Phosphotriesterase (PTE) from soil bacteria is known for its ability to catalyze the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides and chemical warfare agents. Most of the organophosphate chemical warfare agents are a mixture of two stereoisomers at the phosphorus center and the SP-enantiomers are significantly more toxic than the RP-enantiomers. In previous investigations PTE variants were created through the manipulation of the substrate binding pockets and these mutants were shown to have greater catalytic activities for the detoxification of the more toxic SP-enantiomers of nerve agent analogs for GB, GD, GF, VX, and VR than the less toxic RP-enantiomers. In this investigation alternate strategies were employed to discover additional PTE variants with significant improvements in catalytic activities relative to the wild type enzyme. Screening and selection techniques were utilized to isolate PTE variants from randomized libraries and site specific modifications. The catalytic activities of these newly identified PTE variants towards the SP-enantiomers of chromophoric analogs of GB, GD, GF, VX, and VR have been improved up to 15,000 fold relative to the wild-type enzyme. The X-ray crystal structures of the best PTE variants were determined. Characterization of these mutants with the authentic G-type nerve agents has confirmed the expected improvements in catalytic activity against the most toxic enantiomers of GB, GD, and GF. The values of kcat/Km for the H257Y/L303T (YT) mutant for the hydrolysis of GB, GD, and GF were determined to be 2 × 106 M−1 s−1, 5 × 105 M−1 s−1, and 8 × 105 M−1 s−1, respectively. The YT mutant is the most proficient enzyme reported thus far for the detoxification of G-type nerve agents. These results support a combinatorial strategy of rational design and directed evolution as a powerful tool to discover more efficient enzymes for the detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents.
LigI from Sphingomonas paucimobilis catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate (PDC) to 4-oxalomesaconate (OMA) and 4-carboxy-2-hydroxymuconate (CHM) in the degradation of lignin. This protein is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily of enzymes. The protein was expressed in E. coli and then purified to homogeneity. The purified recombinant enzyme does not contain bound metal ions and the addition of metal chelators or divalent metal ions to the assay mixtures does not affect the rate of product formation. This is the first enzyme from the amidohydrolase superfamily that does not require a divalent metal ion for catalytic activity. The kinetic constants for the hydrolysis of PDC are 340 s−1 and 9.8 × 106 M−1s−1 for the values of kcat, and kcat/Km respectively. The pH dependence on the kinetic constants suggests that a single active site residue must be deprotonated for the hydrolysis of PDC. The site of nucleophilic attack was determined by conducting the hydrolysis of PDC in 18O-labeled water and subsequent 13C NMR analysis. The crystal structures of wild-type LigI and the D248A mutant in the presence of the reaction product were determined to a resolution of 1.9 Å. The C-8 and C-11 carboxylate groups of PDC are coordinated within the active site via ion pair interactions with Arg-130 and Arg-124, respectively. The hydrolytic water molecule is activated by a proton transfer to Asp-248. The carbonyl group of the lactone substrate is activated by electrostatic interactions with His-180, His-31 and His-33.
Two enzymes of unknown function from the cog1735 subset of the amidohydrolase superfamily (AHS), LMOf2365_2620 (Lmo2620) from Listeria monocytogenes str. 4b F2365 and Bh0225 from Bacillus halodurans C-125, were cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The catalytic functions of these two enzymes were interrogated by an integrated strategy encompassing bioinformatics, computational docking to three-dimensional crystal structures, and library screening. The three-dimensional structure of Lmo2620 was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å with two phosphates and a binuclear zinc center in the active site. The proximal phosphate bridges the binuclear metal center and is 7.1 Å away from the distal phosphate. The distal phosphate hydrogen bonds with Lys-242, Lys-244, Arg-275 and Tyr-278. Enzymes within cog1735 of the AHS have previously been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of substituted lactones. Computational docking of the high energy intermediate (HEI) form of the KEGG database to the three-dimensional structure of Lmo2620 highly enriched anionic lactones versus other candidate substrates. The active site structure and the computational docking results suggested that probable substrates would likely include phosphorylated sugar lactones. A small library of diacid sugar lactones and phosphorylated sugar lactones was synthesized and tested for substrate activity with Lmo2620 and Bh0225. Two substrates were identified for these enzymes, d-lyxono-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate and l-ribono-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate. The kcat/Km values for the cobalt-substituted enzymes with these substrates are ~105 M−1 s−1.
The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts.
An enzyme of unknown function within the amidohydrolase superfamily was discovered to catalyze the hydrolysis of N-6-substituted adenine derivatives, several of which are cytokinins. Cytokinins are a common type of plant hormone and N-6-substituted adenines are also found as modifications to tRNA. Patl2390, from Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c, was shown to hydrolytically deaminate N-6-isopentenyladenine to hypoxanthine and isopentenylamine with a kcat/Km of 1.2 × 107 M−1 s−1. Additional substrates include N-6-benzyl adenine, cis- and trans-zeatin, kinetin, O-6-methylguanine, N-6-butyladenine, N-6-methyladenine, N,N-dimethyladenine, 6-methoxypurine, 6-chloropurine, and 6-thiomethylpurine. This enzyme does not catalyze the deamination of adenine or adenosine. A comparative model of Patl2390 was computed using the three-dimensional crystal structure of Pa0148 (PDB code: 3PAO) as a structural template and docking was used to refine the model to accommodate experimentally identified substrates. This is the first identification of an enzyme that will hydrolyze an N-6 substituted side chain larger than methylamine from adenine.
Four proteins from NCBI cog1816, previously annotated as adenosine deaminases, have been subjected to structural and functional characterization. Pa0148 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1), AAur1117 (Arthrobacter aurescens TC1), Sgx9403e, and Sgx9403g, have been purified and their substrate profiles determined. Adenosine is not a substrate for any of these enzymes. All of these proteins will deaminate adenine to produce hypoxanthine with values of kcat/Km that exceed 105 M−1s−1. These enzymes will also accept 6-chloropurine, 6-methoxypurine, N-6-methyladenine, and 2,6-diaminopurine as alternate substrates. X-ray structures of Pa0148 and AAur1117 have been determined and reveal nearly identical distorted (β/α)8-barrels with a single zinc ion that is characteristic of members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. Structures of Pa0148 with adenine, 6-chloropurine and hypoxanthine were also determined thereby permitting identification of the residues responsible for coordinating the substrate and product.
Cytosine deaminase (CDA) from Escherichia coli was shown to catalyze the deamination of isoguanine (2-oxoadenine) to xanthine. Isoguanine is an oxidation product of adenine in DNA that is mutagenic to the cell. The isoguanine deaminase activity in E. coli was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The active protein was identified by peptide mass fingerprint analysis as cytosine deaminase. The kinetic constants for the deamination of isoguanine at pH 7.7 are kcat = 49 s-1, Km = 72 μM, and kcat/Km = 6.7 × 105 M-1 s-1. The kinetic constant for the deamination of cytosine are kcat = 45 s-1, Km = 302 μM, and kcat/Km = 1.5 × 105 M-1 s-1. Under these reaction conditions isoguanine is the better substrate for cytosine deaminase. The three dimensional structure of CDA was determined with isoguanine in the active site.
orphan enzymes; isoguanine deaminase
Cytosine deaminase (CDA) from E. coli is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily. The structure of the zinc-activated enzyme was determined in the presence of phosphonocytosine, a mimic of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate. This compound inhibits the deamination of cytosine with a Ki of 52 nM. The zinc and iron containing enzymes were characterized to determine the effect of the divalent cations on activation of the hydrolytic water. Fe-CDA loses activity at low pH with a kinetic pKa of 6.0 and Zn-CDA has a kinetic pKa of 7.3. Mutation of Gln-156 decreased the catalytic activity by more than 5 orders of magnitude, supporting its role in substrate binding. Mutation of Glu-217, Asp-313, and His-246 significantly decreased catalytic activity supporting the role of these three residues in activation of the hydrolytic water molecule and facilitation of proton transfer reactions. A library of potential substrates was used to probe the structural determinants responsible for catalytic activity. CDA was able to catalyze the deamination of isocytosine and the hydrolysis of 3-oxauracil. Large inverse solvent isotope effects were obtained on kcat and kcat/Km, consistent with the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond during the conversion of cytosine to uracil. A chemical mechanism for substrate deamination by CDA was proposed.
Adenine deaminase (ADE) catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. The enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli using standard expression conditions was low for the deamination of adenine (kcat = 2.0 s−1; kcat/Km = 2.5 × 103 M−1 s−1). However, when iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium was supplemented with Mn2+ prior to induction, the purified enzyme was substantially more active for the deamination of adenine with values of kcat and kcat/Km of 200 s−1 and 5 × 105 M−1s−1, respectively. The apo-enzyme was prepared and reconstituted with Fe2+, Zn2+, or Mn2+. In each case, two enzyme-equivalents of metal were necessary for reconstitution of the deaminase activity. This work provides the first example of any member within the deaminase sub-family of the amidohydrolase superfamily (AHS) to utilize a binuclear metal center for the catalysis of a deamination reaction. [FeII/FeII]-ADE was oxidized to [FeIII/FeIII]-ADE with ferricyanide with inactivation of the deaminase activity. Reducing [FeIII/FeIII]-ADE with dithionite restored the deaminase activity and thus the di-ferrous form of the enzyme is essential for catalytic activity. No evidence for spin-coupling between metal ions was evident by EPR or Mössbauer spectroscopies. The three-dimensional structure of adenine deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu4426) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 Å resolution and adenine was modeled into the active site based on homology to other members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. Based on the model of the adenine-ADE complex and subsequent mutagenesis experiments, the roles for each of the highly conserved residues were proposed. Solvent isotope effects, pH rate profiles and solvent viscosity were utilized to propose a chemical reaction mechanism and the identity of the rate limiting steps.
Two enzymes of unknown function from the amidohydrolase superfamily were discovered to catalyze the deamination of N-6-methyladenine to hypoxanthine and methyl amine. The methylation of adenine in bacterial DNA is a common modification for the protection of host DNA against restriction endonucleases. The enzyme from Bacillus halodurans, Bh0637, catalyzes the deamination of N-6-methyladenine with a kcat of 185 s−1 and a kcat/Km of 2.5 × 106 M−1 s−1. Bh0637 catalyzes the deamination of N-6-methyladenine two orders of magnitude faster than adenine. A comparative model of Bh0637 was computed using the three-dimensional structure of Atu4426 (PDB code: 3NQB) as a structural template and computational docking was used to rationalize the preferential utilization of N-6-methyladenine over adenine. This is the first identification of an N-6-methyladenine deaminase (6-MAD).
Imidazolonepropionase (HutI) (imidazolone-5-propanote hydrolase; EC 22.214.171.124) is a member of amidohydrolase superfamily and catalyzes the conversion of imidazolone-5-propanoate to N-formimino -L-glutamate in the histidine degradation pathway. We have determined the three dimensional crystal structures of HutI from A. tumefaciens (At-HutI) and an environmental sample from the Sargasso Sea Ocean Going Survey (Es-HutI) bound to the product [N-formimino-L-glutamate (NIG)] and an inhibitor [3-(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4yl)-propionic acid (DIP), respectively. In both structures the active site is contained within each monomer and its organization displays the landmark feature of amidohydrolase superfamily showing a metal ligand (iron), four histidines and one aspartic acid. A catalytic mechanism involving His265 is proposed based on the inhibitor bound structure. This mechanism is applicable to all HutI.
AHS; amidohydrolases; NIG; DIP; At-HutI; Es-HutI
Inhibitor docking studies have implicated a conserved glutamate residue (Glu-348) as a general base in the synthetase active site of the enzyme asparagine synthetase B from Escherichia coli (AS-B). We now report steady-state kinetic, isotope transfer and positional isotope exchange experiments for a series of site-directed AS-B mutants in which Glu-348 is substituted by conservative amino acid replacements. We find that formation of the β-aspartyl-AMP intermediate, and therefore the eventual production of asparagine, is dependent on the presence of a carboxylate side chain at this position in the synthetase active site. In addition, Glu-348 may also play a role in mediating the conformational changes needed to (i) coordinate, albeit weakly, the glutaminase and synthetase activities of the enzyme, and (ii) establish the structural integrity of the intramolecular tunnel along which ammonia is translocated. The importance of Glu-348 in mediating acyl-adenylate formation contrasts with the functional role of the cognate residues in β-lactam synthetase (BLS) and carbapenam synthetase (CPS) (Tyr-348 and Tyr-345, respectively), which both likely evolved from asparagine synthetase. Given the similarity of the chemistry catalyzed by AS-B, BLS and CPS, our work highlights the difficulty of predicting the functional outcome of single site mutations on enzymes that catalyze almost identical chemical transformations.
Asparagine Synthetase; Glutamine-dependent Amidotransferases; Steady-State Kinetics; Isotope Transfer; Positional Isotope Exchange; Adenylation; Enzyme Evolution
Wild-type phosphotriesterase (PTE) preferentially hydrolyzes the Rp-enantiomers of the nerve agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) and their chromophoric analogues. The active site of PTE can be subdivided into three binding pockets that have been denoted as the small, large and leaving group pockets based on high resolution crystal structures. The sizes and shapes of these pockets dictate the substrate specificity and the stereoselectivity for catalysis. Mutants of PTE have been prepared that exhibit substantial changes in substrate specificity and the ability to differentiate between chiral substrates. For example, the G60A is stereoselective for the hydrolysis of the Rp-enantiomer of the chromophoric analogues of sarin and cyclosarin whereas the H254G/H257W/L303T (GWT) mutant reverses the stereoselectivity for the enantiomers of these two compounds. Molecular dynamics simulations and high resolution X-ray structures identified the correlations between structural changes in the active site and the experimentally determined kinetic parameters for substrate hydrolysis. New high resolution structures were determined for the H257Y/L303T (YT), I106G/F132G/H257Y (GGY) and H254Q/H257F (QF) mutants of PTE. Molecular dynamics calculations were conducted using the Sp- and Rp-enantiomers of the analogues for sarin and cyclosarin for the wild-type PTE and the G60A, YT, GGY, QF, and GWT mutants. The experimental stereoselectivity correlated nicely with the difference in the computed angle of attack for the nucleophilic hydroxide relative to the phenolic leaving group of the substrate.
Organophosphorus compounds include many synthetic, neurotoxic substances that are commonly used as insecticides. The toxicity of these compounds is due to their ability to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholine esterase. Some of the most toxic organophosphates have been adapted for use as chemical warfare agents; the most well known are GA, GB, GD, GF, VX and VR. All of these compounds contain a chiral phosphorus center with the SP-enantiomers being significantly more toxic than the RP-enantiomers. Phosphotriesterase (PTE) is an enzyme capable of detoxifying these agents, but the stereochemical preference of the wild-type enzyme is for the RP-enantiomers. A series of enantiomerically pure chiral nerve agent analogues has been developed containing the relevant phosphoryl centers found in GB, GD, GF, VX and VR. Wild-type and mutant forms of PTE have been tested for their ability to hydrolyze this series of compounds. Mutant forms of PTE with significantly enhanced, as well as relaxed or reversed stereoselectivity, have been identified. A number of variants showed dramatically improved kinetic constants for the catalytic hydrolysis of the more toxic SP-enantiomers. Improvements of up to three orders of magnitude relative to the wild type enzyme were observed. Some of these mutants were tested against racemic mixtures of GB and GD. The kinetic constants obtained with the chiral nerve agent analogues accurately predict the improved activity and stereoselectivity against the authentic nerve agents used in this study.
Dr0930, a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily in Deinococcus radiodurans, was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme crystallized in the space group P3121 and the structure was determined to a resolution of 2.1 Å. The protein folds as a (β/α)7β-barrel and a binuclear metal center is found at the C-terminal end of the β-barrel. The purified protein contains a mixture of zinc and iron and is intensely purple at high concentrations. The purple color was determined to be due to a charge transfer complex between iron in the β-metal position and Tyr-97. Mutation of Tyr-97 to phenylalanine or complexation of the metal center with manganese abolished the absorbance in the visible region of the spectrum. Computational docking was used to predict potential substrates for this previously unannotated protein. The enzyme was found to catalyze the hydrolysis of δ- and γ-lactones with an alkyl substitution at the carbon adjacent to the ring oxygen. The best substrate was δ-nonanoic lactone with a kcat/Km of 1.6 × 106 M−1 s−1. Dr0930 was also found to catalyze the very slow hydrolysis of paraoxon with values of kcat and kcat/Km of 0.07 min−1 and 0.8 M−1 s−1, respectively. The amino acid sequence identity to the phosphotriesterase (PTE) from Pseudomonas diminuta is ~30%. The eight substrate specificity loops were transplanted from PTE to Dr0930 but no phosphotriesterase activity could be detected in the chimeric PTE-Dr0930 hybrid. Mutation of Phe-26 and Cys-72 in Dr0930 to residues found in the active site of PTE enhanced the kinetic constants for the hydrolysis of paraoxon. The F26G/C72I mutant catalyzed the hydrolysis of paraoxon with a kcat of 1.14 min−1, an increase of 16-fold over the wild type enzyme. These results support previous proposals that phosphotriesterase activity evolved from an ancestral parent enzyme possessing lactonase activity.
Two uncharacterized enzymes from the amidohydrolase superfamily belonging to cog1228 were cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The two proteins, Sgx9260c (gi|44242006) and Sgx9260b (gi|44479596), were derived from environmental DNA samples originating from the Sargasso Sea. The catalytic function and substrate profiles for Sgx9260c and Sgx9260b were determined using a comprehensive library of dipeptides and N-acyl derivative of L-amino acids. Sgx9260c catalyzes the hydrolysis of Gly-L-Pro, L-Ala-L-Pro and N-acyl derivatives of L-Pro. The best substrate identified to date is N-acetyl-L-Pro with a value of kcat/Km of 3 × 105 M−1 s−1. Sgx9260b catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-hydrophobic L-Pro dipeptides and N-acyl derivatives of L-Pro. The best substrate identified to date is N-propionyl-L-Pro with a value of kcat/Km of 1 × 105 M−1 s−1. Three dimensional structures of both proteins were determined by X-ray diffraction methods (PDB codes: 3MKV and 3FEQ). These proteins fold as distorted (β/α)8-barrels with two divalent cations in the active site. The structure of Sgx9260c was also determined as a complex with the N-methyl phosphonate derivative of L-Pro (PDB code: 3N2C). In this structure the phosphonate moiety bridges the binuclear metal center and one oxygen atom interacts with His-140. The α-carboxylate of the inhibitor interacts with Tyr-231. The proline side chain occupies a small substrate binding cavity formed by residues contributed from the loop that follows β-strand 7 within the (β/α)8-barrel. A total of 38 other proteins from cog1228 are predicted to have the same substrate profile based on conservation of the substrate binding residues. The structure of an evolutionarily related protein, Cc2672 from Caulobacter crecentus, was determined as a complex with the N-methyl phosphonate derivative of L-arginine (PDB code: 3MTW).
Two previously uncharacterized proteins have been identified that efficiently catalyze the deamination of isoxanthopterin and pterin-6-carboxylate. The genes encoding these two enzymes, NYSGXRC-9339a (gi|44585104) and NYSGXRC-9236b (gi|44611670), were first identified from DNA isolated from the Sargasso Sea as part of the Global Ocean Sampling Project. The genes were synthesized, and the proteins were subsequently expressed and purified. The X-ray structure of Sgx9339a was determined at 2.7 Å resolution (PDB code: 2PAJ). This protein folds as a distorted (β/α)8-barrel and contains a single zinc ion in the active site. These enzymes are members of the amidohydrolase superfamily and belong to cog0402 within the clusters of orthologous groups (COG). Enzymes in cog0402 have previously been shown to catalyze the deamination of guanine, cytosine, S-adenosyl homocysteine, and 8-oxoguanine. A small compound library of pteridines, purines, and pyrimidines was used to probe catalytic activity. The only substrates identified in this search were isoxanthopterin and pterin-6-carboxylate. The kinetic constants for the deamination of isoxanthopterin with Sgx9339a were determined to be 1.0 s−1, 8.0 μM, and 1.3 × 105 M−1 s−1 for kcat, Km, and kcat/Km, respectively. The active site of Sgx9339a most closely resembles the active site for 8-oxoguanine deaminase (PDB code: 2UZ9). A model for substrate recognition of isoxanthopterin by Sgx9339a was proposed based upon the binding of guanine and xanthine in the active site of guanine deaminase. Residues critical for substrate binding appear to be conserved glutamine and tyrosine residues that hydrogen bond with the carbonyl oxygen at C4, a conserved threonine residue that hydrogen bonds with N5, and another conserved threonine residue that hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl group at C7. These conserved active site residues were used to identify 24 other genes which are predicted to deaminate isoxanthopterin.
The transport of carbamate through the large subunit of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) from Escherichia coli was investigated by molecular dynamics and site-directed mutagenesis. Carbamate, the product of the reaction involving ATP, bicarbonate and ammonia, must be delivered from the site of formation to the site of utilization by travelling nearly 40 Å within the enzyme. Potentials of mean force (PMF) calculations along the entire tunnel for the translocation of carbamate indicate that the tunnel is composed of three continuous water pockets and two narrow connecting parts, near Ala-23 and Gly-575. The two narrow parts render two free energy barriers of 6.7 and 8.4 kcal/mol. Three water pockets were filled with about 21, 9 and 9 waters, respectively, and the corresponding relative free energies of carbamate residing in these free energy minima are 5.8, 0 and 1.6 kcal/mol, respectively. The release of phosphate into solution at the site for the formation of carbamate allows the side chain of Arg-306 to rotate towards Glu-25, Glu-383, and Glu-604. This rotation is virtually prohibited by a barrier of at least 23 kcal/mol when phosphate remains bound. This conformational change not only opens the entrance of the tunnel but also shields the charge-charge repulsion from the three glutamate residues when carbamate passes through the tunnel. Two mutants, A23F and G575F, were designed to block the migration of carbamate through the narrowest parts of the carbamate tunnel. The mutants retained only 1.7% and 3.8% of the catalytic activity for the synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate relative to the wild type CPS, respectively.
An enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pa0142 (gi|9945972) has been identified for the first time that is able to catalyze the deamination of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) to uric acid. 8-Oxoguanine is formed by the oxidation of guanine residues within DNA by reactive oxygen species and this lesion results in the G:C to T:A transversions. The value of kcat/Km for the deamination of 8-oxoG by Pa0142 at pH 8.0 and 30 °C is 2.0 × 104 M−1 s−1. This enzyme can also catalyze the deamination of isocystosine and guanine at rates that are approximately an order of magnitude slower. The three-dimensional structure of a homologous enzyme (gi|44264246) from the Sargasso Sea has been determined by x-ray diffraction methods to a resolution of 2.2Å (PDB code: 3h4u). The enzyme folds as a (β/α)8− barrel and it is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily with a single zinc in the active site. This enzyme catalyzes the deamination of 8-oxoG with a value of kcat/Km of 2.7 × 105 M−1 s−1. Computational docking of potential high energy intermediates for the deamination reaction to the x-ray crystal structure suggests that the active site binding of 8-oxoG is facilitated by hydrogen bond interactions from a conserved glutamine that follows β-strand 1 with O6, a conserved tyrosine that follows β-strand 2 with N7, and a conserved cysteine residue that follows β-strand 4 with O8. A bioinformatic analysis of available protein sequences suggest that approximately 200 other bacteria possess an enzyme capable of catalyzing the deamination of 8-oxoG.
Human renal dipeptidase, an enzyme associated with glutathione metabolism and the hydrolysis of β-lactams, is similar in sequence to a cluster of ~400 microbial proteins currently annotated as nonspecific dipeptidases within the amidohydrolase superfamily. The closest homologue to the human renal dipeptidase from a fully sequenced microbe is Sco3058 from Streptomyces coelicolor. Dipeptide substrates of Sco3058 were identified by screening a comprehensive series of L-Xaa-L-Xaa, L-Xaa-D-Xaa and D-Xaa-L-Xaa dipeptide libraries. The substrate specificity profile shows that Sco3058 hydrolyzes a broad range of dipeptides with a marked preference for an L-amino acid at the N-terminus and a D-amino acid at the C-terminus. The best substrate identified was L-Arg-D-Asp (kcat/Km = 7.6 × 105 M−1 s−1). The three-dimensional structure of Sco3058 was determined in the absence and presence of the inhibitors citrate and a phosphinate mimic of L-Ala-D-Asp. The enzyme folds as a (β/α)8-barrel and two zinc ions are bound in the active site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to probe the importance of specific residues that have direct interactions with the substrate analogues in the active site (Asp-22, His-150, Arg-223 and Asp-320). Solvent viscosity and kinetic effects by D2O indicate that substrate binding is relatively sticky and that proton transfers do not occurr during the rate-limiting step. A bell-shaped pH-rate profile for kcat and kcat/Km indicated that one group needs to be deprotonated and a second group must be protonated for optimal turnover. Computational docking of high-energy intermediate forms of L/D-Ala-L/D-Ala to the three dimensional structure of Sco3058 identified the structural determinants for the stereochemical preferences for substrate binding and turnover.
Uronate isomerase (URI) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-glucuronate to D-fructuronate and of D-galacturonate to D-tagaturonate. URI is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily (AHS), a highly divergent group of enzymes that catalyzes primarily hydrolytic reactions. The chemical mechanism and active site structure of URI was investigated in an attempt to obtain a greater understanding of how an active site template that apparently evolved to catalyze hydrolytic reactions has been re-forged to catalyze an isomerization reaction. The pH-rate profiles for kcat and kcat/Km for URI from Escherichia coli are bell-shaped and indicate that one group must be unprotonated and another residue must be protonated for catalytic activity. Primary isotope effects on the kinetic constants with [2-2H]-D-glucuronate and the effects of changes in solvent viscosity are consistent with product release as the rate limiting step. The X-ray structure of Bh0493, a URI from Bacillus halodurans, was determined in the presence of the substrate D-glucuronate. The bound complex showed that the mononuclear metal center in the active site is ligated to the C-6 carboxylate and the C-5 hydroxyl group of the substrate. This hydroxyl group is also hydrogen bonded to Asp-355 in the same orientation as the hydroxide/water is bound in those members of the AHS that catalyze hydrolytic reactions. In addition, the C-2 and C-3 hydroxyl groups of the substrate are hydrogen bonded to Arg-357 and the carbonyl group at C-1 is hydrogen bonded to Tyr-50. A chemical mechanism is proposed that utilizes a proton transfer from C-2 of D-glucuronate to C-1 that is initiated by the combined actions of Asp-355 from the end of β-strand 8 and the C-5 hydroxyl of the substrate that is bound to the metal ion. The formation of the proposed cis-enediol intermediate is further facilitated by the shuttling of the proton between the C-2 and C-1 oxygens by the conserved Tyr-50 and/or Arg-355.
The transfer of ammonia in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations and experimental characterization of mutations within the ammonia tunnel. In CPS, ammonia is derived from the hydrolysis of glutamine and this intermediate must travel ∼45 Å from the site of formation in the small subunit to the site of utilization in the large subunit. In this investigation the migration of ammonia was analyzed from the exit of the small subunit through the large subunit where it ultimately reacts with the carboxy phosphate intermediate. Potential of mean force calculations along the transfer pathway for ammonia indicate a relatively low free energy barrier for the translocation of ammonia. The highest barrier of 7.2 kcal/mol is found at a narrow turning gate surrounded by the side chains of Cys-232, Ala-251 and Ala-314 in the large subunit. The environment of the ammonia tunnel from the exit of the small subunit to the turning gate in the tunnel is filled with clusters of water molecules and the ammonia is able to travel through this area easily. After ammonia passes through the turning gate it enters a hydrophobic passage. A hydrogen bond then forms between the ammonia and Thr-249, which facilitates the delivery to a more hydrophilic environment near the active site for the reaction with the carboxy phosphate intermediate. The transport process from the turning gate to the end of the tunnel is favored by an overall down-hill free energy potential and no free energy barrier higher than 3 kcal/mol. A conformational change of the turning gate, caused by formation of the carboxy phosphate intermediate, is consistent with a mechanism in which the reaction between ATP and bicarbonate triggers the transport of ammonia and consequently accelerates the rate of glutamine hydrolysis in the small subunit. A blockage in the turning gate passageway was introduced by the triple mutant C232V/A251V/A314V. This mutant is unable to synthesize carbamoyl phosphate using glutamine as a nitrogen source.
The catalytic activities of three members of the amidohydrolase superfamily were discovered using amino acid substrate libraries. Bb3285 from Bordetella bronchiseptica, Gox1177 from Gluconobacter oxydans, and Sco4986 from Streptomyces coelicolor are currently annotated as d-aminoacylases or N-acetyl-d-glutamate deacetylases. These three enzymes are 22−34% identical to one another in amino acid sequence. Substrate libraries containing nearly all combinations of N-formyl-d-Xaa, N-acetyl-d-Xaa, N-succinyl-d-Xaa, and l-Xaa-d-Xaa were used to establish the substrate profiles for these enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bb3285 is restricted to the hydrolysis of N-acyl substituted derivatives of d-glutamate. The best substrates for this enzyme are N-formyl-d-glutamate (kcat/Km = 5.8 × 106 M−1 s−1), N-acetyl-d-glutamate (kcat/Km = 5.2 × 106 M−1 s−1) and l-methionine-d-glutamate (kcat/Km = 3.4 × 105 M−1 s−1). Gox1177 and Sco4986 preferentially hydrolyze N-acyl substituted derivatives of hydrophobic d-amino acids. The best substrates for Gox1177 are N-acetyl-d-leucine (kcat/Km = 3.2 × 104 M−1 s−1), N-acetyl-d-tryptophan (kcat/Km = 4.1 × 104 M−1 s−1) and l-tyrosine-d-leucine (kcat/Km = 1.5 × 104 M−1 s−1). A fourth protein, Bb2785 from B. bronchiseptica, did not have d-aminoacylase activity. The best substrates for Sco4986 are N-acetyl-d-phenylalanine and N-acetyl-d-tryptophan. The three-dimensional structures of Bb3285 in the presence of the product acetate or a potent mimic of the tetrahedral intermediate were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The side chain of the d-glutamate moiety of the inhibitor is ion-paired to Arg-295 while the α-carboxylate is ion-paired with Lys-250 and Arg-376. These results have revealed the chemical and structural determinants for substrate specificity in this protein. Bioinformatic analyses of an additional ∼250 sequences identified as members of this group suggest that there are no simple motifs that allow prediction of substrate specificity for most of these unknowns, highlighting the challenges for computational annotation of some groups of homologous proteins.
Two proteins from the amidohydrolase superfamily of enzymes were cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The first protein, Cc0300, was from Caulobacter crescentus CB-15 (Cc0300) while the second one (Sgx9355e) was derived from an environmental DNA sequence originally isolated from the Sargasso Sea (gi| 44371129). The catalytic functions and the substrate profiles for the two enzymes were determined with the aid of combinatorial dipeptide libraries. Both enzymes were shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of L-Xaa-L-Xaa dipeptides where the amino acid at the N-terminus was relatively unimportant. These enzymes were specific for hydrophobic amino acids at the C-terminus. With Cc0300, substrates terminating in isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, valine, methionine, and tryptophan were hydrolyzed. The same specificity was observed with Sgx9355e but this protein was also able to hydrolyze peptides terminating in threonine. Both enzymes were able to hydrolyze N-acetyl and N-formyl derivatives of the hydrophobic amino acids and tripeptides. The best substrates identified for Cc0300 were L-Ala-L-Leu with values of kcat and kcat/Km of 37 s−1 and 1.1 × 105 M−1 s−1, respectively, and N-formyl-L-Tyr with values of kcat and kcat/Km of 33 s−1 and 3.9 × 105 M−1 s−1, respectively. The best substrate identified for Sgx9355e was L-Ala-L-Phe will values of kcat and kcat/Km of 0.41 s−1 and 5.8 × 103 M−1 s−1. The three-dimensional structure of Sgx9355e was determined to a resolution of 2.33 Å with L-methionine bound in the active site. The α-carboxylate of the methionine is ion-paired to His-237 and also hydrogen bonded to the backbone amide groups of Val-201 and Leu-202. The α-amino group of the bound methionine interacts with Asp-328. The structural determinants for substrate recognition were identified and compared with other enzymes in this superfamily that hydrolyze dipeptides with different specificities.