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1.  Spike timing and information transmission at retinogeniculate synapses 
This study examines the rules governing the transfer of spikes between the retina and LGN with the goal of determining whether the most informative retinal spikes preferentially drive LGN responses and what role spike timing plays in the process. By recording from monosynaptically-connected pairs of retinal ganglion cells and LGN neurons in vivo in the cat, we show that relayed spikes are more likely than non-relayed spikes to be evoked by stimuli that match the recorded cells’ receptive fields and that an interspike interval (ISI)-based mechanism contributes to the process. Relayed spikes are also more reliable in their timing and number where they often achieve the theoretical limit of minimum variance. As a result, relayed spikes carry more visual information per spike. Based on these results, we conclude that retinogeniculate processing increases sparseness in the neural code by selectively relaying the highest fidelity spikes to the visual cortex.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0909-10.2010
PMCID: PMC2970570  PMID: 20943897
coding; retina; LGN; retinal ganglion cell; receptive field; cat
2.  Background sounds contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex 
The mammalian auditory system evolved to extract meaningful information from complex acoustic environments. Spectrotemporal selectivity of auditory neurons provides a potential mechanism to represent natural sounds. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms can remodel the spectrotemporal selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) enables plasticity in A1 that parallels natural learning and is specific to acoustic features associated with NB activity. In this study, we used NB stimulation to explore how cortical networks reorganize after experience with frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps, and how background stimuli contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Pairing an 8–4 kHz FM sweep with NB stimulation 300 times per day for 20 days decreased tone thresholds, frequency selectivity, and response latency of A1 neurons in the region of the tonotopic map activated by the sound. In an attempt to modify neuronal response properties across all of A1 the same NB activation was paired in a second group of rats with five downward FM sweeps, each spanning a different octave. No changes in FM selectivity or receptive field (RF) structure were observed when the neural activation was distributed across the cortical surface. However, the addition of unpaired background sweeps of different rates or direction was sufficient to alter RF characteristics across the tonotopic map in a third group of rats. These results extend earlier observations that cortical neurons can develop stimulus specific plasticity and indicate that background conditions can strongly influence cortical plasticity
doi:10.1007/s00221-004-2098-4
PMCID: PMC2950066  PMID: 15616812
Auditory plasticity; Rat; Nucleus basalis; Context dependent reorganization
3.  Asynchronous inputs alter excitability, spike timing, and topography in primary auditory cortex 
Hearing research  2005;203(1-2):10-20.
Correlation-based synaptic plasticity provides a potential cellular mechanism for learning and memory. Studies in the visual and somatosensory systems have shown that behavioral and surgical manipulation of sensory inputs leads to changes in cortical organization that are consistent with the operation of these learning rules. In this study, we examine how the organization of primary auditory cortex (A1) is altered by tones designed to decrease the average input correlation across the frequency map. After one month of separately pairing nucleus basalis stimulation with 2 and 14 kHz tones, a greater proportion of A1 neurons responded to frequencies below 2 kHz and above 14 kHz. Despite the expanded representation of these tones, cortical excitability was specifically reduced in the high and low frequency regions of A1, as evidenced by increased neural thresholds and decreased response strength. In contrast, in the frequency region between the two paired tones, driven rates were unaffected and spontaneous firing rate was increased. Neural response latencies were increased across the frequency map when nucleus basalis stimulation was associated with asynchronous activation of the high and low frequency regions of A1. This set of changes did not occur when pulsed noise bursts were paired with nucleus basalis stimulation. These results are consistent with earlier observations that sensory input statistics can shape cortical map organization and spike timing.
doi:10.1016/j.heares.2004.11.018
PMCID: PMC2950075  PMID: 15855025
Cortical plasticity; Map reorganization; Activity-dependent Hebbian plasticity; Sensory input; Rat; Auditory cortex; Nucleus basalis
4.  Interspike Interval Analysis of Retinal Ganglion Cell Receptive Fields 
Journal of neurophysiology  2007;98(2):911-919.
The interspike interval (ISI) preceding a retinal spike has a strong influence on whether retinal spikes will drive postsynaptic responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). This ISI-based filtering of retinal spikes could, in principle, be used as a mechanism for processing visual information en route from retina to cortex; however, this form of processing has not been previously explored. Using a white noise stimulus and reverse correlation analysis, we compared the receptive fields associated with retinal spikes over a range of ISIs (0–120 ms). Results showed that, although the location and sign of retinal ganglion cell receptive fields are invariant to ISI, the size and amplitude of receptive fields vary with ISI. These results support the notion that ISI-based filtering of retinal spikes can serve as a mechanism for shaping receptive fields.
doi:10.1152/jn.00802.2006
PMCID: PMC2752417  PMID: 17522169
5.  Spectral and Temporal Processing in Rat Posterior Auditory Cortex 
The rat auditory cortex is divided anatomically into several areas, but little is known about the functional differences in information processing between these areas. To determine the filter properties of rat posterior auditory field (PAF) neurons, we compared neurophysiological responses to simple tones, frequency modulated (FM) sweeps, and amplitude modulated noise and tones with responses of primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons. PAF neurons have excitatory receptive fields that are on average 65% broader than A1 neurons. The broader receptive fields of PAF neurons result in responses to narrow and broadband inputs that are stronger than A1. In contrast to A1, we found little evidence for an orderly topographic gradient in PAF based on frequency. These neurons exhibit latencies that are twice as long as A1. In response to modulated tones and noise, PAF neurons adapt to repeated stimuli at significantly slower rates. Unlike A1, neurons in PAF rarely exhibit facilitation to rapidly repeated sounds. Neurons in PAF do not exhibit strong selectivity for rate or direction of narrowband one octave FM sweeps. These results indicate that PAF, like nonprimary visual fields, processes sensory information on larger spectral and longer temporal scales than primary cortex.
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm055
PMCID: PMC2747285  PMID: 17615251
cortical coding; frequency modulation; neural information processing; nonprimary cortex; repetition rate transfer function; temporal integration; tonotopic organization
6.  Retinal Oscillations Carry Visual Information to Cortex 
Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs) and thalamic outputs (spikes) and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz), is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40–80 Hz) and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.
doi:10.3389/neuro.06.004.2009
PMCID: PMC2674373  PMID: 19404487
LGN; retina; visual coding; natural stimuli; oscillations

Results 1-6 (6)