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1.  Dnmt1-dependent DNA methylation is essential for photoreceptor terminal differentiation and retinal neuron survival 
Cell Death & Disease  2012;3(11):e427-.
Epigenetic regulation of the genome is critical for the emergence of diverse cell lineages during development. To understand the role of DNA methylation during retinal network formation, we generated a mouse retinal-specific Dnmt1 deletion mutation from the onset of neurogenesis. In the hypomethylated Dnmt1-mutant retina, neural progenitor cells continue to proliferate, however, the cell cycle progression is altered, as revealed by an increased proportion of G1 phase cells. Despite production of all major retinal neuronal cell types in the Dnmt1-mutant retina, various postmitotic neurons show defective differentiation, including ectopic cell soma and aberrant dendritic morphologies. Specifically, the commitment of Dmnt1-deficient progenitors towards the photoreceptor fate is not affected by DNA hypomethylation, yet the initiation of photoreceptor differentiation is severely hindered, resulting in reduction and mislocalization of rhodopsin-expressing cells. In addition to compromised neuronal differentiation, Dnmt1 deficiency also leads to rapid cell death of photoreceptors and other types of neurons in the postnatal retina. These results indicate that Dnmt1-dependent DNA methylation is critical for expansion of the retinal progenitor pool, as well as for maturation and survival of postmitotic neurons.
PMCID: PMC3542601  PMID: 23171847
DNA methylation; Dnmt1; knockout; retina; development; mouse; neuronal differentiation and survival
2.  Intratendinous ganglion cyst of the semimembranosus tendon 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(988):e079-e082.
Intratendinous ganglion cyst is a very rare lesion with an unknown aetiology that originates within the tendon. We encountered a case of 43-year-old woman who complained of a palpable, non-tender mass in the thigh with increasing swelling. An intratendinous ganglion cyst in the semimembranosus tendon of the lower extremity was diagnosed and located by ultrasound and MRI. Nine months after a surgical excision, there were recurrent ganglion cysts along the semimembranosus tendon. We describe this case with a review of the relevant literature.
PMCID: PMC3473447  PMID: 20335437
3.  Cloning of the Ribosomal Protein L41 Gene of Phaffia rhodozyma and Its Use as a Drug Resistance Marker for Transformation 
The ribosomal protein L41 gene of Phaffia rhodozyma was cloned and used as a dominant selectable marker for cycloheximide resistance in the transformation of P. rhodozyma. Electrotransformation with a plasmid containing a ribosomal DNA fragment as a targeting signal typically yielded 800 to 1,200 transformants/μg of DNA with an integrated copy number of about seven per haploid genome.
PMCID: PMC106257  PMID: 9572978
4.  Construction of a Helicobacter pylori-Escherichia coli shuttle vector for gene transfer in Helicobacter pylori. 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1997;63(12):4866-4871.
In this study, a Helicobacter pylori-Escherichia coli shuttle vector was constructed for transferring DNA into H. pylori. The smallest cryptic plasmid (1.2 kb), pHP489, among those harbored by 77 H. pylori isolates was selected as a base replicon for constructing vectors. HindIII-digested pHP489 was ligated with a kanamycin resistance gene [aph(3')-III], which originated from Campylobacter jejuni, to produce the recombinant plasmid pHP489K. pHP489K was efficiently transformed into and stably maintained in H. pylori strains. The shuttle vector pBHP489K (3.6 kb) was constructed by the recombination of pHP489, ColE1, and aph(3')-III sequences. pBHP489K was reciprocally transformed into and maintained in both H. pylori and E. coli. Introduction of the shuttle vector clone DNA (pBHP489K/AB; 6.7 kb), containing the ureA and ureB genes of H. pylori, into urease-negative mutants of H. pylori led to the restoration of their urease activity. The transformants were confirmed to contain the incoming plasmid DNA. pBHP489K satisfied the requirements for an H. pylori-E. coli shuttle vector, implying that it might be a useful vector for investigating pathogenicity and restriction-modification systems of H. pylori.
PMCID: PMC168813  PMID: 9406406
5.  Anaerobic and aerobic degradation of pyridine by a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium. 
New denitrifying bacteria that could degrade pyridine under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were isolated from industrial wastewater. The successful enrichment and isolation of these strains required selenite as a trace element. These isolates appeared to be closely related to Azoarcus species according to the results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. An isolated strain, pF6, metabolized pyridine through the same pathway under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Since pyridine induced NAD-linked glutarate-dialdehyde dehydrogenase and isocitratase activities, it is likely that the mechanism of pyridine degradation in strain pF6 involves N-C-2 ring cleavage. Strain pF6 could degrade pyridine in the presence of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide as electron acceptors. In a batch culture with 6 mM nitrate, degradation of pyridine and denitrification were not sensitively affected by the redox potential, which gradually decreased from 150 to -200 mV. In a batch culture with the nitrate concentration higher than 6 mM, nitrite transiently accumulated during denitrification significantly inhibited cell growth and pyridine degradation. Growth yield on pyridine decreased slightly under denitrifying conditions from that under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, when the pyridine concentration used was above 12 mM, the specific growth rate under denitrifying conditions was higher than that under aerobic conditions. Considering these characteristics, a newly isolated denitrifying bacterium, strain pF6, has advantages over strictly aerobic bacteria in field applications.
PMCID: PMC168555  PMID: 9212408
6.  Pathogenesis and prevention of stomach cancer. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1996;11(5):373-385.
In many Western developed countries, the incidence of stomach cancer has declined dramatically. This decrease was an extraordinary, "unplanned triumph", especially when compared to other cancers. Stomach cancer is still the most prevalent malignant tumor in Korea. Most Koreans carry Helicobacter pylori in their stomach. Thus, a new hypothesis, based on the relationship between the host and Helicobacter pylori, is presented as the carcinogenesis of human stomach cancer. The reasons for why the N-nitrosamide hypothesis should be dismissed as the etiology of stomach cancer, and why the contemporarily available principles and practice of intervention strategies to rapidly decrease the surprisingly high prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori infection are impractical at this moment, are explained. In order to introduce an alternative provisional strategy of the "planned triumph" for the population vulnerable to stomach cancer, vitamin C is defined as an anti-inflammatory agent on the basis of the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC3054180  PMID: 8934391
7.  A novel autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) for multiple integration in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha DL-1. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1996;178(15):4420-4428.
Several autonomously replicating sequences of Hansenula polymorpha DL-1 (HARSs) with the characteristics of tandem integration were cloned by an enrichment procedure and analyzed for their functional elements to elucidate the mechanism of multiple integration in tandem repeats. All plasmids harboring newly cloned HARSs showed a high frequency of transformation and were maintained episomally before stabilization. After stabilization, the transforming DNA was stably integrated into the chromosome. HARS36 was selected for its high efficiency of transformation and tendency for integration. Several tandemly repeated copies of the transforming plasmid containing HARS36 (pCE36) integrated into the vicinity of the chromosomal end. Bal 31 digestion of the total DNA from the integrants followed by Southern blotting generated progressive shortening of the hybridization signal, indicating the telomeric localization of the transforming plasmids on the chromosome. The minimum region of HARS36 required for its HARS activity was analyzed by deletion analyses. Three important regions, A, B, and C, for episomal replication and integration were detected. Analysis of the DNA sequences of regions A and B required for the episomal replication revealed that region A contained several AT-rich sequences that showed sequence homology with the ARS core consensus sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Region B contained two directly repeated sequences which were predicted to form a bent DNA structure. Deletion of the AT-rich core in region A resulted in a complete loss of ARS activity, and deletion of the repeated sequences in region B greatly reduced the stability of the transforming plasmid and resulted in retarded cell growth. Region C was required for the facilitated chromosomal integration of transforming plasmids.
PMCID: PMC178207  PMID: 8755868
8.  A comparative study of the surgical procedures to treat advanced Kienböck's disease. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1996;11(2):171-178.
We have treated a total of 16 cases of advanced Kienböck's disease, stage III and IV by Lichtman's classification, with triscaphe fusion, tendon ball replacement arthroplasty after excision of lunate, proximal row carpectomy as a salvage procedure and limited wrist fusion, since 1985. All cases were followed for minimal 16 months after each operation. Tendon ball replacement arthroplasty after excision of lunate could not prevent further carpal collapse with persistent chronic wrist pain. The triscaphe fusion or radio-lunate fusion induced a marked limited wrist motion later, and the triscaphe fusion alone was not fit for the treatment of advanced one because of progressive proximal migration of capitate and continuous wrist pain due to ligamentous carpal instability in follow-up. So we tried to simultaneously combine tendon ball replacement arthroplasty after excision of lunate with triscaphe fusion in far advanced Kienböck's disease, and their end results was favorable. Proximal row carpectomy could be done in far advanced Kienböck's disease with reasonably painless wrist motions. The overall end results of proximal row carpectomy are much better than any form of carpal arthrodesis. Conclusively the proper way to treat advanced Kienböck's disease seems to depend on the patient's age, their job and sex, and the stage of disease. And the cause of wrist pain in advanced Kienböck's disease seems due to ligamentous carpal instability rather than osteoarthritis on radio-lunate joint.
PMCID: PMC3053935  PMID: 8835766
9.  A novel aerobic respiratory chain-linked NADH oxidase system in Zymomonas mobilis. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1995;177(17):5176-5178.
Membrane vesicles prepared from Zymomonas mobilis oxidized NADH exclusively, whereas deamino-NADH was little oxidized. In addition, the respiratory chain-linked NADH oxidase system exhibited only a single apparent Km value of approximately 66 microM for NADH. The NADH oxidase was highly sensitive to the respiratory chain inhibitor 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide. However, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase was not sensitive to 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide and was highly resistant to another respiratory chain inhibitor, rotenone. Electron transfer from NADH to oxygen generated a proton electrochemical gradient (inside positive) in inside-out membrane vesicles. In contrast, electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone-1 generated no electrochemical gradient. These findings indicate that Z. mobilis possesses only NADH:quinone oxidoreductase lacking the energy coupling site.
PMCID: PMC177303  PMID: 7665502
10.  Development of epidemiological method for the Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction. 
The polymerase chain reaction was used to develop a method for the detection of Helicobacter pylori, a causative agent of gastritis, as well as for the elucidation of its mode of transmission. A genomic library of Helicobacter pylori DNA in Escherichia coli JM109 was constructed by cloning Hind III-digested DNA fragments into plasmid vector pUC18. The nucleotide sequences from seven recombinant clones were determined and five sets of oligonucleotide primers were synthesized on the basis of the sequences from five clones (B4, B9, B10, C15 and I22). The PCR amplifications with these primers were performed using DNA samples from five strains of Helicobacter pylori, two Campylobacter spp. and eleven species of enteric bacteria. Amplifications of the target DNA fragments in all of 5 strains of Helicobacter pylori were observed from the PCR with primers derived from clone B4, B9, C15 and I22. When the specificity was checked with the DNA samples from 13 other bacteria as template DNA for the PCR, specific amplification that produced the correct size of the target DNA of Helicobacter pylori was shown only in the PCR with primers derived from clone B9 and C15. The detection limit in the PCR amplification, determined by the heat-lysis method, was 500 cells of Helicobacter pylori.
PMCID: PMC3049712  PMID: 1844643
12.  Purification of heat-labile enterotoxin from an enterotoxin from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of human origin by monoclonal immunoaffinity chromatography. 
Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) was purified from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 015H11 of human origin. The purification steps included French pressure cell disruption of the bacteria, salting-out, DEAE-Sephacel on chromatography. Application of this procedure resulted in a 95.1-fold purification of LT with a yield of 19.9% as determined by rabbit ileal loop assay. The final LT preparation showed only one protein-staining band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the purified LT was homogeneous.
PMCID: PMC3053640  PMID: 3077605
13.  Effect of environmental pH on chain length of lactobacillus bulgaricus. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1980;144(3):865-868.
Culture medium pH was found to affect strongly the chain length of lactobacillus bulgaricus NLS-4 cells. The organism was cultured continuously in glucose-limited complex medium of different pH's with constant agitation at 250 rpm under anaerobic headspace. The cell chains increased their lengths with an increase in pH and yielded clumps of folded filaments at pH above 8.0. Involvement of an autolytic enzyme(s) in the separation of L. bulgaricus cells was confirmed, and the poor synthesis of this enzyme(s) under alkaline culture conditions could explain the pH-related filamentous growth of this organism.
PMCID: PMC294746  PMID: 7440507
14.  Effect of environmental pH on fermentation balance of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1980;144(1):217-221.
When Lactobacillus bulgaricus NLS-4 was grown anaerobically in continuous culture with limiting glucose, a shift in the pH of the medium from the acidic to the alkaline range caused this normally homofermentative bacterium to catabolize glucose in a heterofermentative fashion. The change in the nature of the fermentation was accompanied by a decrease in lactate dehydrogenase biosynthesis in alkaline conditions. The lactate dehydrogenase from this organism did not require fructose 1,6-diphosphate or manganese ions (Mn2+) for catalytic activity. Involvement of the phosphoroclastic split in the pyruvate conversion in an alkaline environment was also confirmed. The high lactate dehydrogenase synthesis in acidic medium together with the participation of the phosphoroclastic split under alkaline conditions may explain the shift from homolactic to heterolactic fermentation of L. bulgaricus NLS-4 with the change of environmental pH.
PMCID: PMC294626  PMID: 7419489
15.  Effects of magnesium and ionic strength on the diffusion and charge properties of several single tRNA species. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1981;9(10):2411-2420.
The technique of laser light scattering was used to evaluate the effects of Mg+2 and ionic strength on the solution structures of seven tRNA species. Information about ion effects on both conformation and electric charge were derived from measurements of the translational diffusion constants and diffusive virial coefficients. E. coli tRNAMetf and six elongator tRNAs from both Class I and II were studied. The diffusion measurements show that the responses of all but the initiator species are qualitatively similar to each other and to that of bulk tRNA, but that significant quantitative differences also obtain. All of the elongator species exhibited an anomolous increase in diffusivity reported earlier by us for bulk tRNA when placed in a low salt-low Mg+2 condition. The initiator tRNA did not undergo this transition and unlike the other tRNAs tested was apparently more compact in 1 mM Mg+2 than 10 mM Mg+2 at ionic strengths in excess of 0.1 M. At 0.1 M ionic strength, pH 7.2, the average net charge of the tRNAs ranged from 7-12 e- in 1 mM Mg+2 and 3-7 e- in 10 mM Mg+2, consistent with the binding of 1-2 additional Mg+2 ions in the higher Mg+2 condition.
PMCID: PMC326854  PMID: 7019856

Results 1-15 (15)