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author:("randić, Alan")
1.  EARLY-IN-LIFE BLADDER INFLAMMATION ALTERS U50,488H- BUT NOT MORPHINE-INDUCED INHIBITION OF VISCEROMOTOR RESPONSES TO URINARY BLADDER DISTENSION 
Neuroscience letters  2012;534:150-154.
Previous research has suggested that early-in-life (EIL) exposure to bladder inflammation impairs the function of endogenous opioid inhibitory system(s) and may contribute to the development of chronic bladder pain. This study examined how acute adult and/or prior EIL exposure to bladder inflammation altered the inhibitory effects of systemic κ- and μ-opioid agonists on the visceromotor reflex (VMR) to urinary bladder distension (UBD). Female rats were exposed intravesically EIL (P14–P16) to either the inflammatory agent zymosan or anesthesia-alone, and then rechallenged as adults (12–17 weeks) with either anesthesia-alone or zymosan. The VMR to 60 mmHg UBD was measured after cumulative intravenous (i.v.) administration of 1 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg of either the κ-opioid agonist U50,488H or the μ-opioid agonist morphine. Morphine produced dose-dependent inhibition of the VMR to UBD in all groups, and U50,488H produced dose-dependent inhibition of the VMR to UBD in all but one group. Animals that received bladder inflammation both EIL and as adults showed significantly augmented VMRs to UBD (>100% baseline values) following 1 mg/kg of U50,488H and diminished inhibition of VMRs following 4 mg/kg of U50,488H when compared with other groups. In contrast, neither EIL nor adult bladder inflammation markedly altered the inhibition of the VMR to UBD produced by either 1 or 4 mg/kg of i.v. morphine. These data suggest EIL and adult exposure to bladder inflammation selectively decreases the inhibitory effects of κ-opioids and thereby may enhance bladder hypersensitivity in patients with painful bladder syndromes.
doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2012.11.035
PMCID: PMC3558537  PMID: 23201636
Opioid; Visceral Pain; Inflammation; Painful Bladder Syndrome; Animals; Newborn
2.  FOOTSHOCK STRESS DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS RESPONSES OF TWO SUBPOPULATIONS OF SPINAL DORSAL HORN NEURONS TO URINARY BLADDER DISTENSION IN RATS 
Brain research  2011;1386:118-126.
This investigation examined the effect of footshock on responses of 283 spinal dorsal horn neurons (DHNs) to urinary bladder distension (UBD). Female rats were treated with seven daily sessions of footshock (chronic footshock, CFS), six accommodation sessions followed by one exposure to footshock (acute footshock, AFS), or handled similarly without receiving any footshock (no footshock, NFS). After the final footshock or NFS session, rats were anesthetized, a laminectomy performed and extracellular single-unit recordings of L6-S1 DHNs obtained in intact or spinalized preparations. Neurons were classified as Type I - inhibited by heterotopic noxious conditioning stimuli (HNCS) or as Type II - not inhibited by HNCS - and characterized for spontaneous activity and for neuronal discharges evoked by graded UBD. A differential effect of footshock-induced stress was noted on neuronal subgroups. In intact preparations, Type I neurons were less responsive to UBD after either chronic or acute stress, while Type II neurons demonstrated significantly augmented responses to UBD. This enhanced neuronal responsiveness to UBD was present in spinalized preparations following exposure to CFS but not AFS. Type I neurons were still less responsive to stress in spinalized preparations following CFS and AFS. This study provides further evidence that (1) at least two populations of spinal neurons exist which encode for visceral stimuli and are likely to have distinct roles in visceral nociception, and that (2) the chronic stress-induced enhancement of DHN responses to UBD involves changes in at the spinal level while the acute stress effects are dependent on a supraspinal substrate.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.02.081
PMCID: PMC3086680  PMID: 21376017
visceral; urinary bladder; cystitis; stress; spinal
3.  Effects of acute adult and early-in-life bladder inflammation on bladder neuropeptides in adult female rats 
BMC Urology  2011;11:18.
Background
The purpose of the present study was to determine how acute adult and/or prior early-in life (EIL; P14-P16) exposure to bladder inflammation affects bladder content of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Estrous cycle influences were also studied in the adult-treatment conditions.
Methods
In Experiment 1, intravesical zymosan or isoflurane anesthesia alone was administered to adult female rats. Bladders and serum were collected 24 hours later during each phase of the estrous cycle. In Experiment 2, zymosan or anesthesia alone was administered EIL and as adults, with bladder tissue collection 24 h later.
Results
In general, Experiment 1 showed that bladder content of both CGRP and SP was increased by inflammation. This effect was significant when data were collapsed across all phases of the estrous cycle, but was only significant during proestrus when individual comparisons were made during each phase of estrous. Also, adult bladder inflammation significantly reduced estradiol levels. In Experiment 2, bladder content of CGRP and SP was significantly increased in rats receiving EIL and/or adult inflammation. Bladder weights were also significantly increased by inflammation.
Conclusions
These data indicate that bladder CGRP and SP are maximally increased during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle in inflamed adult female rats. EIL exposure to bladder inflammation alone can also produce an increase in CGRP and SP lasting into adulthood. Therefore, EIL experience with bladder inflammation may predispose an organism to experience a painful bladder disorder as an adult by increasing primary afferent content of CGRP and/or SP.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-11-18
PMCID: PMC3171712  PMID: 21843346
4.  Neonatal Bladder Inflammation Produces Functional Changes and Alters Neuropeptide Content in Bladders of Adult Female Rats 
Neonatal bladder inflammation has been demonstrated to produce hypersensitivity to bladder re-inflammation as an adult. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal urinary bladder inflammation on adult bladder function and structure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated on postnatal days 14-16 with intravesical zymosan or anesthesia alone. At 12-16 weeks of age, micturition frequency and cystometrograms were measured. Similarly treated rats had their bladders removed for measurement of plasma extravasation following intravesical mustard oil, for neuropeptide analysis (CGRP or SubP), or for detailed histological examination. Rats treated with zymosan as neonates exhibited increased micturition frequency, reduced micturition volume thresholds, greater extravasation of Evan's Blue following intravesical mustard oil administration, and greater total bladder content of CGRP and SubP. In contrast, there were no quantitative histological changes in the thickness, fibrosis or mast cells of bladder tissue due to neonatal zymosan treatments. Functional changes in urologic systems observed in adulthood, coupled with the increased neuropeptide content and neurogenic plasma extravasation in adult bladders, suggest that the neonatal bladder inflammation treatment enhanced the number, function and/or neurochemical content of primary afferent neurons. These data support the hypothesis that insults to the urologic system in infancy may contribute to the development of adult bladder hypersensitivity.
Perspective
Inflammation of the bladder early in life in the rat has multiple sequelae including laboratory measures that suggest an alteration of the neurophysiological substrates related to the bladder. Some painful bladder syndromes in humans have similar characteristics and so may be due to similar mechanisms.
doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2009.07.010
PMCID: PMC2835826  PMID: 19945355
developmental; visceral nociception; hyperalgesia; interstitial cystitis
5.  Development, plasticity and modulation of visceral afferents 
Brain research reviews  2008;60(1):171-186.
Visceral pain is the most common reason for doctor visits in the US. Like somatic pain, virtually all visceral pain sensations begin with the activation of primary sensory neurons innervating the viscera and/or the blood vessels associated with these structures. Visceral afferents also play a central role in tissue homeostasis. Recent studies show that in addition to monitoring the state of the viscera, they perform efferent functions through the release of small molecules (e.g. peptides like CGRP) that can drive inflammation, thereby contributing to the development of visceral pathologies (e.g. diabetes Razavi, R., Chan, Y., Afifiyan, F.N., Liu, X.J., Wan, X., Yantha, J., Tsui, H., Tang, L., Tsai, S., Santamaria, P., Driver, J.P., Serreze, D., Salter, M.W., Dosch, H.M., 2006. TRPV1+ sensory neurons control beta cell stress and islet inflammation in autoimmune diabetes, Cell 127 1123–1135). Visceral afferents are heterogeneous with respect to their anatomy, neurochemistry and function. They are also highly plastic in that their cellular environment continuously influences their response properties. This plasticity makes them susceptible to long-term changes that may contribute significantly to the development of persistent pain states such as those associated with irritable bowel syndrome, pancreatitis, and visceral cancers. This review examines recent insights into visceral afferent anatomy and neurochemistry and how neonatal insults can affect the function of these neurons in the adult. New approaches to the treatment of visceral pain, which focus on primary afferents, will also be discussed.
doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.12.004
PMCID: PMC2841801  PMID: 19150371
Bladder; Colon; Jugular; Nodose; Neonatal; Pain; Pancreas; P2X; TRPV1; TRPA1; TRPV4; Vagus
6.  Rostral Ventral Medulla Modulation of the Visceromotor Reflex Evoked by Urinary Bladder Distension in Female Rats 
The present studies examined the involvement of the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) in modulating the visceromotor response (VMR) evoked by urinary bladder distension (UBD) in adult female rats. The VMR was indexed by electromyographic (EMG) responses of the abdominal external oblique muscle to UBD. Experiment 1 showed that the predominant effect of electrical stimulation of the RVM in normal rats was to produce intensity-dependent inhibition of the VMR (54% of sites sampled). Facilitatory, biphasic, or no effects were obtained at the remaining sites. Experiment 2 showed that RVM-induced inhibition of the VMR was significantly attenuated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of naloxone, but not saline vehicle. In Experiment 3, we examined the effect of lesions of the RVM in rats with inflamed bladders since previous research has shown that an endogenous opioid inhibitory system is engaged by bladder inflammation. Electrolytic lesions of the RVM, but not sham-lesions of the RVM, significantly increased the VMR to graded UBD in rats with augmented VMRs induced by prior inflammation of the bladder. The present data suggest that the RVM can inhibit the VMR to UBD acting in part via an opioid inhibitory system and that bladder inflammation can recruit the RVM to produce a net inhibitory effect on the VMR to UBD.
doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2008.05.011
PMCID: PMC2576287  PMID: 18619908
bladder; rostral ventromedial medulla; visceromotor reflex; pain; inhibition
7.  Serotonergic and Noradrenergic Facilitation of the Visceromotor Reflex Evoked by Urinary Bladder Distension in Rats with Inflamed Bladders 
Neuroscience letters  2008;442(3):253-256.
Bladder inflammation resulting from intravesical administration of zymosan significantly enhances the visceromotor reflex (VMR) evoked by urinary bladder distension (UBD). The present study examined whether intrathecal (i.t.) administration of receptor antagonists to either noreprinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) altered this enhancement effect. I.t. administration of the non-specific 5-HT receptor antagonist methysergide (30 μg), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, or the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 eliminated the enhancement effect produced by intravesical zymosan and also tended to reduce EMG responses to UBD in non-inflamed rats. I.t. administration of either the non-specific NE receptor antagonist phentolamine (30 μg) or the α1 antagonist WB4101 also eliminated the enhancement effect, whereas i.t. administration of the α2 antagonist yohimbine failed to significantly affect the enhancement effect. The effects of phentolamine and methysergide were not mediated by changes in bladder compliance. This is the first study to demonstrate that bladder hypersensitivity resulting from bladder inflammation is partly mediated by 5-HT and NE facilitatory effects. Based on these and previous findings we conclude that the net nociceptive response to bladder distension under conditions of bladder inflammation represents a complex interaction of facilitatory influences of spinal 5-HT and NE, and inhibitory influences of spinal opioids.
doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.031
PMCID: PMC2553514  PMID: 18647638
bladder; serotonin; norepinephrine; visceromotor reflex; pain; facilitation
8.  Inflammation and enhanced nociceptive responses to bladder distension produced by intravesical zymosan in the rat 
BMC Urology  2006;6:2.
Background
Mycotic infections of the bladder produce pain and inflammatory changes. The present study examined the inflammatory and nociceptive effects of the yeast cell wall component, zymosan, when admininstered into the urinary bladder in order to characterize this form of bladder sensitization.
Methods
Parametric analyses of the time-course (0–48 hr) and concentration (0–2% solutions) variables associated with intravesical zymosan-induced bladder inflammation were performed in female rats. Plasma extravasation of Evan's Blue dye was used as a measure of tissue inflammation. Cardiovascular and visceromotor responses to urinary bladder distension were used as measures of nociception.
Results
Zymosan-induced bladder inflammation, as indexed by plasma extravasation of Evan's Blue, was significantly greater in rats treated with either 1 or 2% solutions as compared to either 0.1 or 0.5% zymosan solutions. In time-course studies (1 – 48 hr post-treatment), 1% zymosan-induced inflammation progressively increased with time following administration, was greatest at 24 hr and began to normalize by 48 hr. In the studies of inflammation-induced changes in nociception, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and visceromotor responses to graded distension of the urinary bladder were significantly increased relative to controls 24 hr after zymosan administration.
Conclusion
These studies provide important time-course and solution concentration parameters for studies of zymosan-induced inflammation of the bladder and suggest utility of this model for the study of bladder-related pain.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-6-2
PMCID: PMC1395324  PMID: 16469099

Results 1-8 (8)