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1.  Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 
Health Promotion Perspectives  2012;2(2):197-204.
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef¬fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa¬tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure¬ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con¬centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both) and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048) compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women.
doi:10.5681/hpp.2012.023
PMCID: PMC3963626
Omega-3 fatty acids; Polycystic ovary syndrome; Paraoxonase 1; Lipids
2.  Impact of Vitamin E Supplementation on Blood Pressure and Hs-CRP in Type 2 Diabetic Patients | doi: 10.5681/hpp.2012.009 
Health Promotion Perspectives  2012;2(1):72-79.
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem worldwide. Hypertension and inflammation are well recognized as risk factors for the macrovascular complications of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of vitamin E supplementation on blood pressure (BP), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fasting blood glucose in patients with T2DM.
Methods: In a double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 83 patients with T2DM were divided randomly into two groups of vitamin E (400 mg/d, n=42) and placebo (n=41). All patients received the pearls for 8 weeks. Baseline and eighth week BP, serum hs-CRP, fasting blood glucose, anthropometric and dietary intake data were obtained from each patient. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5.  
Results: Vitamin E supplementation significantly increased serum levels of vitamin E (P < 0.001) and decreased mean arterial pressure and fasting blood glucose (P = 0.047, P = 0.028, respectively) in vitamin E group as compared with placebo group. A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was observed in the vitamin E group comparing with baseline values (all P < 0.01). There were no significant changes in serum hs-CRP in both of the studied groups.
Conclusion: Vitamin E had beneficial effects on serum vitamin E, BP and blood glucose in patients with T2DM. Improvement in BP and glucose control may contribute to reducing complications of diabetes including cardiovascular risk in these patients.
PMCID: PMC3963652
Vitamin E; Blood pressure; Inflammation; Type 2 diabetes
3.  Food Habits Related To Osteoporosis in Women in Iran 
Health Promotion Perspectives  2011;1(2):111-117.
Background: Osteoporosis is an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate food habits and some factors related to osteoporosis in women in Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 399 childbearing age women who were attending health centers and 200 healthcare providers in 2007. Food habits and dietary calcium intake was evaluated by food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall method. Weight and height of subjects were also measured. Independent t-test, Mann-withney U test, Pearson, Spearman and Partial correlation coefficient tests were used for analyzing of data.
Results: Two groups of women had calcium intake deficiency. Daily frequency of milk, cheese, fruit and coffee consumptions in healthcare providers (0.82±0.82, 0.94±0.49, 2.01±1.28 and 0.84±2.05, P<0.02)  were significantly higher than those of women attending health centers(0.58±0.72, 0.84±0.32, 1.50±0.99 and 0.48±1.25).  Mean frequency use of dark vegetables, cola and pickles were significantly (P<0.004) higher in women who attending health centers (0.67±0.50, 1.55±2.36 and 1.92±2.03) than those of the other group (0.50±0.44, 1.09±2.65 and 1.49±1.72). In women who were attending health centers, negative and posi­tive significant relationship was found between daily calcium intake with age (P<0.04) and educational level (P<0.001). No significant relationship was found between body mass index with studied variables.
Conclusion: Women of health care providers had healthier food habits compared to women who attending health centers. Educational programs are suggested to improve food habits among women to prevent osteoporosis in later life.
doi:10.5681/hpp.2011.012
PMCID: PMC3963621
Women; Food Habits; Osteoporosis; Iran
4.  Effects of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidants in Beta thalassemia major Patients 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(1):8-14.
Objective
In beta thalassemic patients, tissue damage occurs due to oxidative stress and it happens because of the accumulation of iron in the body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant status in beta-thalassemic major patients.
Methods
This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 beta thalassemic patients older than 18 years. Patients were randomly categorized in four groups. Zinc (50mg/day) and vitamin E (400mg/day) supplements were administered for former and latter group, respectively. In the third group both supplements were administered in similar doses. The fourth (control) group received no supplement. The effect of supplementations on serum zinc and vitamin E, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the beginning and the end of the study.
Findings
Serum zinc levels in group 1 and 3 were significantly increased (P<0.007 and P<0.005, respectively). Serum vitamin E levels in group 2 and 3 were also increased significantly (P<0.001). Mean GPX activity in group1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P<0.015, P<0.032 and P<0.029, respectively). Mean SOD activity and TAC did not show significant change after supplementation. BMI had significant increase in all treated groups (P<0.001).
Conclusion
Our results suggest that beta thalassemic patients have enhanced oxidative stress and administration of selective antioxidants may preclude oxidative damage.
PMCID: PMC3446117  PMID: 23056757
Vitamin E; Zinc; Glutathione Peroxidase; Superoxide Dismutase; Body Mass Index; Antioxidants

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