New chemotherapeutic agents are urgently required to combat the global spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The mycobacterial enoyl reductase, InhA, is one of the few clinically-validated targets in tuberculosis drug discovery. Here, we report the identification of a new class of direct InhA inhibitors, the 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones, using phenotypic high-throughput whole-cell screening. This class of orally-active compounds showed potent bactericidal activity against common isoniazid-resistant TB clinical isolates. Biophysical studies revealed that 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones bound specifically to InhA in an NADH-dependent manner and blocked the enoyl-substrate binding pocket. The lead compound NITD-916 directly blocked InhA in a dose-dependent manner and showed in vivo efficacy in acute and established mouse models of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Collectively, our structural and biochemical data open up new avenues for rational structure-guided optimization of the 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone class of compounds for the treatment of MDR-TB.
The problem of counterfeiting of drugs is assuming alarming proportions and is getting difficult to combat due to its trans-national character. It is undermining the faith of people on health care system. Therefore, there is a need to adopt zero tolerance approach to combat the problem.
The Way Forward:
There are many solutions available which are being adopted in piece meal manner by individual manufacturers. However, for wholesalers and resellers it is getting difficult to maintain multiple solutions. Therefore, there is a need to adopt a unified solution preferably with the help of the government.
This paper discusses the available solutions, their shortcomings and proposes a comprehensive solution where at each level in the supply chain the authenticity is verified preferable linking it with Unique identification.
Combat; counterfeit; drugs
Tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine scaffold was
identified as a hit series from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) whole cell high through-put screening (HTS) campaign. A series
of derivatives of this class were synthesized to evaluate their structure–activity
relationship (SAR) and structure–property relationship (SPR).
Compound 9 had a promising in vivo DMPK profile in mouse
and exhibited potent in vivo activity in a mouse efficacy model, achieving
a reduction of 3.5 log CFU of Mtb after oral administration to infected
mice once a day at 100 mg/kg for 28 days. Thus, compound 9 is a potential candidate for inclusion in combination therapies
for both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB.
Antituberculosis; tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine; structure−activity relationship; structure−property relationship
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an aerobic bacterium that persists intracellularly in host macrophages and has evolved diverse mechanisms to combat and survive oxidative stress. Here we show a novel F420-dependent anti-oxidant mechanism that protects Mtb against oxidative stress. Inactivation of the fbiC gene in Mtb results in a cofactor F420-deficient mutant that is hypersensitive to oxidative stress and exhibits a reduction in NADH/NAD+ ratios upon treatment with menadione. In agreement with the recent hypothesis on oxidative stress being an important component of the pathway resulting in cell death by bactericidal agents, F420− mutants are hypersensitive to mycobactericidal agents such as Isoniazid, Moxifloxacin and Clofazimine that elevate oxidative stress. The Mtb deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase (Ddn) and its two homologues Rv1261c and Rv1558 encode for an F420H2 dependent quinone reductase (Fqr) function leading to dihydroquinones. We hypothesize that Fqr proteins catalyze an F420H2 specific obligate two-electron reduction of endogenous quinones, thereby competing with the one-electron reduction pathway and preventing the formation of harmful cytotoxic semiquinones, thus protecting mycobacteria against oxidative stress and bactericidal agents. These findings open up an avenue for the inhibition of the F420 biosynthesis pathway or Fqr-class proteins as a mechanism to potentiate the action of bactericidal agents.
F420; Mtb; Mycobacterium; TB; oxidative stress; quinone reductase
Heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) participate in many important biological processes. Quantitative disaccharide analysis of HS and CS/DS is essential for the characterization of GAGs and enables modeling of the GAG domain structure. Methods involving enzymatic digestion and chemical depolymerization have been developed to determine the type and location of sulfation/acetylation modifications as well as uronic acid epimerization. Enzymatic digestion generates disaccharides with Δ-4,5-unsaturation at the non-reducing end. Chemical depolymerization with nitrous acid retains the uronic acid epimerization. This work shows the use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-MS for quantification of both enzyme-derived and nitrous acid depolymerization products for structural analysis of HS and CS/DS. This method enables biomedical researchers to determine complete disaccharide profiles on GAG samples using a single LC-MS platform.
Most candidate anti-bacterials are identified on the basis of their whole cell anti-bacterial activity. A critical bottleneck in the early discovery of novel anti-bacterials is tracking the structure activity relationship (SAR) of the novel compounds synthesized during the hit to lead and lead optimization stage. It is often very difficult for medicinal chemists to visualize if the novel compounds synthesized for understanding SAR of a particular scaffold have similar molecular mechanism of action (MoA) as that of the initial hit. The elucidation of the molecular MoA of bioactive inhibitors is critical. Here, a new strategy and routine assay for MoA de-convolution, using a microfluidic platform for transcriptional profiling of bacterial response to inhibitors with whole cell activity has been presented. First a reference transcriptome compendium of Mycobacterial response to various clinical and investigational drugs was built. Using feature reduction, it was demonstrated that subsets of biomarker genes representative of the whole genome are sufficient for MoA classification and deconvolution in a medium-throughput microfluidic format ultimately leading to a cost effective and rapid tool for routine antibacterial drug-discovery programs.
The subunit ε of bacterial F1FO ATP synthases plays an important regulatory role in coupling and catalysis via conformational transitions of its C-terminal domain. Here we present the first low-resolution solution structure of ε of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtε) F1FO ATP synthase and the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of its C-terminal segment (Mtε103–120). Mtε is significantly shorter (61.6 Å) than forms of the subunit in other bacteria, reflecting a shorter C-terminal sequence, proposed to be important in coupling processes via the catalytic β subunit. The C-terminal segment displays an α-helical structure and a highly positive surface charge due to the presence of arginine residues. Using NMR spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the new tuberculosis (TB) drug candidate TMC207, proposed to bind to the proton translocating c-ring, also binds to Mtε. A model for the interaction of TMC207 with both ε and the c-ring is presented, suggesting that TMC207 forms a wedge between the two rotating subunits by interacting with the residues W15 and F50 of ε and the c-ring, respectively. T19 and R37 of ε provide the necessary polar interactions with the drug molecule. This new model of the mechanism of TMC207 provides the basis for the design of new drugs targeting the F1FO ATP synthase in M. tuberculosis.
A peculiar liver was found in an adult male cadaver during a dissection class for undergraduate medical students. The quadrate lobe and fissure for the ligamentum teres were totally absent. Thus, the cystic notch on the inferior border was very broad and deep, and the fundus and body of the gall bladder popped out through this notch. The cystic duct terminated into the right hepatic duct at the porta hepatis instead of terminating into the common hepatic duct. Awareness of variations of the lobes and fissures may minimize a misdiagnosis of liver problems. The aim of the current study was to alert radiologists and surgeons about possible variations in the external appearance and anomalies of the lobes and fissures of the liver.
Liver; Quadrate lobe; Ligamentum teres; Cystic duct
Metabolic versatility has been increasingly recognized as a major virulence mechanism that enables Mycobacterium tuberculosis to persist in many microenvironments encountered in its host. Glucose is one of the most abundant carbon sources that is exploited by many pathogenic bacteria in the human host. M. tuberculosis has an intact glycolytic pathway that is highly conserved in all clinical isolates sequenced to date suggesting that glucose may represent a non-negligible source of carbon and energy for this pathogen in vivo. Fructose-6-phosphate phosphorylation represents the key-committing step in glycolysis and is catalyzed by a phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity. Two genes, pfkA and pfkB have been annotated to encode putative PFK in M. tuberculosis. Here, we show that PFKA is the sole PFK enzyme in M. tuberculosis with no functional redundancy with PFKB. PFKA is required for growth on glucose as sole carbon source. In co-metabolism experiments, we report that disruption of the glycolytic pathway at the PFK step results in intracellular accumulation of sugar-phosphates that correlated with significant impairment of the cell viability. Concomitantly, we found that the presence of glucose is highly toxic for the long-term survival of hypoxic non-replicating mycobacteria, suggesting that accumulation of glucose-derived toxic metabolites does occur in the absence of sustained aerobic respiration. The culture medium traditionally used to study the physiology of hypoxic mycobacteria is supplemented with glucose. In this medium, M. tuberculosis can survive for only 7–10 days in a true non-replicating state before death is observed. By omitting glucose in the medium this period could be extended for up to at least 40 days without significant viability loss. Therefore, our study suggests that glycolysis leads to accumulation of glucose-derived toxic metabolites that limits long-term survival of hypoxic mycobacteria. Such toxic effect is exacerbated when the glycolytic pathway is disrupted at the PKF step.
According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), India has 62.4 million people with diabetes and by 2030 it is predicted that
the number will rise to 100 million. Studies claim that there are around 410 experimentally proven Indian medicinal plants which
have anti-diabetic activity, of which the mechanism of action of 109 plants has been elucidated or reported. So, the need of the hour
is to explore the claims of Indian medicinal flora and open up the facets of many Indian plants which are being examined for their
beneficial role in diabetes. So, we created a database (InDiaMed) of Indian medicinal plants that captures their role in anti-diabetic
activity. InDiaMed's features include chemical, pharmacological, biochemical and geographical information of the medicinal plant,
scientifically relevant information of the plant, and the coherent research done on it in the field of diabetes. The database also
includes the list of poly-herbal formulations which are used for treatment of diabetes in India.
Diabetes; Database; Medicinal Plants; Poly-herbal formulations; active constituents
There is a comprehensive body of experimental and clinical evidence suggesting that exogenous supplementation of natural antioxidants or augmentation of endogenous antioxidants attenuates the damage caused by myocardial infarction.
To evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Cl-chalcone and F-chalcone against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
Myocardial infarct size was measured using the staining agent 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Malondialdehyde was measured in serum and heart tissue, and superoxide dismutase and catalase in heart tissue were measured spectrophotometrically.
I/R resulted in significant cardiac necrosis, indicated by a rise in the end products of myocardial lipid peroxidation (malondialdehydes). A loss of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in heart tissue was also observed in animals subjected to in vivo myocardial I/R injury.
The present study demonstrated that treatment with Cl-chalcone and F-chalcone significantly limited infarct size, partially but significantly attenuated the level of lipid peroxidation and moderated the loss of antioxidant reserves in rats subjected to 30 min coronary artery occlusion followed by a 4 h reperfusion in comparison with I/R groups.
The results of the present study suggest that chalcones have cardioprotective activity against I/R-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
Chalcones; Cl-chalcone; F-chalcone; Infarct size; Myocardial infarction; Reperfusion injury
Dental casting alloys are widely used in contact with oral tissue for many years now. With the development of new dental alloys over the past 15 years, many questions remain unanswered about their biologic safety. Concepts and current issues concerning the response to the biologic effects of dental casting alloys are presented. In this paper, samples of three commercially available nickel-chrome (Ni-cr) casting alloys (Dentaurum, Bego, Sankin) were taken to assess their corrosion behavior, using potentiodynamic polarization method (electrochemical method) with fusayama artificial saliva as an electrolyte medium to check for their biocompatibility. The parameters for corrosion rate and corrosion resistance were obtained from computer-controlled corrosion schematic instrument, namely, potentiostat through corrosion software (power CV). The results obtained were analyzed by classic Tafel analysis. Statistical analysis was done by Student's t-test and ANOVA test. It was concluded that Dentarum and Bego showed satisfactory corrosive behavior, with exception of Sankin which depicted higher corrosion rate and least resistance to corrosion. Thus, the selection of an alloy should be made on the basis of corrosion resistance and biologic data from dental manufactures.
In the crystal structure of the title compound, C6H9N2
+·ClCH2COO−, prepared by the reaction of OPDA (orthophenelynediamine) with chloroacetic acid, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate ladder-like chains and very weak intermolecular C—H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions between the anions and cations lead to a supramolecular network. C—H⋯O interactions also occur.
An extra cellular lipase was isolated and purified from the culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa SRT 9 to apparent homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by chromatographic techniques on phenyl Sepharose CL- 4B and Mono Q HR 5/5 column, resulting in a purification factor of 98 fold with specific activity of 12307.8 U/mg. The molecular weight of the purified lipase was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 29 kDa with isoelectric point of 4.5. Maximum lipase activity was observed in a wide range of temperature and pH values with optimum temperature of 55ºC and pH 6.9. The lipase preferably acted on triacylglycerols of long chain (C14-C16) fatty acids. The lipase was inhibited strongly by EDTA suggesting the enzyme might be metalloprotein. SDS and metal ions such as Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Fe2+ decreased the lipase activity remarkedly. Its marked stability and activity in organic solvents suggest that this lipase is highly suitable as a biotechnological tool with a variety of applications including organo synthetic reactions and preparation of enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals. The Km and Vmax value of the purified enzyme for triolein hydrolysis were calculated to be 1.11 mmol/L and 0.05 mmol/L/min respectively.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa SRT9; extra cellular lipases; purification; Michaelis constant
Medial swivel dislocation, a variant of subtalar dislocation is uncommon. A 35 years old male presented after 6 weeks old injury to left ankle following motor cycle accident. He had pain, swelling around ankle and was unable to bear weight on left foot. Clinical examination revealed diffuse swelling and tenderness in mid foot region. His plain X rays and CT scan showed talonavicular dislocation with compression defect of the head of the talus. He was treated by open reduction and K-wire fixation. At 32 months follow up foot was painless, stable with normal range of ankle and subtalar motion.
Medial swivel dislocation; subtalar-subluxation; talonavicular dislocation
Candidate antibacterials are usually identified on the basis of their in vitro activity. However, the apparent inhibitory activity of new leads can be misleading because most culture media do not reproduce an environment relevant to infection in vivo. In this study, while screening for novel anti-tuberculars, we uncovered how carbon metabolism can affect antimicrobial activity. Novel pyrimidine–imidazoles (PIs) were identified in a whole-cell screen against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lead optimization generated in vitro potent derivatives with desirable pharmacokinetic properties, yet without in vivo efficacy. Mechanism of action studies linked the PI activity to glycerol metabolism, which is not relevant for M. tuberculosis during infection. PIs induced self-poisoning of M. tuberculosis by promoting the accumulation of glycerol phosphate and rapid ATP depletion. This study underlines the importance of understanding central bacterial metabolism in vivo and of developing predictive in vitro culture conditions as a prerequisite for the rational discovery of new antibiotics.
Candidate anti-tuberculosis drugs are often identified in whole-cell screens. Here, Pethe et al. show that inappropriate carbon-source selection can lead to the identification of compounds devoid of efficacy in vivo, underlining the importance of developing predictive in vitro screens.
Growing evidence suggests that the presence of a subpopulation
of hypoxic non-replicating, phenotypically drug-tolerant mycobacteria
is responsible for the prolonged duration of tuberculosis treatment.
The discovery of new antitubercular agents active against this subpopulation
may help in developing new strategies to shorten the time of tuberculosis
therapy. Recently, the maintenance of a low level of bacterial respiration
was shown to be a point of metabolic vulnerability in Mycobacterium
tuberculosis. Here, we describe the development of a hypoxic
model to identify compounds targeting mycobacterial respiratory functions
and ATP homeostasis in whole mycobacteria. The model was adapted to
1,536-well plate format and successfully used to screen over 600,000
compounds. Approximately 800 compounds were confirmed to reduce intracellular
ATP levels in a dose-dependent manner in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. One hundred and forty non-cytotoxic compounds with activity
against hypoxic non-replicating M. tuberculosis were
further validated. The resulting collection of compounds that disrupt
ATP homeostasis in M. tuberculosis represents a valuable
resource to decipher the biology of persistent mycobacteria.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an aerobic bacterium that persists intracellularly in host macrophages and has evolved diverse mechanisms to combat and survive oxidative stress. Here we show a novel F420-dependent anti-oxidant mechanism that protects Mtb against oxidative stress. Inactivation of the fbiC gene in Mtb results in a cofactor F420-deficient mutant that is hypersensitive to oxidative stress and exhibits a reduction in NADH/NAD+ ratios upon treatment with menadione. In agreement with the recent hypothesis on oxidative stress being an important component of the pathway resulting in cell death by bactericidal agents, F420− mutants are hypersensitive to mycobactericidal agents such as isoniazid, moxifloxacin and clofazimine that elevate oxidative stress. The Mtb deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase (Ddn) and its two homologues Rv1261c and Rv1558 encode for an F420H2-dependent quinone reductase (Fqr) function leading to dihydroquinones. We hypothesize that Fqr proteins catalyse an F420H2-specific obligate two-electron reduction of endogenous quinones, thereby competing with the one-electron reduction pathway and preventing the formation of harmful cytotoxic semiquinones, thus protecting mycobacteria against oxidative stress and bactericidal agents. These findings open up an avenue for the inhibition of the F420 biosynthesis pathway or Fqr-class proteins as a mechanism to potentiate the action of bactericidal agents.