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1.  Diethyl 1,1-dioxo-3,5-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)-1λ6,4-thio­morpholine-2,6-dicarbox­ylate 
The title compound, C20H23N3O6S, crystallizes with two crystallographically independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The thio­morpholine ring in both mol­ecules adopts a chair conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H⋯O inter­actions. The amino groups are shielded and, as a result, these groups are not involved in hydrogen bonding.
PMCID: PMC3051777  PMID: 21522994
2.  Perceived behavioral problems of school aged children in rural Nepal: a qualitative study 
Studies on child behavioral problems from low and middle income countries are scarce, even more so in Nepal. This paper explores parents’, family members’ and teachers’ perceptions of child behavioral problems, strategies used and recommendations to deal with this problem.
In this study, 72 free list interviews and 30 Key Informant Interviews (KII) were conducted with community members of Chitwan district in Nepal.
The result suggest that addictive behavior, not paying attention to studies, getting angry over small issues, fighting back, disobedience, and stealing were the most commonly identified behavioral related problems of children, with these problems seen as interrelated and interdependent. Results indicate that community members view the family, community and school environments as being the causes of child behavioral problems, with serious impacts upon children’s personal growth, family harmony and social cohesion. The strategies reported by parents and teachers to manage child behavioral problems were talking, listening, consoling, advising and physical punishment (used as a last resort).
As perceived by children and other community dwellers, children in rural Nepalese communities have several behavioral related problems. The findings suggest that multi-level community-based interventions targeting peers, parents, teachers and community leaders could be a feasible approach to address the identified problems.
PMCID: PMC4485359  PMID: 26131019
Child behavior problems; Nepal; Psychosocial; Qualitative
3.  Field cancerisation in colorectal cancer: A new frontier or pastures past? 
Despite considerable advances in our understanding of cancer biology, early diagnosis of colorectal cancer remains elusive. Based on the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, cancer develops through the progressive accumulation of mutations in key genes that regulate cell growth. However, recent mathematical modelling suggests that some of these genetic events occur prior to the development of any discernible histological abnormality. Cells acquire pro-tumourigenic mutations that are not able to produce morphological change but predispose to cancer formation. These cells can grow to form large patches of mucosa from which a cancer arises. This process has been termed “field cancerisation”. It has received little attention in the scientific literature until recently. Several studies have now demonstrated cellular, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the macroscopically normal mucosa of colorectal cancer patients. In some reports, these changes were effectively utilised to identify patients with a neoplastic lesion suggesting potential application in the clinical setting. In this article, we present the scientific evidence to support field cancerisation in colorectal cancer and discuss important limitations that require further investigation. Characterisation of the field defect is necessary to enable early diagnosis of colorectal cancer and identify molecular targets for chemoprevention. Field cancerisation offers a promising prospect for experimental cancer research and has potential to improve patient outcomes in the clinical setting.
PMCID: PMC4385523  PMID: 25852261
Colorectal cancer; Carcinogenesis; Biomarkers; Epigenetics; Synchronous
4.  The Interplay of the Gut Microbiome, Bile Acids, and Volatile Organic Compounds 
Background. There has been an increasing interest in the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as potential surrogate markers of gut dysbiosis in gastrointestinal disease. Gut dysbiosis occurs when pathological imbalances in gut bacterial colonies precipitate disease and has been linked to the dysmetabolism of bile acids (BA) in the gut. BA metabolites as a result of microbial transformations act as signaling molecules and have demonstrated regulation of intestinal homeostasis through the TGR5 and FXR receptors by inhibiting inflammation, preventing pathogen invasion, and maintaining cell integrity. The presence of VOC footprints is the resultant effect to gut microbiome substrate fermentation. Aim. To review the role of the gut microbiome and bile acid signaling in intestinal homeostasis and the resultant use of VOCs as potential noninvasive surrogate biomarkers in gut dysbiosis. Methods. A systematic search on PubMed and Medline databases was performed to identify articles relevant to gut dysbiosis, BA metabolism, and VOCs. Conclusions. The host and presence of the gut microbiome appear to regulate the BA pool size. A dysbiotic gut microbiome results in disrupted intestinal homeostasis, which may be reflected by VOCs, differentiating those who are healthy and those with disease.
PMCID: PMC4363917  PMID: 25821460
5.  Suicide in South Asia: a scoping review 
BMC Psychiatry  2014;14:358.
Globally, suicide is an important cause of mortality. In low- and middle income settings, it is difficult to find unequivocal data to establish suicide rates. The objective of this review is to synthesize the reporting of suicide incidence in six south Asian countries.
We conducted a scoping review combining peer-reviewed studies (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE) with in-country searches for grey literature in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The review included mapping reported suicide rates, quality appraisals of the studies, use of definitions of suicide and means of committing suicide.
In total, 114 studies and reports were included in the review, including 50 peer-reviewed publications. Reported suicide rates varied widely from 0.43/100,000 to 331.0/100,000. The average suicide rate across studies was found to be high compared to the world average, however many studies were of poor quality or not representative. The majority of studies failed to explicitly define suicide (84% of the published articles and 92% of the grey literature documents). Poisoning and hanging were consistently the most common methods of committing suicide on the sub-continent.
The reported suicide rates in South Asia are high compared to the global average, but there is a paucity of reliable data on suicide rates in South Asia. Reports are likely to diminish rather than exaggerate the magnitude of suicide rates. There is an urgent need to establish new, or evaluate existing, national suicide surveillance systems in the South Asian countries.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12888-014-0358-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4299381  PMID: 25539951
Suicide; Review; South Asia; Scoping
6.  Differentiating Coeliac Disease from Irritable Bowel Syndrome by Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Analysis – A Pilot Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e107312.
Coeliac disease (CD), a T-cell-mediated gluten sensitive enteropathy, affects ∼1% of the UK population and can present with wide ranging clinical features, often being mistaken for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Heightened clinical awareness and serological screening identifies those with potential coeliac disease; the diagnosis is confirmed with duodenal biopsies, and symptom improvement with a gluten-free diet. Limitations to diagnosis are false negative serology and reluctance to undergo biopsy. The gut microbiome is altered in several gastrointestinal disorders, causing altered gut fermentation patterns recognisable by volatile organic compounds (VOC) analysis in urine, breath and faeces. We aimed to determine if CD alters the urinary VOC pattern, distinguishing it from IBS. 47 patients were recruited, 27 with established CD, on gluten free diets, and 20 with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS). Collected urine was stored frozen in 10 ml aliquots. For assay, the specimens were heated to 40±0.1°C and the headspace analysed by Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS). Machine learning algorithms were used for statistical evaluation. Samples were also analysed using Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Sparse logistic regression showed that FAIMS distinguishes VOCs in CD vs D-IBS with ROC curve AUC of 0.91 (0.83–0.99), sensitivity and specificity of 85% respectively. GCMS showed a unique peak at 4′67 found only in CD, not D-IBS, which correlated with the compound 1,3,5,7 cyclooctatetraene. This study suggests that FAIMS offers a novel, non-invasive approach to identify those with possible CD, and distinguishes from D-IBS. It offers the potential for monitoring compliance with a gluten-free diet at home. The presence of cyclooctatetraene in CD specimens will need further validation.
PMCID: PMC4199520  PMID: 25330367
7.  Detection of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) by Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e108750.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer related death in Europe and the USA. There is no universally accepted effective non-invasive screening test for CRC. Guaiac based faecal occult blood (gFOB) testing has largely been superseded by Faecal Immunochemical testing (FIT), but sensitivity still remains poor. The uptake of population based FOBt testing in the UK is also low at around 50%. The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) signature(s) for many cancer subtypes is receiving increasing interest using a variety of gas phase analytical instruments. One such example is FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometer). FAIMS is able to identify Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) patients by analysing shifts in VOCs patterns in both urine and faeces. This study extends this concept to determine whether CRC patients can be identified through non-invasive analysis of urine, using FAIMS. 133 patients were recruited; 83 CRC patients and 50 healthy controls. Urine was collected at the time of CRC diagnosis and headspace analysis undertaken using a FAIMS instrument (Owlstone, Lonestar, UK). Data was processed using Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) after feature extraction from the raw data. FAIMS analyses demonstrated that the VOC profiles of CRC patients were tightly clustered and could be distinguished from healthy controls. Sensitivity and specificity for CRC detection with FAIMS were 88% and 60% respectively. This study suggests that VOC signatures emanating from urine can be detected in patients with CRC using ion mobility spectroscopy technology (FAIMS) with potential as a novel screening tool.
PMCID: PMC4182548  PMID: 25268885
8.  Clonal Expansion of Early to Mid-Life Mitochondrial DNA Point Mutations Drives Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Human Ageing 
PLoS Genetics  2014;10(9):e1004620.
Age-related decline in the integrity of mitochondria is an important contributor to the human ageing process. In a number of ageing stem cell populations, this decline in mitochondrial function is due to clonal expansion of individual mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations within single cells. However the dynamics of this process and when these mtDNA mutations occur initially are poorly understood. Using human colorectal epithelium as an exemplar tissue with a well-defined stem cell population, we analysed samples from 207 healthy participants aged 17–78 years using a combination of techniques (Random Mutation Capture, Next Generation Sequencing and mitochondrial enzyme histochemistry), and show that: 1) non-pathogenic mtDNA mutations are present from early embryogenesis or may be transmitted through the germline, whereas pathogenic mtDNA mutations are detected in the somatic cells, providing evidence for purifying selection in humans, 2) pathogenic mtDNA mutations are present from early adulthood (<20 years of age), at both low levels and as clonal expansions, 3) low level mtDNA mutation frequency does not change significantly with age, suggesting that mtDNA mutation rate does not increase significantly with age, and 4) clonally expanded mtDNA mutations increase dramatically with age. These data confirm that clonal expansion of mtDNA mutations, some of which are generated very early in life, is the major driving force behind the mitochondrial dysfunction associated with ageing of the human colorectal epithelium.
Author Summary
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been shown to accumulate with age in a number of human stem cell populations and cause mitochondrial dysfunction within individual cells resulting in a cellular energy deficit. The dynamics by which mtDNA mutations occur and accumulate within individual cells (known as clonal expansion) is poorly understood. In particular we do not know when in the life-course these mtDNA mutations occur. Here we have measured mtDNA mutation frequency using three different techniques; Random Mutation Capture, which measures low level mutation frequency as an indirect measure of mutation rate, Next Generation Sequencing, which measures clonally expanded mtDNA mutation frequency, and mitochondrial enzyme histochemistry as a marker of clonally expanded mtDNA mutations, on colorectal mucosal biopsies obtained from 207 healthy participants aged 17–78 years. We show that, by 17 years of age, there is a substantial mtDNA point mutation burden and that clonal expansion of early to mid-life mtDNA mutations is likely to be the cause of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with ageing in the human colon.
PMCID: PMC4169240  PMID: 25232829
9.  Open surgical repair for chronic type B aortic dissection: a systematic review 
Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery  2014;3(4):340-350.
The treatment of chronic type B aortic dissection (CBAD) remains complicated. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has supplanted open surgical repair (OSR) as the preferred surgical treatment for CBAD. Despite TEVAR’s superior short-term results, much less is understood about its long-term outcomes. As much of the understanding of OSR originates from historical report, contemporary series, with modern surgical techniques and technologies, may present an alternative to TEVAR. The present systematic review will assess the short- and long-term outcomes of historic and contemporary series of OSR for CBAD.
Electronic searches were performed using six databases from their inception to March 2014. Relevant studies with OSRs for chronic type B dissection were identified. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and analyzed according to predefined clinical endpoints. Studies were sub-classified into the pre-endovascular (historic series) and endovascular era (contemporary series) depending on whether the majority of cases were performed after 1999.
Nineteen studies were identified for inclusion for quantitative analysis. Pooled short-term mortality was 11.1% overall, and 7.5% in the nine contemporary studies. Stroke, spinal cord ischemia, renal dysfunction, and reoperation for bleeding were 5.9%, 4.9%, 8.1%, and 8.1%, respectively, for the contemporary series. Absolute late reintervention was identified in 13.3% of patients overall, and in 11.3% of patients in the contemporary series. Aggregated survival at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-years of all patients were 82.1%, 74.1%, 66.3%, and 50.8%, respectively.
OSR for chronic type B dissection in the contemporary era offers acceptable results. Management approaches should be considered carefully, taking into account both short-term and long-term complications. More research is required to clarify specific indications for OSR and TEVAR in chronic type B dissections.
PMCID: PMC4128924  PMID: 25133097
Open surgical repair (OSR); thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR); chronic type B dissection; descending aorta
10.  Comparative Evaluation of Bond Strengths of Different Core Materials with Various Luting Agents Used for Cast Crown Restorations 
The coronal cast restoration continues to be used commonly to restore mutilated, endodontically treated teeth. The tensile bond strength of luting cements is of critical importance as many of failures are at the core and the crown interface. An invitro study with aim to evaluate and compare bond strengths of luting cements between different core materials and cast crowns. A total of 45 extracted identical mandibular second premolars were endodontically treated and divided into 3 groups of 15 each. Specimens in first group were restored with cast post and core (Group C), and specimens in second group were restored with stainless steel parapost and composite core material (Group B) and specimens in third group were restored with stainless steel parapost and glass ionomer core build (Group G). Standardized crown preparation was done for all the specimens to receive cast crowns. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups and were cemented using 3 different luting cements namely, resin cement, polycarboxylate cement, glass ionomer cement (Type I). The samples of each subgroup (n = 5) were subjected to tensile testing using Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min till the dislodgement of crown from the core surface was observed. The bond strengths were significantly different according one way ANOVA (F-150.76 and p < 0.0000). The results of the study showed that the specimens cemented with resin cement in cast core, composite core and glass ionomer core exhibited significantly higher bond strengths as compared to specimens cemented with glass ionomer and polycarboxylate cement. Composite resin core and resin cement combinations were superior to all other cement and core combinations tested.
PMCID: PMC3416940  PMID: 23997467
Endodontically treated tooth; Post and core; Luting agent; Cast crown; Tensile bond strength
11.  Application of a Novel Tool for Diagnosing Bile Acid Diarrhoea 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2013;13(9):11899-11912.
Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a common disease that requires expensive imaging to diagnose. We have tested the efficacy of a new method to identify BAD, based on the detection of differences in volatile organic compounds (VOC) in urine headspace of BAD vs. ulcerative colitis and healthy controls. A total of 110 patients were recruited; 23 with BAD, 42 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 45 controls. Patients with BAD also received standard imaging (Se75HCAT) for confirmation. Urine samples were collected and the headspace analysed using an AlphaMOS Fox 4000 electronic nose in combination with an Owlstone Lonestar Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometer (FAIMS). A subset was also tested by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry (GCMS). Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was used to explore both the electronic nose and FAIMS data. LDA showed statistical differences between the groups, with reclassification success rates (using an n-1 approach) at typically 83%. GCMS experiments confirmed these results and showed that patients with BAD had two chemical compounds, 2-propanol and acetamide, that were either not present or were in much reduced quantities in the ulcerative colitis and control samples. We believe that this work may lead to a new tool to diagnose BAD, which is cheaper, quicker and easier that current methods.
PMCID: PMC3821327  PMID: 24018955
electronic nose; FAIMS; bile acid diarrhea (BAD); bile acid malabsoprtion (BAM); fermentome
12.  4-(2-Hy­droxy­phen­yl)-3,5-di­thia­hepta­ne­dioic acid 
In the crystal of the title compound, C11H12O5S2, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional network.
PMCID: PMC3685050  PMID: 23795069
13.  Anal fistula with foot extension—Treated by kshara sutra (medicated seton) therapy: A rare case report 
An ‘anal’ fistula is a track which communicates anal canal or rectum and usually is in continuity with one or more external openings. Distant communication from rectum is rare. It is a challenging disease because of its recurrence especially, with high level and distant communications. Ksharasutra (medicated seton) therapy is being practiced in India with high success rate (recurrence of 3.33%) in the management of complicated anal fistula.
A 56 year old man presented with recurrent boils in the left lower limb at different places from thigh to foot. He underwent repeated incision and drainage at different hospitals. Examination revealed sinus with discharge and multiple scars on left lower limb from thigh up to foot. Suspecting anal fistula, MRI was advised which revealed a long cutaneous fistula from rectum to left lower limb. Patient was treated with Ksharasutra therapy. Within 6 months of treatment whole tract was healed completely.
Sushrutha (500BC) was the first to explain the role of surgical excision and use of kshara sutra for the management of anal fistula. Ksharasutra therapy showed least recurrence. Fistula from rectum to foot is of extremely rare variety. Surgical treatment of anal fistula requires hospitalization, regular post-operative care, is associated with a significant risk of recurrence (0.7–26.5%) and a high risk of impaired continence (5–40%).
Rectal fistula communicating till foot may be a very rare presentation in proctology practice. Kshara sutra treatment was useful in treating this condition, with minimal surgical intervention with no recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3679440  PMID: 23702360
Anal fistula; Limb communication; Ksharasutra
14.  MYOD-1 in normal colonic mucosa – role as a putative biomarker? 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:240.
DNA methylation of promoter-associated CpG islands of certain genes may play a role in the development of colorectal cancer. The MYOD-1 gene which is a muscle differentiation gene has been showed to be significantly methylated in colorectal cancer which, is an age related event. However the role of this gene in the colonic mucosa is not understood and whether methylation occurs in subjects without colon cancer. In this study, we have determined the frequency of methylation of the MYOD-1 gene in normal colonic mucosa and investigated to see if this is associated with established colorectal cancer risk factors primarily ageing.
We analysed colonic mucosal biopsies in 218 normal individuals and demonstrated that in most individuals promoter hypermethylation was not quantified for MYOD-1. However, promoter hypermethylation increased significantly with age (p < 0.001 using regression analysis) and this was gender independent. We also showed that gene promoter methylation increased positively with an increase in waist to hip (WHR) ratio – the latter is also a known risk factor for colon cancer development.
Our study suggests that promoter gene hypermethylation of the MYOD-1 gene increases significantly with age in normal individuals and thus may offer potential as a putative biomarker for colorectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC3394207  PMID: 22591756
MYOD-1; Colorectal cancer; Age; Promoter methylation
15.  Management of internal hemorrhoids by Kshara karma: An educational case report 
A 66-year-old male patient came to the anorectal clinic, Outpatient department, AVT Institute for Advanced Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, with complaints of prolapsing pile mass during defecation and bleeding while passing stool. The case was diagnosed as “Raktarsha” - 11 & 7 ‘o’ clock position II degree internal hemorrhoids, deeply situated, projecting one and caused by pitta and rakta; with bleeding tendency. Kshara karma (application of caustic alkaline paste) intervention was done in this case to internal hemorrhoids under local anesthesia. The pile mass and per rectal bleeding resolved in 8 days and the patient was relieved from all symptoms within 21 days. No complications were reported after the procedure. The patient was followed up regularly from 2004 onward till date and proctoscopic examination did not reveal any evidence of recurrence of the hemorrhoids.
PMCID: PMC3487235  PMID: 23125506
Arshas; case report; Kshara karma; internal hemorrhoids; piles
16.  1-Formyl-c-3,t-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-6-di­phenyl­piperidin-4-one 
In the title compound, C20H21NO2, the piperidine ring adopts a distorted boat conformation. The phenyl rings substituted at the 2- and 6-positions of the piperidine ring subtend angles of 86.0 (1) and 67.3 (1)° with the mean plane of the piperidine ring (all six non-H atoms). The crystal packing features C—H⋯O inter­actions.
PMCID: PMC3297920  PMID: 22412723
17.  The Detection of Patients at Risk of Gastrointestinal Toxicity during Pelvic Radiotherapy by Electronic Nose and FAIMS: A Pilot Study 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(10):13002-13018.
It is well known that the electronic nose can be used to identify differences between human health and disease for a range of disorders. We present a pilot study to investigate if the electronic nose and a newer technology, FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry), can be used to identify and help inform the treatment pathway for patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy, which frequently causes gastrointestinal side-effects, severe in some. From a larger group, 23 radiotherapy patients were selected where half had the highest levels of toxicity and the others the lowest. Stool samples were obtained before and four weeks after radiotherapy and the volatiles and gases emitted analysed by both methods; these chemicals are products of fermentation caused by gut microflora. Principal component analysis of the electronic nose data and wavelet transform followed by Fisher discriminant analysis of FAIMS data indicated that it was possible to separate patients after treatment by their toxicity levels. More interestingly, differences were also identified in their pre-treatment samples. We believe these patterns arise from differences in gut microflora where some combinations of bacteria result to give this olfactory signature. In the future our approach may result in a technique that will help identify patients at “high risk” even before radiation treatment is started.
PMCID: PMC3545553  PMID: 23201982
electronic nose; FAIMS; fermentome; gastrointestinal toxicity; gut permeability; pelvic radiotherapy
18.  2-(6-Chloro-2,3,4,9-tetra­hydro-1H-carbazol-1-yl­idene)propane­dinitrile 
The mol­ecular conformation of the title compound, C15H10ClN3, is stabilized by an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond with an S(7) ring motif. The crystal packing is controlled by N—H⋯N and C—H⋯N inter­molecular inter­actions. One of the methyl­ene groups of the cyclo­hexene ring is disordered over two positions with refined occupancies of 0.457 (12) and 0.543 (12).
PMCID: PMC3238926  PMID: 22199775
19.  6-Bromo-2-(3-phenyl­allyl­idene)-2,3,4,9-tetra­hydro-1H-carbazol-1-one 
Mol­ecules of the title compound, C21H16BrNO, are linked through pairs of N—H⋯O inter­molecular hydrogen bonds into centrosymmetric R 2 2(10) dimers. One of the C atoms of the cyclohex-2-enone ring is disordered with refined occupancies of 0.61 (2) and 0.39 (2).
PMCID: PMC3238927  PMID: 22199776
20.  2-(6-Methyl-2,3,4,9-tetra­hydro-1H-carbazol-1-yl­idene)propane­dinitrile 
In the title compound, C16H13N3, the cyclo­hexene ring adopts a sofa conformation. An intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond generates an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked by pairs of N—H⋯N inter­actions, forming centrosymmetric dimers with an R 2 2(14) motif.
PMCID: PMC3238928  PMID: 22199777
21.  6-Bromo-2-[(E)-thio­phen-2-yl­methyl­idene]-2,3,4,9-tetra­hydro-1H-carbazol-1-one 
In the title compound, C17H12BrNOS, the cyclo­hexene ring deviates only slightly from planarity (r.m.s. deviation for non-H atoms = 0.047 Å). In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked into centro­symmetric R 2 2(10) dimers via pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The thio­phene ring is disordered over two positions rotated by 180° and with a site-occupation factor of 0.843 (4) for the major occupied site.
PMCID: PMC3238929  PMID: 22199778
22.  Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis 
Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency.
In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective offers additional insights.
We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethics perspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethics perspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach.
PMCID: PMC3199257  PMID: 21982119
23.  N′-[(E)-2-Chloro­benzyl­idene]-2-[(1,3,4-thia­diazol-2-yl)sulfan­yl]acetohydrazide 
In the title compound, C11H9ClN4OS2, the thia­diazole and chloro­phenyl rings are oriented at an angle of 43.1 (1)°. The sum of the bond angles around the amide N atom (359.8°) of the acetohydrazide group is in accordance with a model of sp2 hybridization. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(8) loops. Weak C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur.
PMCID: PMC3201361  PMID: 22058758
24.  Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus) 
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus) has been carried out under 293 K temperature conditions. The ostrich is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate in erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich heamoglobin.
Haemoglobin is a tetrameric protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. The oxygen-binding properties of haemoglobin are regulated through the binding of allosteric effectors. The respiratory system of avian species is unique and complex in nature when compared with that of mammals. In avian species, inositol pentaphosphate (inositol-P5) is present in the erythrocytes of the adult and is thought to be the major factor responsible for the relatively high oxygen affinity of the whole blood. The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate (inositol-P4) in its erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich haemoglobin. Ostrich haemoglobin was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Haemoglobin crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant in 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.2. Data were collected using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals of ostrich haemo­globin diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. They belonged to the ortho­rhombic space group P212121 with one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit; the unit-cell parameters were a = 80.93, b = 81.68, c = 102.05 Å.
PMCID: PMC2705633  PMID: 19574638
haemoglobin; Struthio camelus
25.  Childhood cancer in developing society: A roadmap of health care 
We assessed referral patterns of children with hematological malignancies (HM) in North India.
Materials and Methods:
The parents/guardians were interviewed at presentation, in the period between October 2001 and November 2002. Patient delay (symptom-contact), health system delay (contact-diagnosis), total delay (symptom-diagnosis), and number of contacts were compared between high- and standard-risk disease group.
Of the 79 children (55 boys; 69.6%) with HM, 47 (59.5%) had Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Forty-four children had high-risk disease. The patient, system and total delay were a median of 2 days (with Interquartile range IQR of 1–6), 37 days (IQR 13–55), and 38 days (IQR 15–60) respectively. Majority of patients (64/79; 81%) went to private sector (non governmental health care providers) for health care. Number of contacts, which was the most significant, correlate with system delay.
Sensitizing the private sector practitioners about cancer in symptomatic children (pallor, bleeding, fever) may be effective.
PMCID: PMC3124987  PMID: 21731213
Childhood cancer; epidemiology; patient delay; referral delay

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