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author:("Ren, guanyuan")
1.  Clinical features of olfactory disorders in patients seeking medical consultation 
Background
Olfactory disorders are common complaints in ENT clinics. We investigated causes and relevant features of olfactory disorders and the need for gustatory testing in patients with olfactory dysfunction.
Material/Methods
A total of 140 patients seeking medical consultations were enrolled. All patients were asked about their olfactory disorders in a structured interview of medical history and underwent thorough otolaryngologic examinations and imaging of the head.
Results
Causes of olfactory disorders were classified as: upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), sinonasal diseases (NSD), head trauma, idiopathic, endoscopic sinus surgery, congenital anosmia, and other causes. Each of the various causes of olfactory dysfunction had its own distinct clinical features. Nineteen of 54 patients whose gustation was assessed had gustatory disorders.
Conclusions
The leading causes of olfactory dysfunction were URTI, NSD, head trauma, and idiopathic causes. Gustatory disorders were fairly common in patients with olfactory dysfunction. High priority should be given to complaints of olfactory disorders.
doi:10.12659/MSM.883938
PMCID: PMC3681540  PMID: 23748259
olfactory dysfunction; diagnosis; etiology; chemosensory assessment
2.  Transcriptional profiling by cDNA-AFLP analysis showed differential transcript abundance in response to water stress in Populus hopeiensis 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:286.
Background
Drought is one of the main environmental factors limiting tree growth and productivity of plantation forests worldwide. Populus hopeiensis Hu et Chow is one of the most important commercial plantation tree species in China. However, the genes controlling drought tolerance in this species have not been identified or characterized. Here, we conducted differential expression analyses and identified a number of genes that were up- or downregulated in P. hopeiensis during water stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study of differentially expressed genes in water-stressed P. hopeiensis.
Results
Using the cDNA-AFLP detection technique, we used 256 primer combinations to identify differentially expressed genes in P. hopeiensis during water stress. In total, 415 transcript derived-fragments (TDFs) were obtained from 10× deep sequencing of 473 selected TDFs. Of the 415 TDFs, 412 were annotated by BLAST searches against various databases. The majority of these genes encoded products involved in ion transport and compartmentalization, cell division, metabolism, and protein synthesis. The TDFs were clustered into 12 groups on the basis of their expression patterns. Of the 415 reliable TDFs, the sequences of 35 were homologous to genes that play roles in short or long-term resistance to drought stress. Some genes were further selected for validation of cDNA-AFLP expression patterns using real-time PCR analyses. The results confirmed the expression patterns that were detected using the cDNA-AFLP technique.
Conclusion
The cDNA-AFLP technique is an effective and powerful tool for identifying candidate genes that are differentially expressed under water stress. We demonstrated that 415 TDFs were differentially expressed in water-stressed poplar. The products of these genes are involved in various biological processes in the drought response of poplar. The results of this study will aid in the identification of candidate genes of future experiments aimed at understanding this response of poplar.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-286
PMCID: PMC3443059  PMID: 22747754
3.  Examination of chemosensory functions in patients with dysosmia 
Summary
Background
To examine changes of chemical sensory functions in patients with dysosmia.
Material/Methods
The 272 study subjects included 98 healthy volunteers, 86 subjects with hyposmia and 88 subjects with functional anosmia. Their chemical sensory functions were examined using olfactory event-related potentials (oERPs), trigeminal event-related potentials (tERPs), T&T olfactometer and triple drop method, respectively.
Results
The T&T results showed that the difference between patients and healthy subjects had statistical significance. The oERPs and tERPs results showed that patients with functional anosmia had N1 and P2 waves of prolonged latency and reduced amplitude when compared to healthy subjects with the difference of statistical significance. When compared to healthy subjects, patients with functional anosmia had clear hypogeusia and the difference had statistical significance. For the younger group there was significant difference between healthy subjects and patients in T&T, oERPs and tERPs results.
Conclusions
It is suggested by the apparently concomitant trigeminal nerve dysfunction and hypogeusia in patients with functional anosmia in this study that olfactory and nasal trigeminal function in young patients was clearly decreased. Our study suggests the possible application of oERPs, tERPs and three drops method in clinical diagnosis in Chinese populations and provides scientific evidence for treatment.
doi:10.12659/MSM.882520
PMCID: PMC3560743  PMID: 22367126
olfaction; gustation; olfactory event-related potentials; T&T olfactometer; trigeminal event-related potentials; three drops method

Results 1-3 (3)