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1.  Contrasting Cardiopulmonary Responses to Incremental Exercise in Patients with Schistosomiasis-Associated and Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension with Similar Resting Hemodynamic Impairment 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e87699.
It has been reported that schistosomiasis-associated PAH (Sch-PAH) has a more benign clinical course compared with idiopathic PAH (IPAH). We therefore hypothesized that Sch-PAH subjects would present with less impaired cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to exercise than IPAH patients, even with similar resting pulmonary hemodynamic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to contrast physiologic responses to incremental exercise on cycle ergometer between subjects with Sch-PAH and IPAH. We performed incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) in subjects newly diagnosed with IPAH (n = 9) and Sch-PAH (n = 8), within 1 month of the hemodynamic study and before the initiation of specific therapy for PAH. There were no significant between-group differences in cardiac index, pulmonary vascular resistance or mean pulmonary artery pressure. However, mean peak oxygen uptake (VO2) was greater in Sch-PAH than IPAH patients (75.5±21.4 vs 54.1±16.1% predicted, p = 0.016), as well as the ratio of increase in VO2 to work rate (8.2±1.0 vs 6.8±1.8 mL/min/W, p = 0.03). Additionally, the slope of the ventilatory response as a function of CO2 output was lower in Sch-PAH (40.3±3.9 vs 55.6±19.8; p = 0.04), and the heart rate response for a given change in VO2 was also diminished in Sch-PAH compared to IPAH (80.1±20.6 vs 123.0±39.2 beats/L/min; p = 0.02). In conclusion, Sch-PAH patients had less impaired physiological responses to exercise than IPAH subjects with similar resting hemodynamic dysfunction. Our data suggest a more preserved cardiopulmonary response to exercise in Sch-PAH which might be related to its better clinical course compared to IPAH.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087699
PMCID: PMC3912057  PMID: 24498356
2.  Non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers: a clinical entity to be identified 
Clinics  2011;66(11):1873-1877.
OBJECTIVES:
It has been recognized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are lifelong never-smokers constitute a distinct clinical entity. The aim of this study was to assess clinical risk factors for survival among never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer.
METHODS:
All consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed (n = 285) between May 2005 and May 2009 were included. The clinical characteristics of never-smokers and ever-smokers (former and current) were compared using chi-squared or Student's t tests. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests were used for survival comparisons. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was evaluated by adjusting for age (continuous variable), gender (female vs. male), smoking status (never- vs. ever-smoker), the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (continuous variable), histological type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma), AJCC staging (early vs. advanced staging), and treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy vs. the best treatment support).
RESULTS:
Of the 285 non-small cell lung cancer patients, 56 patients were never-smokers. Univariate analyses indicated that the never-smoker patients were more likely to be female (68% vs. 32%) and have adenocarcinoma (70% vs. 51%). Overall median survival was 15.7 months (95% CI: 13.2 to 18.2). The never-smoker patients had a better survival rate than their counterpart, the ever-smokers. Never-smoker status, higher Karnofsky Performance Status, early staging, and treatment were independent and favorable prognostic factors for survival after adjusting for age, gender, and adenocarcinoma in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS:
Epidemiological differences exist between never- and ever-smokers with lung cancer. Overall survival among never-smokers was found to be higher and independent of gender and histological type.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322011001100005
PMCID: PMC3203958  PMID: 22086516
Lung neoplasm; Non-small cell lung cancer; Adenocarcinoma; Never-smoker; Smoking

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