When amoebae are simultaneously infected with Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APM) and the strictly intracellular BABL1 bacterium, the latter is always lost after serial subculturing. We showed that the virophage Sputnik 1, by reducing APM fitness, preserved BABL1 growth in acute and chronic models. This capability of a virophage to modulate the virulence of mimiviruses highlights the competition that occurs between them during natural host infection.
The typical mitochondrial (mt) genomes of bilateral animals consist of 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The mt genomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, however, are extensively fragmented and contain 20 minichromosomes, with one to three genes on each minichromosome. Heteroplasmy, i.e. nucleotide polymorphisms in the mt genome within individuals, has been shown to be significantly higher in the mt cox1 gene of human lice than in humans and other animals that have the typical mt genomes. To understand whether the extent of heteroplasmy in human lice is associated with mt genome fragmentation, we sequenced the entire coding regions of all of the mt minichromosomes of six human body lice and six human head lice from Ethiopia, China and France with an Illumina HiSeq platform. For comparison, we also sequenced the entire coding regions of the mt genomes of seven species of ticks, which have the typical mitochondrial genome organization of bilateral animals. We found that the level of heteroplasmy varies significantly both among the human lice and among the ticks. The human lice from Ethiopia have significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than those from China and France (Pt<0.05). The tick, Amblyomma cajennense, has significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than other ticks (Pt<0.05). Our results indicate that heteroplasmy level can be substantially variable within a species and among closely related species, and does not appear to be determined by single factors such as genome fragmentation.
The rapidly growing Mycobacterium septicum rarely causes pulmonary infections. We report here the draft genome sequence of M. septicum strain DSM 44393T, isolated from catheter-related bacteremia and initially identified as a member of Mycobacterium fortuitum.
The identification of mosquito vectors is typically based on morphological characteristics using morphological keys of determination, which requires entomological expertise and training. The use of protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is increasingly being used for the routine identification of bacteria, has recently emerged for arthropod identification.
To investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF-MS as a mosquito identification tool, we tested protein extracts made from mosquito legs to create a database of reference spectra. The database included a total of 129 laboratory-reared and field-caught mosquito specimens consisting of 20 species, including 4 Aedes spp., 9 Anopheles spp., 4 Culex spp., Lutzia tigripes, Orthopodomyia reunionensis and Mansonia uniformis. For the validation study, blind tests were performed with 76 specimens consisting of 1 to 4 individuals per species. A cluster analysis was carried out using the MALDI-Biotyper and some spectra from all mosquito species tested.
Biomarker mass sets containing 22 and 43 masses have been detected from 100 specimens of the Anopheles, Aedes and Culex species. By carrying out 3 blind tests, we achieved the identification of mosquito vectors at the species level, including the differentiation of An. gambiae complex, which is possible using MALDI-TOF-MS with 1.8 as the cut-off identification score. A cluster analysis performed with all available mosquito species showed that MALDI-Biotyper can distinguish between specimens at the subspecies level, as demonstrated for An gambiae M and S, but this method cannot yet be considered a reliable tool for the phylogenetic study of mosquito species.
We confirmed that even without any specific expertise, MALDI-TOF-MS profiling of mosquito leg protein extracts can be used for the rapid identification of mosquito vectors. Therefore, MALDI-TOF-MS is an alternative, efficient and inexpensive tool that can accurately identify mosquitoes collected in the field during entomological surveys.
A method for rapid species identification of ticks may help clinicians predict the disease outcomes of patients with tick bites and may inform the decision as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic antibiotic treatment. We aimed to establish a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectrum database based on the analysis of the legs of six tick vectors: Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Dermacentor reticulatus. A blind test was performed on a trial set of ticks to identify specimens of each species. Subsequently, we used MALDI-TOF MS to identify ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients. The latter tick samples were also identified by 12S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and were tested for bacterial infections. Ticks obtained from the wild or removed from patients (R. sanguineus, I. ricinus, and D. marginatus) were accurately identified using MALDI-TOF MS, with the exception of those ticks for which no spectra were available in the database. Furthermore, one damaged specimen was correctly identified as I. ricinus, a vector of Lyme disease, using MALDI-TOF MS only. Six of the 14 ticks removed from patients were found to be infected by pathogens that included Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Borrelia spp. MALDI-TOF MS appears to be an effective tool for the rapid identification of tick vectors that requires no previous expertise in tick identification. The benefits for clinicians include the more targeted surveillance of patients for symptoms of potentially transmitted diseases and the ability to make more informed decisions as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic treatment.
Dental caries; Streptococcus mutans; Paleomicrobiology; Sugar; Anthropology
The aim of the study was to reveal new aspects of the role of flea vector taken from migratory birds by screening of specimens with molecular biological methods. A field study was done in fishponds in Slovakia. Actually, 47 fleas were collected from reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) and their nests. DNA was extracted and analyzed for representatives of the orders Rickettsiales. A rickettsia that shares 99.7% of identity by gltA gene with Rickettsia africae was identified in Ceratophyllus garei collected from A. scirpaceus. Moreover, two Wolbachia sp. were also detected in fleas. This is the first record of R. africae and Wolbachia sp. identified so far in Central Europe in fleas collected from migratory bird returning from Africa. This molecular study extends the geographic range and vector spectrum of arthropod-borne agents.
Acrocephalus scirpaceus; Ceratophyllus garei; Flea; Reed warbler; Rickettsia africae; Wolbachia
We compare the whole-genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates recovered in the same patient before (ABIsac_ColiS susceptible to colistin and rifampin only) and after (ABIsac_ColiR resistant to colistin and rifampin) treatment with colistin and rifampin. We decipher all the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, and we found mutations in the rpoB gene and in the PmrAB two-component system explaining resistance to rifampin and colistin in ABIsac_ColiR, respectively.
We present the first published case of Coxiella burnetii prosthetic joint infection. Diagnosis was established with PCR and culture of periprosthetic tissue and synovial fluid (and serology). A novel PCR assay is described herein. Q fever should be considered in patients with prosthetic joint infection without an identified pathogen.
Acute Q fever is an emergent and severe disease in French Guiana. We obtained 5 Coxiella burnetii isolates from samples of patients from Cayenne and found an epidemic clone circulating in Cayenne. This clone has caused pneumonia and endocarditis and seems to be more virulent than previously described strains.
Coxiella burnetii; bacteria; clone; Q fever; genotyping; multispacer sequence typing; Cayenne; French Guiana
Dielma fastidiosa strain JC13T gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type strain of D. fastidiosa gen. nov., sp. nov., the type species of a new genus within the family Erysipelotrichaceae. This strain, whose draft genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy 16-year-old male Senegalese volunteer. D. fastidiosa is a Gram-negative anaerobic rod. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,574,031 bp long genome comprises a 3,556,241-bp chromosome and a 17,790-bp plasmid. The chromosome contains 3,441 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes, whereas the plasmid contains 17 protein-coding genes.
Dielma fastidiosa; Genome; Culturomics; Taxono-genomics
Timonella senegalensis strain JC301T gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type strain of T. senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new species within the newly proposed genus Timonella. This bacterial strain was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. In this report, we detail the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. Timonella senegalensis strain JC301T exhibits the highest 16S rRNA similarity (95%) with Sanguibacter marinus, the closest validly published bacterial species. The genome of T. senegalensis strain JC301T is 3,010,102-bp long, with one chromosome and no plasmid. The genome contains 2,721 protein-coding genes and 72 RNA genes, including 5 rRNA genes. The genomic annotation revealed that T. senegalensis strain JC301T possesses the complete complement of enzymes necessary for the de novo biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins (except for riboflavin and biotin), as well as the enzymes involved in the metabolism of various carbon sources, chaperone genes, and genes involved in the regulation of polyphosphate and glycogen levels.
Timonella senegalensis; genome; culturomics; taxono-genomics
Mycobacterium simiae is a non-tuberculosis mycobacterium causing pulmonary infections in both immunocompetent and imunocompromized patients. We announce the draft genome sequence of M. simiae DSM 44165T. The 5,782,968-bp long genome with 65.15% GC content (one chromosome, no plasmid) contains 5,727 open reading frames (33% with unknown function and 11 ORFs sizing more than 5000 -bp), three rRNA operons, 52 tRNA, one 66-bp tmRNA matching with tmRNA tags from Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium africanum and 389 DNA repetitive sequences. Comparing ORFs and size distribution between M. simiae and five other Mycobacterium species M. simiae clustered with M. abscessus and M. smegmatis. A 40-kb prophage was predicted in addition to two prophage-like elements, 7-kb and 18-kb in size, but no mycobacteriophage was seen after the observation of 106
M. simiae cells. Fifteen putative CRISPRs were found. Three genes were predicted to encode resistance to aminoglycosides, betalactams and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B. A total of 163 CAZYmes were annotated. M. simiae contains ESX-1 to ESX-5 genes encoding for a type-VII secretion system. Availability of the genome sequence may help depict the unique properties of this environmental, opportunistic pathogen.
Mycobacterium simiae draft genome; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; SOLiD
Bartonella senegalensis sp. nov. strain OS02T is the type strain of B. senegalensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bartonella. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated in Senegal from the soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai, the vector of relapsing fever. B. senegalensis is an aerobic, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. The 1,966,996 bp-long genome contains 1,710 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes, including 6 rRNA genes.
Bartonella senegalensis; genome; Senegal; soft tick; Ornithodoros sonrai
Enorma massiliensis strain phIT is the type strain of E. massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., the type species of a new genus within the family Coriobacteriaceae, Enorma gen. nov. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a 26-year-old woman suffering from morbid obesity. E. massiliensis strain phIT is a Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,280,571 bp long genome (1 chromosome but no plasmid) exhibits a G+C content of 62.0% and contains 1,901 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes.
Enorma massiliensis; genome; culturomics; taxono-genomics
Bacillus massiliosenegalensis strain JC6T sp. nov. is the type strain of Bacillus massiliosenegalensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Bacillus. This strain was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy Senegalese patient. B. massiliosenegalensis is an aerobic Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,981,278-bp long genome comprises a 4,957,301-bp chromosome and a 23,977-bp plasmid. The chromosome contains 4,925 protein-coding and 72 RNA genes, including 4 rRNA genes. The plasmid contains 29 protein-coding genes.
Bacillus massiliosenegalensis; genome; culturomics; taxono-genomics
Murine typhus, caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted mainly by the rat fleas, Xenopsylla cheopis, has emerged in the field of travel medicine. We analyzed retrospectively the epidemiological, clinical, and biological characteristics of the 32 murine typhus cases that were diagnosed during the past 3 years at the World Health Organization Collaborative Center for Rickettsial diseases, Marseille, France. All of the cases occurred in travelers and most of them had returned from Africa (N = 13 of 32) and South-east Asia (N = 12 of 32). Exposure to rats was reported only in a few (N = 2 of 32) patients. Almost half of the cases were diagnosed in August and September. Only four patients presented the classic triad: fever, rash, and headache. Moreover, we report the first known cases of a hemophagocytic syndrome associated with this disease. Murine typhus must be considered as an etiologic agent of febrile illness in returning travelers, particularly in those with unspecific symptoms.
Among 1,341 blood samples from rodents that were trapped in Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2010, we found a prevalence of Bartonella infection ranging from 9.6 to 11.9%. Bartonella species identified (143 isolates) included B. elizabethae, B. coopersplainsensis, B. phoceensis, B. queenslandensis, B. rattimassiliensis, B. tribocorum, and three new putative Bartonella species.
A draft genome sequence of Actinomyces timonensis, an anaerobic bacterium isolated from a human clinical osteoarticular sample, is described here. CRISPR-associated proteins, insertion sequence, and toxin-antitoxin loci were found on the genome. A new virus or provirus, AT-1, was characterized.
Tropheryma whipplei is the causative agent of classic Whipple's disease (WD) and other clinical entities, such as localized infection. Asymptomatic carriers have also been reported, mainly based on the testing of fecal samples. Our objective was to undertake a retrospective analysis of molecular biology usage for the diagnosis of WD over a 12-year period in our reference center. We tested 27,923 samples from 15,473 patients. The number of patients tested and the number of patients with a positive PCR result for T. whipplei have increased significantly over the last 12 years (P < 0.0001). Overall, T. whipplei was more frequently recovered from stools (43%), saliva (15%), duodenal biopsy samples (12.5%), blood (5%), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (6%) and less commonly from cardiac valves (3%), urine (0.5%), skin biopsy samples (1%), lymph nodes (2.5%), aqueous humor (0.5%), and intra-articular fluid (1%). Among all the positive samples, we observed that stool samples and skin biopsy samples exhibited a higher prevalence of positivity by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) at 10.07% and 15.4%, respectively. The number of patients with a positive PCR result for T. whipplei has increased significantly over the last 12 years, although the positive ratio has not changed. Improvements in diagnostic tools have contributed greatly toward greater knowledge of WD and, consequently, the interest of physicians in this condition. In addition, we propose here an update of the diagnostic strategy for WD when qPCR is being used.
Afipia birgiae is an alphaproteobacterium from the family Bradyrhizobiaceae, growing in amoebae, and a potential human pathogen. We sequenced the genome of type strain 34632T. It is composed of 5,325,467 bp and contains 5,160 protein-coding genes and 53 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes.
Coxiella burnetii 109, with a 2.03-Mb genome, is a doxycycline-resistant human isolate that was isolated from the cardiac valve of a German male patient with Q fever endocarditis who died during the course of the treatment due to the bacterium's resistance to doxycycline. This new genome can be useful for future comparative genomic or Q fever studies.
A draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus massiliensis, Gram-positive cocci isolated from a human brain abscess sample, is described here. One clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat, three transposases, six putative transposases, and one potential provirus were characterized.
Bartonella rattimassiliensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium isolated from the blood of Rattus norvegicus in Marseille. The present study reports the draft genome of B. rattimassiliensis strain 15908 (CIP 107705T).
Rickettsia japonica strain YH, isolated in 1984 in Japan, is the type strain of R. japonica, the tick-borne agent of Japanese spotted fever. Here, we report the 1.33-Mb genome of this rickettsial species.