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1.  Pharmacoeconomics Education in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To determine the extent of pharmacoeconomics education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy provided to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in 2011.
Methods. E-mails requesting syllabi and information about courses covering pharmacoeconomic topics were sent to all US colleges and schools of pharmacy from which PharmD students had graduated in 2011 (n=103).
Results. Of 87 responding pharmacy colleges and schools, 85 provided pharmacoeconomics education in 2011. The number of hours dedicated to pharmacoeconomic-related topics varied from 2 to 60 per year (mean=20).
Conclusions. Pharmacoeconomics education is provided at almost all US colleges and schools of pharmacy; however, variation in the number of teaching hours and topics covered demonstrates a lack of standardization in the PharmD curriculum. Pharmacy administrators and educators should invest more resources and tools to standardize training in this area.
doi:10.5688/ajpe777145
PMCID: PMC3776899  PMID: 24052648
pharmacoeconomics; pharmacy education; curriculum
2.  Switching of Antiepileptic Drug Formulations 
PMCID: PMC3018181  PMID: 22477795
anticonvulsants; antiepileptic; generics; drug formulations
3.  Pharmacoeconomic Education in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy: An Update 
Objectives
To determine the extent of pharmacoeconomics education at US pharmacy colleges and schools in 2007.
Methods
An e-mail survey was developed and sent to pharmacoeconomics instructors at all US colleges of pharmacy.
Results
Of the 90 colleges and schools of pharmacy that completed the survey, 7 colleges and schools did not currently have someone teaching pharmacoeconomics (eg, new school or looking for instructor). For the 83 colleges and schools that had an instructor who taught pharmacoeconomics, 69 covered pharmacoeconomic-related topics in a required course only; 5, in an elective course only; and 9, in both a required and elective course. The number of hours of pharmacoeconomic-related topics presented in required courses ranged from 1 to 48 hours (mean = 21 ± 14; median = 19).
Conclusions
Pharmacoeconomics education courses are offered at the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy. There was a wide range of hours devoted to pharmacoeconomic-related topics and the topics covered in these colleges and schools varied. Although the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy offer pharmacoeconomics courses, official guidelines are needed for the specific aspects and topics that should be covered in the classroom.
PMCID: PMC2508714  PMID: 18698384
pharmacoeconomics education
4.  The state of health economic and pharmacoeconomic evaluation research in Zimbabwe: A review 
BACKGROUND: Economic evaluation of health care has developed into a substantial body of work, and its contribution to medical decision making is increasingly being recognized.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics and quality of health economic (including pharmacoeconomic) evaluation research studies related to Zimbabwe.
METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to identify published health economic evaluation studies related to Zimbabwe. HEED, PubMed, MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EconLit, and PsycINFO databases and sociological and dissertation abstracts were used to search for economic analyses. The searches used the following terms alone and in combination: costs, budgets, fee, economics, health, pharmacy, pharmacy services, medicines, drugs, health economics, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, cost-minimization, cost utility analysis, and Zimbabwe. Only original applied economic evaluations addressing a health-related topic pertaining to Zimbabwe and published in full were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated and scored each study in the final sample using the data collection form designed for the study.
RESULTS: Fifty-nine studies were identified in the database searches, 18 of which were excluded because they were not about Zimbabwe (3 studies) or were not health related (15). Of the 41 remaining studies, 8 were excluded after further review because they were not original research, 6 because they were not economic analyses, and 1 because it was not about Zimbabwe. The final 26 studies appeared in 13 different journals (based mostly [17 (65%)] outside of Zimbabwe). The mean (SD) number of authors of each study was 3.36 (2.13); most of the authors had medical/clinical training. The number of studies peaked between 1994 and 1997. Based on a 10-point scale, with 10 indicating the highest quality, the mean (SD) quality score for all studies was 5.40 (1.56); 8 of the studies (31%) were considered to be of poor quality (score ≤4). The quality of the studies reviewed was significantly (all, P < 0.05) associated with the country in which the journal was based (non-Zimbabwe = higher), the primary health intervention (services>pharmaceutical interventions), the number of authors (more authors = higher), and year of publication (more recent = higher).
CONCLUSION: This study indicated that the use of health economic (including pharmacoeconomic) evaluation research in Zimbabwe was low, and 31 % of the studies were of poor quality. More and better quality health economic research in Zimbabwe is warranted.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2008.06.005
PMCID: PMC3969967  PMID: 24692805
cost-effective analysis; health economics; pharmacoeconomics; economic evaluation; quality assessment; Zimbabwe
5.  Pharmacoepidemiology Education in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective
To examine the type and extent of pharmacoepidemiology education offered by US colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Methods
An electronic Web-survey was sent to all 89 US colleges and schools of pharmacy between October 2005 and January 2006 to examine the type and extent of pharmacoepidemiology education offered to professional (PharmD) and graduate (MS/PhD) students.
Results
The response rate was 100%. Of the 89 schools surveyed, 69 (78%) provided pharmacoepidemiology education to their professional students. A mean of 119 (±60) PharmD students per college/school per year received some pharmacoepidemiology education (range 1-60 classroom hours; median 10 hours). Thirty-five schools (39%) provided education to a mean of 6 (±5) graduate students (range 2-135 classroom hours; median 15 hours).
Conclusions
A majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy offer some pharmacoepidemiology education in their curriculum. However, the topics offered by each school and number of classroom hours varied at both the professional and graduate level.
PMCID: PMC1959224  PMID: 17786268
pharmacoepidemiology; epidemiology; curriculum

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