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1.  Rhizophora mucronata var. alokii – a new variety of mangrove species from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India (Rhizophoraceae) 
PhytoKeys  2015;95-103.
Rhizophora mucronata var. alokii (Rhizophoraceae), a new variety of Rhizophora from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, is described and illustrated. The new variety is remarkable in having four stamens, laterally folded leaves, a short peduncle, thick leathery petals, and a four-sided ovary with a sessile style. A key for the species of Rhizophora of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is also provided.
doi:10.3897/phytokeys.52.5037
PMCID: PMC4549885  PMID: 26312036
Rhizophoraceae; Rhizophora mucronata var. alokii; new variety; Andaman and Nicobar Islands; India
2.  Essential versus accessory aspects of cell death: recommendations of the NCCD 2015 
Galluzzi, L | Bravo-San Pedro, J M | Vitale, I | Aaronson, S A | Abrams, J M | Adam, D | Alnemri, E S | Altucci, L | Andrews, D | Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M | Baehrecke, E H | Bazan, N G | Bertrand, M J | Bianchi, K | Blagosklonny, M V | Blomgren, K | Borner, C | Bredesen, D E | Brenner, C | Campanella, M | Candi, E | Cecconi, F | Chan, F K | Chandel, N S | Cheng, E H | Chipuk, J E | Cidlowski, J A | Ciechanover, A | Dawson, T M | Dawson, V L | De Laurenzi, V | De Maria, R | Debatin, K-M | Di Daniele, N | Dixit, V M | Dynlacht, B D | El-Deiry, W S | Fimia, G M | Flavell, R A | Fulda, S | Garrido, C | Gougeon, M-L | Green, D R | Gronemeyer, H | Hajnoczky, G | Hardwick, J M | Hengartner, M O | Ichijo, H | Joseph, B | Jost, P J | Kaufmann, T | Kepp, O | Klionsky, D J | Knight, R A | Kumar, S | Lemasters, J J | Levine, B | Linkermann, A | Lipton, S A | Lockshin, R A | López-Otín, C | Lugli, E | Madeo, F | Malorni, W | Marine, J-C | Martin, S J | Martinou, J-C | Medema, J P | Meier, P | Melino, S | Mizushima, N | Moll, U | Muñoz-Pinedo, C | Nuñez, G | Oberst, A | Panaretakis, T | Penninger, J M | Peter, M E | Piacentini, M | Pinton, P | Prehn, J H | Puthalakath, H | Rabinovich, G A | Ravichandran, K S | Rizzuto, R | Rodrigues, C M | Rubinsztein, D C | Rudel, T | Shi, Y | Simon, H-U | Stockwell, B R | Szabadkai, G | Tait, S W | Tang, H L | Tavernarakis, N | Tsujimoto, Y | Vanden Berghe, T | Vandenabeele, P | Villunger, A | Wagner, E F | Walczak, H | White, E | Wood, W G | Yuan, J | Zakeri, Z | Zhivotovsky, B | Melino, G | Kroemer, G
Cell Death and Differentiation  2014;22(1):58-73.
Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as ‘accidental cell death' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with the fact that its course can be altered by pharmacologic or genetic interventions. ‘Regulated cell death' (RCD) can occur as part of physiologic programs or can be activated once adaptive responses to perturbations of the extracellular or intracellular microenvironment fail. The biochemical phenomena that accompany RCD may be harnessed to classify it into a few subtypes, which often (but not always) exhibit stereotyped morphologic features. Nonetheless, efficiently inhibiting the processes that are commonly thought to cause RCD, such as the activation of executioner caspases in the course of apoptosis, does not exert true cytoprotective effects in the mammalian system, but simply alters the kinetics of cellular demise as it shifts its morphologic and biochemical correlates. Conversely, bona fide cytoprotection can be achieved by inhibiting the transduction of lethal signals in the early phases of the process, when adaptive responses are still operational. Thus, the mechanisms that truly execute RCD may be less understood, less inhibitable and perhaps more homogeneous than previously thought. Here, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death formulates a set of recommendations to help scientists and researchers to discriminate between essential and accessory aspects of cell death.
doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.137
PMCID: PMC4262782  PMID: 25236395
3.  4-(2-Hy­droxy­phen­yl)-3,5-di­thia­hepta­ne­dioic acid 
In the crystal of the title compound, C11H12O5S2, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional network.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813012737
PMCID: PMC3685050  PMID: 23795069
4.  3-Isopropyl-2,6-bis­(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)­piperidin-4-one 
In the title compound, C22H27NO3, the piperidine ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 60.4 (1)°. In the crystal, the amino group forms a rather long N—H⋯O contact to a methoxy O atom. There are also C—H⋯O interactions present.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812030966
PMCID: PMC3414364  PMID: 22904897
5.  1-Formyl-c-3,t-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-6-di­phenyl­piperidin-4-one 
In the title compound, C20H21NO2, the piperidine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The phenyl rings substituted at the 2- and 6-positions of the piperidine ring subtend angles of 86.0 (1) and 67.3 (1)° with the mean plane of the piperidine ring (all six non-H atoms). The crystal packing features C—H⋯O inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812007015
PMCID: PMC3297920  PMID: 22412723
6.  2-Meth­oxy­quinoline-3-carbaldehyde 
In the title compound, C11H9NO2, the quinoline ring system is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.005 Å) and the meth­oxy and aldehyde groups are almost coplanar with it [N—C—O—C = 6.24 (19) and O—C—C—C = 0.3 (2)°]. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming centrosymmetric R 2 2(10) dimers. The dimers are linked via π–π inter­actions involving the pyridine and benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.639 (1) Å].
doi:10.1107/S1600536810034744
PMCID: PMC2983248  PMID: 21587505
7.  8-Meth­oxy-3,3,5-trimethyl-3,11-dihydro­pyrano[3,2-a]carbazole 
In the title compound, C19H19NO2, commonly called koenimbine, the pyran ring adopts a sofa conformation. The carbazole ring system is planar [r.m.s. deviation = 0.063 (1) Å]. A C(10) zigzag chain running along the b axis is formed through inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The chains are linked via weak C—H⋯π and N—H⋯π inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S160053681002074X
PMCID: PMC3006796  PMID: 21587821
8.  1-Chloro­acetyl-2,6-bis­(2-chloro­phen­yl)-3,5-dimethyl­piperidin-4-one oxime 
In the title compound, C21H21Cl3N2O2, the piperidine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. One of the chloro­phenyl rings is almost perpendicular to the best plane through piperidine ring, making a dihedral angle of 88.7 (1)°, whereas the other ring is twisted by 71.8 (1)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯O, C—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯O inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536810018489
PMCID: PMC2979383  PMID: 21579566
9.  1-Formyl-t-3,t-5-dimethyl-r-2,c-6-diphenyl­piperidin-4-one 
In the title compound, C20H21NO2, the piperidine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 61.33 (18)°. In the crystal, inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into zigzag C(5) chains running parallel to [100].
doi:10.1107/S1600536810018490
PMCID: PMC2979406  PMID: 21579565
10.  1-Chloro­acetyl-3-isopropyl-r-2,c-6-diphenyl­piperidin-4-one 
In the title compound, C22H24ClNO2, the piperidine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 83.2 (1)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked into chains running along the b axis by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The Cl atom of the chloro­acetyl group is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.66 (2) and 0.34 (2).
doi:10.1107/S160053680905497X
PMCID: PMC2979709  PMID: 21579713
11.  1-Acetyl-t-3-ethyl-r-2,c-6-bis­(4-methoxy­phen­yl)piperidin-4-one 
In the title compound, C23H27NO4, the piperidine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The meth­oxy groups lie in the plane of benzene rings to which they are attached [maximum deviations of 0.014 (3) and 0.007 (3) Å]. The benzene rings are oriented at angles of 67.2 (1) and 87.0 (1)° with respect to the best plane through the four co-planar atoms of the piperidine ring.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809054737
PMCID: PMC2979765  PMID: 21579712
12.  1-Dichloro­acetyl-r-2,c-6-bis­(4-methoxy­phen­yl)-t-3-methyl­piperidin-4-one 
In the title compound, C22H23Cl2NO4, the piperidine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The meth­oxy groups lie in the plane of the benzene rings to which they are attached. The benzene rings are oriented at angles of 84.3 (1) and 76.8 (1)° with respect to the best plane through the piperidine ring. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular C—H⋯O inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809054713
PMCID: PMC2979921  PMID: 21579703
13.  1-Dichloro­acetyl-r-2,c-6-bis­(4-methoxy­phen­yl)-t-3,t-5-dimethyl­piperidin-4-one 
In the title compound, C23H25Cl2NO4, the piperidine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 54.8 (1)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked into a two-dimensional network parallel to the ab plane by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809054725
PMCID: PMC2979939  PMID: 21579704
14.  (E)-3-(4-Bromo­phen­yl)-3-[3-(4-bromo­phen­yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]prop-2-enal 
There are two crystallographically independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C18H12Br2N2O. In each mol­ecule, one of the bromo­phenyl rings lies almost in the plane of pyrazole unit [dihedral angles of 5.8 (3)° in the first mol­ecule and and 5.1 (3)° in the second] while the other ring is approximately perpendicular to it [dihedral angles of 80.3 (3) and 76.5 (3)°]. The crystal packing shows inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions. The crystal studied was a racemic twin.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809054749
PMCID: PMC2979980  PMID: 21579715
15.  t-3-Ethyl-r-2,c-7-bis­(4-methoxy­phen­yl)-1,4-diazepan-5-one 
The title compound, C21H26N2O3, crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In both independent mol­ecules, the diazepine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the independent mol­ecules exist as N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonded R 2 2(8) dimers which are linked via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming tetra­mers. The tetra­mers are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In one of the molecules in the asymmetric unit, the terminal C atom of the ethyl group is disordered over two positions with refined occupancies of 0.742 (4) and 0.258 (4).
doi:10.1107/S1600536809043311
PMCID: PMC2971068  PMID: 21578470
16.  Chloridobis(ethane-1,2-diamine)(4-methyl­aniline)cobalt(III) dichloride monohydrate 
In the title compound, [CoCl(C2H8N2)2(C7H9N)]Cl2·H2O, the CoIII ion has a distorted octa­hedral coordination environment and is surrounded by four N atoms in an equatorial plane, with the other N and Cl atoms occupying the axial positions. The crystal packing is stabilized by N—H⋯O, N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809043323
PMCID: PMC2971162  PMID: 21578186
17.  c-3,t-3-Dimethyl-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-one 
In the title compound, C19H22N2O, the diazepine ring adopts a distorted chair conformation. One of the N—H groups forms an inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond generating an R 2 2(8) graph-set motif. The other N—H group does not form a hydrogen bond.
doi:10.1107/S160053680904330X
PMCID: PMC2971222  PMID: 21578469
18.  1-Chloro­acetyl-r-2,c-6-bis­(4-methoxy­phen­yl)-t-3-methyl­piperidin-4-one 
There are two crystallographically independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C22H24ClNO4. The piperidine ring in both mol­ecules adopts a distorted boat conformation. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809043281
PMCID: PMC2971376  PMID: 21578468
19.  5-Dichloro­acetyl-4-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one hemihydrate 
There are two crystallographically independent organic mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C12H12Cl2N2O2·0.5H2O. The benzodiazepine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation in both molecules. The crystal packing is controlled by N—H⋯O, C—H⋯O and O—H⋯O intra- and inter­molecular hydrogen bonds. A graph-set motif of R 3 3(14) dimer formation by a combination of N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilizes the mol­ecules and extends along a axis.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809036940
PMCID: PMC2970202  PMID: 21577993
20.  4-Methyl-2-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine-5-carbaldehyde 
In the title compound, C11H12N2O2, a benzodiazepine derivative, the seven-membered ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The crystal packing is controlled by inter­molecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809034825
PMCID: PMC2970231  PMID: 21577830
21.  (Benzyl­amine)chloridobis(ethane-1,2-diamine)cobalt(III) dichloride hemihydrate 
In the title compound, [CoCl(C2H8N2)2(C7H9N)]Cl2·0.5H2O, there are two crystallographically independent cations and anions and one water mol­ecule in the asymmetric unit. Both CoIII ions are bonded to two chelating ethylenediamine ligands, one benzylamine molecule and one chloride ion. The crystal packing is through N—H⋯O, N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809034849
PMCID: PMC2970310  PMID: 21577710
22.  2,2,4-Trimethyl-5-(4-tolyl­sulfon­yl)-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,5-benzo­diazepine 
In the title compound, C19H24N2O2S, the benzodiazepine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The S atom shows a distorted tetra­hedral geometry, with the O—S—O [119.16 (14)°] and N—S—C [107.48 (10)°] angles deviating significantly from ideal values. The crystal packing is controlled by C—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809034837
PMCID: PMC2970367  PMID: 21577831
23.  5-Chloro­acetyl-4-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one 
In the title compound, C12H13ClN2O2, the benzodiazepine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The carbonyl O atom and the Cl atom of the chloro­acetyl group are in a cis conformation. The crystal packing is controlled by inter­molecular C—H⋯O and N—H⋯O inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809034813
PMCID: PMC2970477  PMID: 21577829
24.  Evidence for a requirement for both phospholipid and phosphotyrosine binding via the Shc phosphotyrosine-binding domain in vivo. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1997;17(9):5540-5549.
The adapter protein Shc is a critical component of mitogenic signaling pathways initiated by a number of receptors. Shc can directly bind to several tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors through its phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and a role for the PTB domain in phosphotyrosine-mediated signaling has been well documented. The structure of the Shc PTB domain demonstrated a striking homology to the structures of pleckstrin homology domains, which suggested acidic phospholipids as a second ligand for the Shc PTB domain. Here we demonstrate that Shc binding via its PTB domain to acidic phospholipids is as critical as binding to phosphotyrosine for leading to Shc phosphorylation. Through structure-based, targeted mutagenesis of the Shc PTB domain, we first identified the residues within the PTB domain critical for phospholipid binding in vitro. In vivo, the PTB domain was essential for localization of Shc to the membrane, as mutant Shc proteins that failed to interact with phospholipids in vitro also failed to localize to the membrane. We also observed that PTB domain-dependent targeting to the membrane preceded the PTB domain's interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated receptor and that both events were essential for tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc following receptor activation. Thus, Shc, through its interaction with two different ligands, is able to accomplish both membrane localization and binding to the activated receptor via a single PTB domain.
PMCID: PMC232402  PMID: 9271429
25.  Interaction of Shc with Grb2 regulates association of Grb2 with mSOS. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1995;15(2):593-600.
The adapter protein Shc has been implicated in Ras signaling via many receptors, including the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR), B-cell antigen receptor, interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-3 receptor, erythropoietin receptor, and insulin receptor. Moreover, transformation via polyomavirus middle T antigen is dependent on its interaction with Shc and Shc tyrosine phosphorylation. One of the mechanisms of TCR-mediated, tyrosine kinase-dependent Ras activation involves the simultaneous interaction of phosphorylated Shc with the TCR zeta chain and with a second adapter protein, Grb2. Grb2, in turn, interacts with the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor mSOS, thereby leading to Ras activation. Although it has been reported that in fibroblasts Grb2 and mSOS constitutively associate with each other and that growth factor stimulation does not alter the levels of Grb2:mSOS association, we show here that TCR stimulation leads to a significant increase in the levels of Grb2 associated with mSOS. This enhanced Grb2:mSOS association, which occurs through an SH3-proline-rich sequence interaction, is regulated through the SH2 domain of Grb2. The following observations support a role for Shc in regulating the Grb2:mSOS association: (i) a phosphopeptide corresponding to the sequence surrounding Tyr-317 of Shc, which displaces Shc from Grb2, abolished the enhanced association between Grb2 and mSOS; and (ii) addition of phosphorylated Shc to unactivated T cell lysates was sufficient to enhance the interaction of Grb2 with mSOS. Furthermore, using fusion proteins encoding different domains of Shc, we show that the collagen homology domain of Shc (which includes the Tyr-317 site) can mediate this effect. Thus, the Shc-mediated regulation of Grb2:mSOS association may provide a means for controlling the extent of Ras activation following receptor stimulation.
PMCID: PMC231912  PMID: 7529871

Results 1-25 (26)