured using the Osstell Mentor. The experimental groups under evaluation were subdivided into 5 subgroups according to the circumstances.
Results
In group 1, the mean insertion torque and ISQ values increased as the density of the bone blocks increased. For group 2, the mean insertion torque values decreased as the final drill size expanded, but this was not the case for the ISQ values. The mean insertion torque values in group 3 increased with the thickness of the cortical bone, and the same was true for the ISQ values. For group 4, the mean insertion torque values increased as the cancellous bone density increased, but the correlation with the ISQ values was weak. Finally, in group 5, the mean insertion torque decreased as the final drill size increased, but the correlation with the ISQ value was weak.
Conclusions
Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that primary stability does not simply depend on the insertion torque, but also on the bone quality.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2013.43.1.30
PMCID: PMC3596632  PMID: 23508040
Bone density; Dental implants; Torque
2.  Antibody and T Cell Responses to Fusobacterium nucleatum and Treponema denticola in Health and Chronic Periodontitis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53703.
The characteristics of the T cell response to the members of oral flora are poorly understood. We characterized the antibody and T cell responses to FadA and Td92, adhesins from Fusobacterium nucleatum, an oral commensal, and Treponema denticola, a periodontal pathogen, respectively. Peripheral blood and saliva were obtained from healthy individuals and patients with untreated chronic periodontitis (CP, n = 11 paris) and after successful treatment of the disease (n = 9). The levels of antigen-specific antibody were measured by ELISA. In plasma, IgG1 was the most abundant isotype of Ab for both Ags, followed by IgA and then IgG4. The levels of FadA-specific salivary IgA (sIgA) were higher than Td92-specific sIgA and the FadA-specific IgA levels observed in plasma. However, the periodontal health status of the individuals did not affect the levels of FadA- or Td92-specific antibody. Even healthy individuals contained FadA- and Td92-specific CD4+ T cells, as determined by the detection of intracytoplasmic CD154 after short-term in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the antigens. Patients with CP tended to possess increased numbers of FadA- and Td92-specific CD4+ T cells but reduced numbers of Td92-specific Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs than the healthy subjects. Both FadA and Td92 induced the production of IFNγ and IL-10 but inhibited the secretion of IL-4 by PBMCs. In conclusion, F. nucleatum induced Th3 (sIgA)- and Th1 (IFNγ and IgG1)-dominant immune responses, whereas T. denticola induced a Th1 (IFNγ and IgG1)-dominant response. This IFNγ-dominant cytokine response was impaired in CP patients, and the Td92-induced IFNγ levels were negatively associated with periodontal destruction in patients. These findings may provide new insights into the homeostatic interaction between the immune system and oral bacteria and the pathogenesis of periodontitis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053703
PMCID: PMC3546045  PMID: 23335969
3.  The biological effects of fibrin-binding synthetic oligopeptides derived from fibronectin on osteoblast-like cells 
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synthetic fibronectin (FN) fragments, including fibrin binding sites from amino-terminal FN fragments containing type I repeats 1 to 5, on osteoblast-like cell activity.
Methods
Oligopeptides ranging from 9 to 20 amino acids, designated FF1, FF3, and FF5, were synthesized by a solid-phase peptide synthesizing system, and we investigated the effects of these peptides on cell attachment and extent of mineralization using confocal microscopy, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, and Alizarin red S staining.
Results
FF3 and FF5 peptides increased the number of attached human osteoblastic cells, and FF3 administration led to prominent cell spreading. Mineralization was increased in FF3 and FF5 compared to FF1 and the untreated control.
Conclusions
Taken together, it can be concluded that the fibrin-binding oligopeptides FF3 and FF5 enhanced cell attachment and mineralization on osteoblast-like cells. These results indicate that FF3 and FF5 have the potential to increase osteoblast-like cell activity. Performing an in vivo study may provide further possibilities for surface modification of biomimetic peptides to enhance osteogenesis, thus improving the regeneration of destroyed alveolar bone.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2012.42.4.113
PMCID: PMC3439522  PMID: 22977740
Fibrin; Fibronectins; Oligopeptides; Osteoblasts
4.  Effects of immunosuppressants, FK506 and cyclosporin A, on the osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells 
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
Methods
The effect of FK506 and CsA on rat MSCs was assessed in vitro. The MTT assay was used to determine the deleterious effect of immunosuppressants on stem cell proliferation at 1, 3, and 7 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed on days 3, 7, and 14. Alizarin red S staining was done on day 21 to check mineralization nodule formation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was also performed to detect the expressions of bone tissue-specific genes on days 1 and 7.
Results
Cell proliferation was promoted more in the FK506 groups than the control or CsA groups on days 3 and 7. The FK506 groups showed increased ALP activity compared to the other groups during the experimental period. The ALP activity of the CsA groups did not differ from the control group in any of the assessments. Mineralization nodule formation was most prominent in the FK506 groups at 21 days. RT-PCR results of the FK506 groups showed that several bone-related genes-osteopontin, osteonectin, and type I collagen (Col-I)-were expressed more than the control in the beginning, but the intensity of expression decreased over time. Runx2 and Dlx5 gene expression were up-regulated on day 7. The effects of 50 nM CsA on osteonectin and Col-I were similar to those of the FK506 groups, but in the 500 nM CsA group, most of the genes were less expressed compared to the control.
Conclusions
These results suggest that FK506 enhances the osteoblastic differentiation of rat MSCs. Therefore, FK506 might have a beneficial effect on bone regeneration when immunosuppressants are needed in xenogenic or allogenic stem cell transplantation to treat bone defects.
doi:10.5051/jpis.2012.42.3.73
PMCID: PMC3394998  PMID: 22803008
Cell differentiation; Cyclosporin A; FK506; Immunosuppressive agents; Mesenchymal stem cells

Results 1-4 (4)